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of Italy, which he dedicated to his illus- despotism, are very forcibly set forth in trious predecessor in the same walk. In this brief paragraph from the London this work he insists, in terms at once clear Times : and impressive, upon the entire independ. ence of Italy. At any other epoch than ing and

a prophetic eye the present condition

“If we were to scrutinize with a search. the present, a writer who should have so boldly put forth these sentiments would and the future destinies of that great Em. have, at least, subjected himself to perpe

pire, which extends from Semlin to Milan,

we should be filled with unwonted and tual exile. But Balbo lives quietly at Tu- melancholy forebodings as to the trials it rin, and is received with the highest con may have at no distant period to undergo. sideration at the royal court. The same is A childish Emperor, a decaying minister, a true of Count Petitte and M. Massimo bigoted family council, an aristocracy ill d'Azeglio—both of whom have recently acquainted with its duties and its rights, a published some important works, the form. peasantry which is in some provinces im

bued with the most anti-social doctrines, an er upon Railroads in Italy, and the latter unformed middle class, an embarrassed treaupon the present condition of Rome.

sury, and a dissected' territory, are things There is nothing in all this which should which surround with sinister presages the awaken the jealousy or hostility of any House of Austria. Her foreign rivals, to the European power. But, as might readily east, to the north, and to the south are in. have been foreseen, the attention of the cited to press on in their respective lines of Austrian Government has been awakened, alarm of the Cabinet of Vienna. Russia has and its fears excited, by these evidences of her designs, more than commenced, upon a progress and reviving feeling of nation- the Slavonian populations ; Prussia has afality which can scarcely fail, in the end, to fected to take the lead in the affairs of Gerdetach ihe Italian States from all depend- many ; and in northern Italy the national ence upon Austria,

competitor for power is to be found in the Diplomatic remonstrances have not been House of Savoy. With each of these States wanting ; but the King, Charles Albert, has Austria has formed close alliances, for the maintained with firmness his rights as the purpose of crushing popular movements, and free sovereign of an independent State. The each of them will prove her formidable rival resentment of Austria has been manifested and opponent whenever it is discovered that in a recent decree, published in the Milan the true basis of their power is the free official Gazette of April 20, subjecting the national development of their respective dowines of Piedmont to a most exorbitant minions." increase of export duty; but the king has

Of miscellaneous, and especially literary promptly met this blow by another, which intelligence, we have but little this month. relieves from duty many articles of French The publications of the four weeks that production, which before were almost ex. cluded from his dominions. Thus, while have been of but slight importance. The

have elapsed since our last review, seem to Austria cuts off trade with the Italian London Atheneum has a long critical notice States, they invite trade with France; and of the little volume of Poems entitled “Man the inevitable result of the movement must in the Republic," by Mr. Matthews, of be, to perfect their independence of Aus- which a second edition was recently issued : tria, and to open a profitable and liberal. it closes with this paragraph, which, in its izing commerce with their western neigh. praise and censure, seems to us alike disbors. It is, of course, received with lively criminating : satisfaction by the people of France; and the Debats pays the king a just and lofty Our readers will see there is something tribute for the enlightened policy which of originality in this design and its treathe has adopted : “ The King, Charles ment; and the execution is, in parts, good. Albert,” says that journal, “ knows better An expressive carelessness of performance, than any monarch of the time, that public reasonable allowance,--and an occasional

at times--a looseness of metres beyond all opinion is mistress of the world, and that turgidity of tone-a lifting, as it were, of the nothing can escape the severe impartiality author's self up on stilts quite out of the sight of her decisions : he is therefore deter- of small men-disfigure a thoughtful and mined, now and hereafter, to merit her characteristic work. How, in a new edition, approval. This approbation he will not which this is, these faults have not been lack, neither in Italy nor in France nor in corrected, we are at a loss to understand. the rest of Europe, if he will continue to the little duodecimo is worth the pains ; show himself friendly to safe and useful re

and we welcome heartily a minstrel from the forins, to guide the high faculties of his peomusic.”

great continent who treats us to American ple towards profitable works of labor and of peace, and to attain thus the glorious fu Letters from Italy all notice the plans for ture reward for the House of Savoy.” The various reforms which are on foot in that position which Austria occupies in regard country. While the Pope has forbidden to this movement, and the general pros- the construction of railroads in his domin. pects of that old bulwark of European ions, in Tuscany they are undertaken in

every direction. From Leghorn to Pisa one cal protection of Literature and the Arts has been for a long time in operation, and against piracy. it has been recently opened to Porte d' Er The Temperance cause is making such ra, whence, in October, it will be carried rapid progress in the northern kingdoms of to Empoli, and in 1847 the connection be- Europe, as to render the statistics of its retween Leghorn and Florence will be com sults worthy of record. There are now in plete. A railway from Florence to Pistoria Sweden 323 societies, placed under a cenis to be constructed within two years : from tral direction, composed of the Count de Pisa to Lucca in October; and from Empo- Hartmannsdorf, the Baron de Berzelius, li to Sienna in six months. Great prepara- and Professor Retzius. The members are tions are in progress for the Scientific Re. 89,687 in number-being a twenty-eighth union at Genoa, to commence on the 15th of the whole population. Of the Stockholm and terminate on the 29th of September. Society, the King and the Prince Royal are The Marquis de Brignoli, Sardinian Am- members; and it had obtained the King's bassador at Paris, is to preside, and the city authority to convoke in the capital, for the has voted 100,000 francs towards defraying 15th of June, a Congress of all the Tempethe expenses of the meeting. An immense rance Associations throughout Sweden-to statue of the Emperor Francis I. has just which those of foreign countries were invitbeen issued from the Foundry of Viscardi, ed to send deputations. It is stated that upand at the latest date was on its way to wards of five hundred distilleries have been Vienna, Its gigantic proportions, as well shut up in Sweden in the course of the last as its successful execution, entitle it to at two years. In Norway, the first society of tention. It is nine braccia high, and weighs the kind was established so lately as the end 37,000 Milanese pounds. The monarch is of 1844; and there are already ninety-two, enveloped in a large and rich toga, and his counting 11,000 members. brow is surrounded by laurel. His right Last year an address was presented by hand is in a raised position, as if in the act the Stortbing of Norway to the King, in of addressing the people; and in his left he which they requested that a commission of holds a sceptre, which is supported upon jurisconsults might be sent to England, his arm.

It was modeled by Marchesi, France and Belgium, to examine into the and a letter in the Athenæum says that the practical working of the Jury institution, precision of design, the energy of express and its results moral and material. His sion united to sovereign beauty of form, the Swedish Majesty has complied with the exactness in all the rilievi and in all the wish of that body, and appointed M. Ole folds, give this statue the appearance of life Munch Roeder, Professor of Law at the and motion, and make it a splendid triumph University of Christiana, and M. Emilie of Art.

Aubert, Advocate to the Appeal Court of It is stated by a Gerinan journal that the the Province of Bergen, to carry it into basis of a Treaty has been agreed upon be effect. tween France and Austria for the recipro

CRITICAL NOTICES.

Graydon's Memoirs of his own Times : ment” we interpose an objection; there Littell.

was one instance of insubordination in In our days of universal authorship, the system of writing, which is practiespecially when the startling enunciation cally illustrated in this book. The author of a great name is not iterated-a name got seems to have been a man of attainments without deserving, and lost perhaps with and taste, but we look in vain for one shame—it is necessary to give some account sparkling thought, one ingenious term of of a writer who was popular in his day, expression or one original idea. Notwithand is now revived again for our especial standing these defects, it has merits the wonder. In the Editor's introduction, we most essential and useful. As a work of find the following allusion to the Author, historical reference and Biographical rewhich we copy,

as much for our own fu- miniscence, wherein personal recollections ture enlightenment as that of the Public. of Washington, Hancock, Lee, Wayne, “ Mr. Graydon,” he says, “ was one of the Warren, Green and others is given, it is few survivors of that old school of accom valuable and interesting, inasmuch as it plished gentlemen who flourished before includes anecdotes, which convey an inour Revolution ;-at a period when the sight into the character of each, as well as courtesy of society was not disturbed by acquaints the reader with characteristic insubordination in systems, nor violated by incidents relating to the war and those who laxity of sentiment.” To this “Senti- periled their lives and fortunes, to give it

a successful termination. One irredeemable Franklin and Richardson's Journey, which fault is the excessively minute detail upon was made, not for the discovery of a norththe most trivial subjects, and upon men, west passage, but for facilitating one, and too, with whom the reader can have no for extension of geographical knowledge in interest or sympathy. In one passage we that part of the Polar Sea. To those fond are informed that “ Mr. Pike was a poor of stirring adventure, and a knowledge of fencer,”-again, “We were not displeased these remote regions, this volume will be with Paine for calling King George a royal an auxiliary; but, as we previously remarkBrute,” and in similar passages throughout ed, the account is in too abbreviated a form. the work, an evident garrulousness mars insufferably the interest of the reader. Views and Reviews in American History,

The notes by the Editor form the most Literature and Fiction. By W. GILamusing episode in perusing the volume. MORE SIMMs. New York and London;

The subject which Mr. Graydon han Wiley & Putnam. dles, leaves a place still vacant for the ex This is the best volume of Mr. Simms' ercise of a vigorous and descriptive pen, lo miscellaneous writings that we have seen. bring into historical relief the deeds of The style, as usual, is graceful and clear; miraculous bravery and daring which won and with most of the opinions expressed the band of revolutionary heroes an im we most heartily accord. We especially perishable heritage. What was deficient in accept the earnestness with which he striking, dramatic splendor, such as was

urges the variety and fitness of the materiportrayed in Napoleon's career, would be als to be found in this country for the pursupplied by instances of endurance and al- poses of 'creation in Literature and Art. most insurmountable difficulties and calami. He has illustrated this subject with much ties with which the times were so imminent- force and illustration, through a hundred ly rife. The field for such narration is a pages of the present volume, under the good one. Mr. Graydon's book is mainly title of “History for the Purposes of Art.” valuable for affording some historical points He afterwards partially reoccupies the same of view.

field in an interesting essay on

“ Indian

Literature and Art." We do not always Voyages in the Arctic Regions. Harper agree with his deductions—but they de& Brothers.

serve attention for many reasons. The In perusing this volume we are struck breadth and compass of our resources for with the peril and endurance with which the the moulding of thought into new forms— pursuit of extending and improving science in marble, on the canvas, or the written is attended, and the splendid resuits accru page-is not appreciated. In this volume ing to those who survived the trial. Arctic of Mr. Simms, there is more light thrown discovery has been prosecuted by Great upon the subject than any other writer has Britain almost exclusively, and the benefit furnished. The remainder of the volume of her discoveries has been practically is taken up with a sketch of Daniel Boon, demonstrated in the advancement of every a long essay on Cortez and the Conquest kind of science. The voyage of Captain of Mexico, and a review of the writings of Ross was chiefly for the purpose of making Cooper. a series of observations on terrestrial magnetism, a subject which is now changing History of the Bastile. By R. A. DEAN. the whole face of the globe. This book ENPORT. Philadelphia : Carey & Hart. contains an account of all the voyages made This is one of the most interesting books since 1818, including two attempts to reach we have met with for a long period. An the north pole; but it strikes us, that the epitome of the history of France, inter. author has too much epitomized the narra spersed with captivating anecdotes and intive except in the instance of Parry, whose dividual sketches, for four centuries back, discoveries were little less important than may be gleaned from its pages. There is those of Captain Ross. Dr. Johnson said more information in it relating to France, that the man who had seen the wall of her court, and chief characters at different China, might be said to confer a lustre on times, than we have ever before seen about his grandchildren. Since the opium vic. any nation in the same compass. The tories there, Lord Macartney's grandchild famous Prison was the genius loci, where ren, according to this theory, have been the various political factions which discovered all over with “lustre," to the pre tracted France for three centuries, darkly judice, perhaps, of their relative's achieve consummated their many schemes. Those ments. What would the learned lexicog. who would know with what fidelity their rapher say to a man who had stood on the commissions were executed, must consult point whereon this globe of ours forever this author. In point of historical acturns, and contemplated the manifold en curacy and research the book is truly relargements of physical science such hardy markable, from the fascinating form in enterprise was sure to beget? Not the which both are embodieil, and the light least interesting of these narratives is they shed upon the most obscure epochs.

“The Bastile” flourished through many that surrounded a people, plunged in misreigns of tyranny and oppression, and ery by terrible wars of religious fanaticism. was the exigent of each ; but it subse. The same want of wisdom, though differquently fell before the advancements that ently manifested-the same spirit

of war in crumbled into dust the feudal heredita- these last times—may make ere long the nements of France,

cessity for a people compassionate enough We have no space to give its merits a to forin a new order of Hospitilliers. Whemore elaborate survey, but in looking over ther the demand will create the article, as the volume, we have been impressed with readily as the necessity has been created, is the sad truth it teaches. From the earliest somewhat questionable. But the Hospitilhistory of France the same great scheme liers fell from their first estate. They ceased of iniquity has been enacted, and Kings, to heal the wounded and the wretched, and Queens, Bishops and Plebeians, played al. went forth a warlike order, rivaling the ternately the parts of victors and victims. Knights Templar in creating the evils that Such is all history, and such is humanity! they at first sought to cure. For many One fact may not be uninteresting to the centuries these two great rivals contested American reader. After the demolition of for the palm of chivalric honor, both prethe Bastile, its key was presented, by Gen- tending to be based upon the sternest prineral Lafayette, to General Washington, by ciples of monkish asceticism, both equally whom it was placed in the hall of Mount ambitious, and both falling as far short of Vernon, where, we believe, it yet remains, their profession in their practice, as is enclosed in a glass case, fastened to the usual in this world of pretension. They wall, for the inspection of the curious. stood shoulder to shoulder confronting the

Infidel on the sands of Palestine, but as Achievements of the Knights of Malta. soon as success or a truce had caused a ces

By Alex. SUTHERLAND, Esq. Carey sation of arms, the rancorous hate which & Hart's Library for the People, No. II. their rivalry had fomented, burst forth in

mutual recrimination and bloody feuds, This is a singularly pleasant book. It tells The Order of the Knights Templar was fithe story of a wonderful era in our world's nally destroyed by the ferocious hate of history with a charming simplicity and naï- Philip of France, backed by the treachery veté. It stirs our blood, it makes the heart of the Pope. They were massacred in all leap with a generous and kindred enthusi. the Christian countries on the globe, misasm, to read of the deeds of those Hospitil- erably perishing by fire, sword, and tor. liers. It is, indeed, glorious to relieve hu- tures, while even the dead were horribly man suffering, though there is something outraged. The quarrel of the wretches far more glorious, which is, to prevent it

. who preyed upon them, was only appeased The world will reach this latter glory only by their religiously ceding the plunder to through the first, however, and we hail it the Hospitilliers. This Order then became as a sign of promise and of progress, when, the most powerful in the world, conquered actuated" by a desire of attaining greater Rhodes, and after a long series of vicissiperfection,” men and wornen formally or tudes, was finally established in Malta, informally dedicate themselves at the altar from which they were driven by Revoluof God, as the servants of the Poor and of tionary France, Christ. Well might the Hospitilliers find We

may take

up this book again. It ofconstant employment in mitigating the evil fers material for a charming article.

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It is among the most encouraging cir- may have been the value of the territory cumstances of the age, that the news of in dispute—and to England, at least, it the peaceful settlement of the Oregon was comparatively of little consequence question has been received by the three —there was, within certain limits on leading nations of Christendom with un each side, a line of honor not to be transdisguised gratification. There is no need gressed by the opposing power, giving here of inquiring whether the claims in to the question a grave character in the dispute were in themselves of sufficient eyes of other nations. Unfortunately, value to have bred the danger of such a according to the feelings of large porconflict. It is enough when an accon. tions of the respective communities, these plished and proud nation, and powerful lines crossed each other in many points, enough to defend its pride, sincerely be- thus allowing room for many positions lieves that any affair in question touches to be looked upon by one side as aggresa vital point of its honor. Its interest sions, when to the other they were but may be foregone; a point, even, of na the natural and necessary occupation of tional security may be yielded ; but its grounds of right. It was, therefore, no dignity and self-respect will be jealously causeless or insignificant cloud of war defended. These are a nation's best inher. through which the star of peace so heavitance; wealth and power without them ily struggled, and it required distinct conare but poor possessions ;- but no peo- cessions on each side, even from those in ple can long maintain themselves in their the State holding to the most moderate of own regard, or in that of others, who do the claims put forth, before the heavens not defend their rights. That England that cover the ocean between us could was sincere in asserting that she had be made clear again. These concessions rights to be maintained in the Oregon were made. The affairs of the English region—that she believed a large portion Government, by a good Providence, were of the territory was justly hers—cannot in the hands of an administration given admit of a doubt in the minds of those to moderate counsels ; and the great bulwho have noted her language and con. wark of our national interests, the Senduct. It must be equally beyond doubt ate, exercised its ancient prerogative of among candid men everywhere, that the educing wise results from popular tu. counter-claim, so far as urged by the mult, factious cabals, and that most fatal more intelligent and sober-minded of the of all things in a government, an execuAmerican people, was in like manner tive at once imbecile and ambitious. sincerely alleged, and with a full belief But, happily, this was not all

. It might, in its validity Thus, however small indeed, have been sufficient for present

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