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were taken for the spread of education a Citizen-King-a deceiver. Power is among the mass of the Polish people, to the god of kings, and double-dealing and gether with the guaranty of rights to treachery, under the name of expedienevery Pole, which this constitution con cy, their religion; honest and simple, templated, would have made Poland one hearted people, therefore, should not trust of the first countries in Europe. Sur them. Civilized nations have already rounded by difficulties which their ene reached the period when they should be mies were continually raising, the Poles left to go alone, without such tutors. never slackened their efforts to devise People must be trusted with power before means to keep up their nationality, their they can learn to use it. literature, and the spirit of improvement; Europe was in this state of hesitation and they have been so eminently suc- and mistrust of popular institutions at the cessful that they in consequence drew time of the Polish Revolution of 1830, upon themselves greater persecutions from which, in consequence, partook of the their oppressors.
same undecided character. Although As an instance of liberality and en- during that Revolution there were paru. lightened policy on the part of the Poles, sans of a constitutional monarchy, and of we must mention the fact that in 1818, a pure democracy, yel the subject of a the Lithuanian nobles asked the Emperor form of government did not much occury Alexander to give perfect freedom to their the attention of the Poles; because their peasantry, stating that they were willing first and all-important aim was to secure to waive their own prerogatives. They the independence of the country, aste received a delusive hope for an answer the accomplishment of which they would from this Emperor. And when the same have had more leisure to decide upon the request was repeated by the Polish no- form of a permanent government to be bility at the Congress of Laybach, they adopted. The unfortunate termination of were plainly refused, and forbidden to that Revolution prevented the discussion mention the subject again. Facts like of the question by the people in their pothese are sufficient proofs of the progress litical capacity; but, as individuals, the the Poles have made ; and yet their ene- Poles in silence have reflected upon the mies would persuade the world that they subject, and have expressed their opinion do not deserve freedom! Is there a coun- in the pending insurrection. try whose nobility are or ever have been The Poles, to the number of at least willing to divest ihemselves of their pre- fifteen thousand, who, in consequence of rogatives in favor of the lower orders of the Revolution of 1830, found themselves society? Why should then the Poles be under the necessity of seeking an asylum judged by a more elevated standard of in foreign countries, have become abroad morality ihan other nations in their minor the organ of their oppressed countrymen faults, when not only they are not in this at home, and they have taken up the respect inferior to others, but they set an question of the form of government, agiexample of such lofty virtues ?
tating it all the while, and not without Previous to the revolutions that took success. The Polish exiles, among whom place in Europe, in 1830, the confidence there are some of the first names of their in purely democratic institutions was not land, and whose centre of action is France, established in the convictions of many of divided themselves upon the question of the most liberal minds, and the talent dis- the form of government into two parties : played by the writers upon the constitu- one being in favor of a limited monarchy, tional monarchical form of government, and the other of a pure democracy; hence contributed much to the mistrust. The they go by the name of Aristocrats and best of men hesitated to trust themselves to Democrats. It is not to be inferred that the rule of democracy, (as was evinced in one party has more patriotism than the the French Revolution of the Three Days,) other, because they do not agree on this believing that a Constitutional Monarchy question ; they differ, because some of would prepare the mass of the people by them believe that only a limited monarchy degrees for a more enlarged freedom. Plau can save their country, while others see sible as the argument may seem, it is fu- her salvation only in pure democracy. It tile, nevertheless ; sad experience has is very natural, thatamong such a number taught us that much. To expect that a of men, there should be found some who king willingly will take measures to pre- are timid, pusillanimous, sticklers to prepare a nation for self-government is pre- cedents and traditions, and they, though posterous: the best of kings will be but honest, would favor monarchical power in
some form; they would be Aristocrats. rising and growing great. Already our Those, however, who are hold and frank, brothers of the Grand Duchy of Posen, of hating the tortuous ways of sceptred ru
Russian Poland and Lithuania have risen, lers, would, naturally enough, rather and are fighting against the enemy. They trust the good sense, however inexperi- from them by force and fraud. You know enced, of the mass of the people, and be what has passed and is continually passDemocrats.
ing. The power of our youth are lanThe Polish exiles, agreeing in their guishing in dungeons. Our aged sires, aim—the restoration of Poland-have whose counsels sustained us, are treated been using all the means they could com with contempt. Our clergy are deprived mand for the purpose ; and thus the in- of all respect ; in a word, all who have terest of the Polish cause, as well as that thirsted by act, or even in thought, to live of freedom in general, was watched over
or die for Poland, have been destroyed, or and promoted their voice was heard by immured in prison, or are in danger of civilized nations and responded to, al. being so at every moment. The groans of
millions of our brethren, who are perishthough the organs of despots never ceased ing under the knout, or wasting in subto abuse, misrepresent and endeavor to
terranean cells, who are driven into the overpower them. By their reprints of va ranks of the soldiery of our oppressors, luable books of their language, they es- submitting to all the suffering of which sayed to make up, in a measure, for the humanity is capable of enduring, have loss the Polish literature has suffered at the deeply struck and moved our hearts. They hands of the Northern autocrat; by their have taken away our glory, prohibited writings in foreign tongues, they aimed
our language, interdicted the profession of at an exposition of the history of their the faith of our fathers. Insurmountable country to other nations; by their politi. ration of our social condition ; brother has
barriers have been opposed to the ameliocal discussions among themselves, they been armed against brother, and the most tried to solve the difficult problem of the honorable men of the country have been future of Poland. Thus they have been toil- calumniated and persecuted. Brothers! ing in the midst of the persecutions of one step more, and Poland exists no longer, power, lukewarmness of friends, and of nor a Pole is to be found there. Our hardships incident to the life of an exile, grandchildren will curse our memory for full of hope that time will crown their ef having left them nothing, in one of the forts with success. They have not been finest countries of the world, but deserts entirely mistaken ; the pending Polish and ruins; for having allowed chains to insurrection is the best commentary upon forced to profess a foreign faith, to speak a
be put on our warlike nation, and to be the success of their labors. Whatever may be the issue of the present insurrec- them to be reduced to be slaves of our op
strange language, and for having permitted tion, it has determined one point, viz., pressors. The ashes of our fathers, marthat the Polish nation has made immense tyred for the rights of our nation, call to strides in advance, and will not, and can us from the tomb to avenge them. Chilnot fall back ; that she feels the power of dren at the breast implore us to preserve her own arm, and the courage of her heart for them the country that God has confided
The free nations of the entire to defy, at once, all her despoilers. With to us. a conviction of the justice of her cause in world invite us to resist the destruction of her breast, confidence in her own arm, and
our nationality. God himself invites usimmovable resolution to run all hazards God, who will one day demand an account and sacrifices without flinching, she will lions! Let us rise as one man, and no
of our stewardship. We are twenty milsooner or later gain her independence. force on the earth can crush our power.
The character of this Polish insurrec- We shall enjoy such liberty as has never tion is seen from the Manifesto of the been known on this earth. Let us en. Provisional Government, a translation of deavor to conquer such a social condition, which from the original we here subjoin, in which each shall enjoy his share of the as a satisfactory proof of the progress of fruits of the earth according to his merit the Poles, and a sure guaraniy of their and his capacity, and in which there will ultimate success.
be no more privileges under any disguise ;
where each Pole shall find full security for MANIFESTO OF THE NATIONAL GOVERN. himself, his wife, his children; and where he MENT OF THE POLISH COMMONWEALTH, body, shall find without humiliation, the in
who is made inferior by nature, in mind or TO THE Polish Nation.
fallible aid of the community; where pro“ Poles, the hour of insurrection has perty in land now possessed conditionally struck, The whole of mutilated Poland is by the peasantry, shall become theirs by ab.
solute right. All forced labors, and other and thus give a new impulse to a farther burdens cease without indemnification, and development of the principle of liberty in those who shall devote themselves in arms to Europe; for the voice of a nation, how. the cause of their country shall receive a
ever feeble, is never lost whenever heard compensation from the national estates. in the cause of justice and truth. This utPoles! from this moment we acknowledge terance of liberal views by the Poles, no distinctions. Let us henceforward be the sons of one mother, Poland-of one father, while showing conclusively the total inGod, who is in heaven. Let us invoke his ability of power to check the spirit of support; he will bless our arms, and give freedom with its most stringent measures, us victory; but, in order to draw down his demonstrates the indomitable courage and blessings, we must not sully ourselves by perseverance with which the Poles are the vice of drunkenness or plunder. Let working in order to attain the independus not soil the arms raised in a holy cause ence of their country. by outrages and murders committed upon The indefatigable spirit of this people Dissidents and defenceless foreigners; for working to the same end, is also seen in we do not struggle against nations, but their literature, as it will be made appaagainst our oppressors. In token of unity, let us mount the national cockade, and rent from the testimony of a writer in one
of the numbers of the Foreign Quarterly take the following oath : 'I swear to serve Poland, my country, by counsel, word and Review: “ The language and literature action. I swear to sacrifice to her my of Poland," says the writer, “ bave adpersonal ambition, my fortune and my life. vanced to their present degree of perfecI swear absolute obedience to the national tion, in equal ratio with the increasing government, which has been established at misfortunes of the country, during the Cracow, the 22d of this month, at eight last fifty years. This phenomenon is so o'clock in the evening, in the house under extraordinary, that it deserves a serious the name of Krystofory, and to all the authorities instituted by the same govern: What, indeed, should seem more unfa
consideration of every reflecting mind. ment. And may God help me to keep this vow. This manifesto shall be published vorable to the progress of a nation's lanin the journal of the government, and in guage, than its political annihilation, and the supplementary sheets sent throughout the incorporation of its dismembered proPoland, and shall be proclaimed from the vinces with several foreign States, each pulpits of all the churches, and in all the respectively intent on destroying every parishes by placards in public places.” vestige of its former nationality Yet it (Signed,) Louis GORZKOWSKI. is a fact, that Polish literature is actually JOHN TYSSOWSKI.
now reaching its zenith, and at no former ALEX. GRZEGORZEWSKI. period could Poland ever boast of more Secretary, CHARLES ROGAWSKI. distinguished men in every department Dated Cracow, Feb. 22, 1816.
of science, learning and political emi.
nence.” From this document it will be perceived When a language becomes the reposithat the Polish nobility are willing to tory of what is the noblest in the human waive their prerogatives in favor of the heart, it is one of the most indestructible lower orders, and remove all the burdens elements of national existence: it bethat time and their enemies have forced comes an adamantine urn into which the upon the peasantry, giving them in fee nation throws its dearest recollections for simple the land which they hitberto cul- safe keeping, and as each successive gen. vated, but not owned ; that all distinc- eration is adding to its treasure, the nations of birth should cease, and that every tion is the more vigilant in guarding it. Pole should have equal rights and claims The Poles are aware of the treasures their to happiness. History has never before own language contains, and they will witnessed such a sacrifice of self-interest guard it with the most religious care: no for the good of the mass of a people. power on earth, short of one that can While this act reflects great credit upon cut them down to the very last, shall be the hearts of the Poles, it affords to the able to destroy that vessel which enworld an encouraging proof that the sense shrines the most glorious memories of of justice and the spirit of freedom are their sires, and some of the noblest sen. powersully agitating civilized society. timents that ever passed human lips.
The opinion of the Polish nation, thus Such are the unfailing, guaranties, expressed through the Manifesto of the within the nation itself, of the future Provisional Government, cannot but make regeneration of Poland; it matters coma deep impression upon other nations, parativly little when it will come, but it
is sure to come sooner or later. These They swore to wage war with tyrants to guaranties, taken together with the events the knife, and they will keep the oath that are in progress throughout the civ. good ;—they are fired by the prophetic ilized world, cannot fail to bring the con- vision of the poet, who never was more viction that every year brings Poland inspired than when he said : nearer the bright days that are in store for her and for mankind. What if
“Freedom's battle once begun, crowned heads are straining their power Bequeathed from bleeding sire to son, to the utmost to crush the spirit of free Though baffled oft is ever won." dom among the people, when these people are conscious they are acting under Heaven's decrees? What if a free Note.—It would be premature on our Briton, the unpunished and infamous Sir part, to attempt to give a sketch of the James Graham, do succeed in betraying pending Polish insurrection, since neither to their executioners the noble sons of all its details are sufficiently authenti. Italy? Italy is not so poor in virtue and cated, nor is the last act of the drama devotion to the cause of freedom, as not finished. The European press (and espeto be able to double the number of patri- cially that of the nations surrounding ots after each new sacrifice, till she be Poland) speaks what despots put in its free. What if the Citizen King is mean mouth; the public therefore hear that the enough to stoop to the despicable office insurrection is put down and order reof the spy for his royal brothers of Prus- stored, and many sapient heads take the sia and Russia, and report to them the opportunity to deliver themselves of sage movements of the noble Mieroslawski, comments upon fruitless sacrifices, and who was to direct the Polish insurrection, the rashness of the attempt. But it is and who was arrested immediately on very cheap wisdom that judges a meahis arrival at Posen ? Despotism only sure, when it has proved unsuccessful; has gained a delay, but its fate is not every attempt at a revolution that failed averted; every new victim at its shrine was before this pronounced untimely, will raise ten avengers on the Polish soil; rash and foolish ; nay, even wicked. We and although the plans of the Polish pa- would advise those wise persons to wait triots have this time been thwarted in a a while before they decide, for all is not measure, yet their hope and courage have over yet, notwithstanding that kings are not diminished; and Poland, Italy, and proclaiming the return of “old order." humanity, shall win their victory not. Although the French government dewithstanding.
nounced to the Prussian and Russian auThe Poles may be baffled by their ene thorities the patriotic Mieroslawski, and mies ninety-nine times in a hundred, but thus the plans of the Poles have been detheir patience and perseverance will not ranged and their success put in jeopardy, be exhausted by defeat, and they will yet it will prove but a temporary check finally triumph on their hundredth effort. to the great Slavonic cause.
FINANCE AND COMMERCE.
THE NEW BRITISH TARIFF.
The political occurrences of the last respect of grain, as of merchandise gene. month have been of more than usual in- rally :terest to, and influence upon, business affairs.
The London Times of July 3d, gives in exThe uncertainty which had measurably tenso the text of the Corn and the Customs paralyzed the enterprise of England, by Bills, which have now become part of the law reason of the great changes proposed by of Great Britain. The ! Act to alter certain Sir Robert Peel in the jealous commercial duties or customs” contains six sections, of
which the following is the substance: policy of that country, has now given 1. It is declared that instead of the duties way to the reality. Sir Robert has car now levied upon the articles named in the ried his measures, and both for informa- schedule, those named in the subsequent section and for future reference, we annex
tions shall be collected. the substantial portions of the Tariff laws ber are to be levied according to the rates
2. From April 5, 1847, the duties upon timnow in force in that country—as well in laid down, viz., 1 VOL. IV.-NO II.
From Ap. 5, '47. Ap. 5, '48. scribed, not otherwise charged with duty, not Timber per load 50 ft. li 10 15s. being articles wholly or in part made up; ye. do. sawn or split. 1 06 1
getables, all not otherwise enumerated or deStaves over 72 in. long, 7
scribed; vellum. wide, or 34 thick. 1 03 0 18
5. The duties imposed are to be ascertained Firewood, per 216 feet. 0 08 0 06
and paid under existing acts. Handspikes, under 7 feet,
0 16 0 12
6. This act may be amended or repealed by do. over 7 feet. 1 12 1 04
Parliament. Knees, under 5 in. square,
The following is the table of duties to which 0 08 0 06
the foregoing act refers : do. 5 and under 8. 1 12 1 04
1. 8. d. Lathwood, per 216 feet. 1 12 1 04
Agates or cornelians, per 1001. 10 0 0 Oars, per 120 feet. 6 00
1 0 0 4 10
Ale and beer, per bbl. Spars, under 22 feet long
Almonds, paste of, per 1001.
10 0 0 and 4 in di., per 120. 0 16 0 12
Amber, manufac. of, per 100L 10 00 do. over do.
1 12 1 04
0 2 6 Spars, all lengths, under 6
Arrowroot, of and from a British in. in di.
3 04 2 08
0 0 6 Spukes, under 2 ft. length,
Bandstrings, twist, per 1001. 10 0 0 1 12 1 04
of and froin a Br. possession, 5 0 0 do. over do.
0 1 0 Wood, planed, and not enumerated, 6d. and
of and from a Br. possession, 4d. per foot, and 10.. for every 1001. ad val.
0 0 6 3. From June 1, 1816, the duties upon spe
Bast-ropes, twines and strands, per
10 00 cified articles are to be as follows:
of and from a Br. possession 5 0 0 Foreign. From British Beads, viz., Arango, coral, crystal, Possessions. jet, per 100%.
10 00 Canary, per cwt. 58
10 00 Caraway,
10 0 0 Carrot, 2 6 Brass, manuf. of, per 1001.
10 00 Clover,
10 0 0 Leek,
Brocade of gold or silver, per 1001. 10 0 0 Mustard,
10 00 Onion,
powder, Other seeds per 100151
10 00 21 10 Buckwheat, the qr.
0 1 0 4. No duties whatever are to be charged meal, the cwt.
0 0 4 upon the following articles:
Butter, the cwt.
0 10 0 “ Animals, living, viz., asses, goats, kids, of and from a Br. possession, 0 2 6 oxen and bulls, cows, calves, horses, mares, Buttons, metal, per 100..
10 0 0 geldings, colts, foals, mules, sheep, lambs, Cameos, per 100%.
5 0 0 swine and hogs, pigs, sucking; bacon, beef, Candles, viz., fresh or salted; beet, salted, not being corned
spermaceti, the lb.
0 0 3 beef; bottles, of earth and stone, empty ;
0 0 1 casts of busts, statues or figures; caviare;
tallow, the cwt.
0 50 cherry wood, being furniture wood : cranber
0 0 2 ries ; cotton manufactures, not being articles Canes, &c., per 1001. value,
10 00 wholly or in part made up, not otherwise Carriages, per 1001. value,
10 00 charged with duty; enamel ; gelatine; glue; Casks, empty, per 1001. value, 10 0 0 hay; hides, or pieces thereof, tanned, curried, Cassava Powder, the cwt.
0 2 6 varnished, japanned, enameled ; Muscovy or
of and from a British possesRussia hides, or pieces thereof, tanned, co sion, the cwt.
0 0 6 lored, shaved, or otherwise dressed, and Catlings, per 100l. value,
10 0 0 hides or pieces thereof any way dressed, not Cheese, the cwt.
0 5 0 otherwise enumerated; ink for printers ; in
of and from a British posseskle, wrought; lampblack; linen, viz., plain sion, the cwt.
0 1 6 linens and diaper, whether checkered or China or porcelain ware, per 100%,
10 00 striped with dye-yarn or not, and manufac- Cider, the tun,
5 5 0 tures of linen, or of linen mixed with cotton Citron, preserved in salt, per 1001. 5 00 or with wool, not particularly enumerated, Clocks, per 100l. value,
10 0 0 or otherwise charged with duty, not being Copper manuf., and copper-plates enarticles wholly or in part made up; Magna graved, per 100l. value,
10 00 Græcia ware; manuscripts; maps and charts, Copper or brass wire, per 100. value 10 0 0 or parts thereof, plain or colored; mattresses; Cotion, articles or manufactures of meat, salted or fresh, not otherwise described; cotton wholly or in part made up, medals of any sort; palmetto thatch manu not otherwise charged with duty, factures ; parchment; partridge wood, being for every 1001. value,
10 00 fur. wood; pens; plantains; potatoes; pork,
of and from a British possesfresh; pork, salted, not hams; purple wood, sion, for every 1001. value,
5 0 0 being fur. wood; silk, thrown, dyed, viz., sin Crayons, per 1001. value,
10 00 gles or tram, organize or crape silk ; tele- Crystals, per 1001, value,
10 00 scopes; thread, not otherwise enumerated or Cucumbers, preserved in salt, per described; woollens, viz., manufactures of 1001. value,
5 0 0 wool, not being gool, or of wool mixed with of and from a Br. possession, 2 100 cotton, not particularly enumerated or de Fish, cured, the cwt.
0 1 0
wax, the lb.