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country: and finally, the foreign relations of the British naval service. The experi. of the country were left in a most satisfac ments which have been made in shiptory state. He especially rejoiced in being building, at so great an expense, he deable to give the official assurance that clared had not been successful; and in the every cause of quarrel with that great general construction of steam vessels of country on the other side of the Atlantic, war, he said that no attention had been was terminated before his retirement from paid to placing the engines and boilers in office. In closing, with a proper allusion a proper manner. All the steam boxes to himself, he said:
were five or six feet above the water : and
if in action a single twelve or twenty“I shall leave office, I fear, with a name severely censured by many honorable gen- below must be
destroyed-must be boiled
four pounder struck that box, every man tlemen, who, on public principle, deeply regret the severance of party ties—who deeply
to death or fried to a cinder. If such a thing regret that severance, not from any interested happened in action, he said they could not or personal motives, but because they believe expect a single head-man or engineer to fidelity to party engagements—the existence occupy his place. He proposed that the and maintenance of a great party—to consti- Board of Admiralty should be reduced to tute a powerful instrumeut of government, three, and that three Comptrollers should I shall surrender power severely censured, I also be appointed, each with specified du. fear again, by many honorable gentlemen, ties. The bill was rejected in the House who, from no interested motive, have adhered to the principle of protection as im. by a large majority ; but the statements portant to the welfare and interests of the concerning the character and efficiency of country: I shall leave a name execrated by the steain vessels in service, coming from every monopolist who, from less honorable
so high an authority, are worthy of attenmotives, maintains protection for his own in. tion. dividual benefit; but it may be that I shall leave a name sometimes remembered with
The national testimonial, raised by subexpressions of good-will in those places scription for Mr. Rowland Hill in acknowwhich are the abode of men whose lot it is ledgment of his eminent public service in to labor, and to earn their daily bread by the the postage reforın, was formally presented sweat of their brow-a name remembered at a meeting held on the 17th. It amountwith expressions of good-will, when they ed to £13,360. Mr. Hill, in his remarks shall recreate their exhausted strength with
on that occasion, made some statements abundant and untaxed, food, the sweeter because it is no longer leavened by a sense of concerning the actual operation of the new injustice.”
system worthy of notice in this country.
The number of chargeable letters delivered It is curious to notice the change pro- throughout the United Kingdom in 1838, duced in the tone of the English press, by he said, was about 75,000,000 : in 1845 the intelligence of the victories of the Rio it was 271,000,000; and in January of the Grande. Previous to its receipt, the pa- present year, the date of the latest returns, pers, without exception, were very severe it was at the rate of 303,000,000 per an. upon Gen. Taylor for having allowed him
It had been established the gross self to be surrounded by the Mexican amount of revenue would be made up when army; they denounced him as entirely the increase was four-and-a-half fold. destitute of military skill and capacity, Ibrahim Pacha is visiting England. He and predicted the entire destruction of the has been at Manchester, where he made a small force under his command. His very careful inspection of the various mantroops, it was said, were little better than ufacturing establishments. He is said to an undisciplined and
prospect of evince a very earnest desire to carry home their destruction was regarded as immedi- with him a clear knowledge of the condiate and gratifying. When news was re tion of the country, and of the means by ceived of the gallant manner in which he which its immense prosperity has been sehad cut his way out of the difficulties cured, with a view to the improvement of which surrounded him, the immense supe- his own dominions. His visit excites a riority of the Anglo-Saxon race formed at good deal of notice. once the topic of remark. “ If the Mex The election of a new Pope, in place of icans” says the Spectator, “ could not re the late Gregory XVI., was accomplished sist the charge of bayonets, they have only without any of the difficulty which had yielded to what is almost uniformly irresist. been apprehended. The Conclave of the ible in the Anglo-Saxon race." The Sacred College lasted only two days, the bravery and efficiency of the American decision of the Cardinals having been bastforce are, however, almost universally ened, it is said, by fears of popular agitaconceded, though the Sun and a few other tion and of difficulty, from the intrigues of journals of small calibre and smaller char- the agents of foreign powers. The choice acter, put on airs of affected contempt and fell upon the Cardinal Jean Marie Mastai, of ridicule.
the family of the Counts Mastai-Ferretti, Sir Charles Napier, in support of his who has assumed the title of Pius IX. He Naval Reform Bil, made some remarkable was born at Sinigaglia, in the States of the statements concerning the actual condition Church, May 13, 1792, was named Car.
dinal in petto, Dec. 23, 1839, and pro as boldness and vigor, will be required to claimed Dec. 14, 1840. He is one of the introduce a new order of things. youngest Popes ever elected, and has a very The death of Mr. B. R. Haydon, an Enghigh reputation for talent, learning, vigor lish artist of a good deal of merit, by his own and piety. The territory of the States of hand, in a moment of depression caused by the Church remains very nearly as it was professional failure and consequent poverdefined by the Congress of Vienna. It ex- ty, caused a deep sensation in London. He tends over a surface of 2,250 square leagues had conceived the design of executing a with a population of 2,908,115 inhabitants. series of six pictures, to illustrate the new The revenue is about $10,000,000. The Houses of Parliament; and upon the first territory is divided into twenty provinces of these, a colossal representation of Alfred which are administered each by a legate, the Great and the first British Jury, he The Sacred College decides on all matters was engaged at the time of his death. He belonging to the Church. There are vari. had become involved in debt by the necesous boards, each with its appropriate func- sary expenditures of his family, and made tions, and the Pope has a Council of Minis- arrangements in March for an exbibition, ters. The army is under the management upon the returns of which he hung an of a council, consisting of a prelate and five almost despairing hope. In his diary he councillors. The States are divided into made entries from day to day, of his sucthree military districts. The army con.
Under date of April 13, he says: sists of 14,600 men, besides a reserve of “ Receipts, £1 3s. 6d. An advertisement 6,000, and 3,000 national guards for Rome of a finer description could not have been and Bologna. The Paris Journal des De- written to catch the public, but not a shil. bats publishes a letter from Naples which ling more was added to the receipts. They gives the following interesting personal run by thousands to see Tom Thumb. particulars of the character of the newly They see my bills and caravans, but do not elected Pope :
read them; their eyes are on them, but
their sense is gone. It is an insanity, a “ In 1836, being at Naples, I had the honor rabies furor, a dream, of which I would of becoming personally acquainted with the not have believed Englishmen could be present Pope, who was residing in that town guilty. My situation is now one of extreme as nuncio to the Neapolitan Court. His stay peril,” &c. On the 21st of April, he noted in that city will ever be remembered by the that the number of his visitors for the inhabitants, and particularly by the poorer week had been 133, while Tom Thumb's classes. At the time when the cholera was raging, he disposed of his plate, furniture and levee during the same period had been at. equipages, and distributed the proceeds to tended by 12,000 persons. Overwhelmed the unfortunate victims of that disease. Dur- by the threatening prospect before him, he ing the whole period of the epidemic, the sick wrote to several persons in high place for continually received from him the consola- relief. Only one found time or inclination tions of religion, as well as assistance from his purse. In these visits he always went on
to reply. Mr. Haydon's application was foot, and when observations were made to
made June 15th. On that evening Mr. him on the subject, he would reply by these d’Israeli, in the House of Commons, made remarkable words, 'When the poor of Jesus the venomous and elaborate attack upon Christ die in the streets, his ministers ought Sir Robert Peel, already alluded to, and not to ride in carriages.' He unites with forced the Premier, in the midst of his this evangelical charity a modesty, and sim- already overwhelming labors, while preplicity which increase the value of it. Easy paring for his retirement and for the able of access, he is kind and affable in his man- exposition of public affairs which he aftertestify to the extreme benevolence of his dis wards made, to enter into a minute explaposition. On the throne these qualities of nation of newspapers printed and letters private life become virtues. With sincere written more than twenty years before. piety, he also joins an energetic and resolute Yet, in the midst of these anxieties, these character.”
corroding cares and this incessant storm of
malignant persecution, Sir Robert Peel It is hoped, and confidently predicted, found time to respond to the call of disthat he will administer the Papacy with tress which came up from the painter's moderation and diseretion, and that he study. The following entries in the diary will introduce into the Papal states some record a brief and heart-touching hisof the reforms which have been so long and tory : so greatly needed. The want of encourage. ment hitherto to every species of industry “ June 16 –Sat from 2 to 5 o'clock staring, and enterprise, the absence of trade, the at my picture like an idiot; my brain pressed neglect of agriculture and the poverty of down by anxiety and the anxious looks of the people, have been cited as having given inform of my condition. We have raised
my family, whom I have been compelled to birth to a class of men who are always money on all our silver to keep us from want ready to rush into rebellion for the oppor- in case of accident. I have written to Şir tunities it holds forth of robbery and plun- Robert Peel, to — and to —, stating der. Caution and sound discretion, as well that I have a heavy sum to pay. I have
offered “The Duke's Study' to — Who be the professor. In summing up the reaanswered first ? Tormented by D’Israeli ; sons for such a professorship, the Council harassed by public business; up came the fol. state that a knowledge of that ancient lanlowing letter:
guage will empower men of science to "Whitehall, June 16. * cultivate that only remaining great field «« Sir, I am sorry to hear of your con of inquiry on the globe which enterprising tinued embarrassments. From a limited fund which I have at my disposa!, I send, as
travelers have not already in a great mea. a contribution to relieve you from these em
sure exhausted.” barrassments, the sum of 501.
The issue of the recent scientific expe“I remain, Sir, your obedient serv't, dition of Dr. Lepsius has been indicated
"ROBERT PEEL. to the Paris Academy of Sciences in a let« • Be so good as to sign and return the ter from Humboldt, from which it appears accompanying receipt.'
that the journey has yielded rich historical “ That's Peel. Will answer?
and archæological results. Thirteen hun" June 18. – This morning, fearing I should dred magnificent drawings, thousands of be involved, I returned to a young bookseller sketches, and all the manuscripts have arsome books for which I had not paid him. rived in Berlin, and two vessels, laden No reply from
! And this Peel with the monuments collected, were on s the man who has no heart !
the way. They include immense numbers “ June 21.-Slept horribly, prayed in sor of most valuable relics. Dr. Lepsius brings row, and got up in agitation.
also full materials for the study of a great " June 22.-God forgive me. Amen. “ Finis. “B. R. Haydon.
number of African languages. “Stretch me no longer on this rough world.'
A great number of letters and other “ The end of the 26th volume.” (Lear. autographs of Queen Christina, have been
discovered at Florence: the Swedish Queen His daughter went into his studio, soon constituted the Cardinal Azzelini her legaafter this last entry was made, and there tee, which accounts for the place of this lay the body of her father, stretched upon discovery. Dr. Pinner of Berlin, it is said, the floor just in front of his great picture,- has discovered in Odessa a manuscript, on the lifeless corpse of the aged man, his parchment, of the Prophet Habbakukwhite hair saturated with blood, his head more than a thousand years old—which has resting upon his right arm, near which lay importance in regard to the Hebrew vowel two razors, one in a case and the other points. smeared with blood, half-open by his side. The necrology of the month contains few A small pistol, newly discharged, was also names very widely known, though among near him. He was dressed with great them are those of persons of some degree neatness in his ordinary attire, and had of distinction. M. de Ochoa, whom M. placed the portrait of his wife on a small Villemain recently sent upon a scientific easel just in front of his large picture. On and literary mission to Central Asia, and an adjoining table lay his diary, in which whose knowledge of Oriental literature he had just made the entry last quoted. was very profound, died at Paris soon after Packets of letters, addressed to various his return, and before his report was ready persons, were about the room, and his for the press. D. Marheinecke, the celeprayer-book was fixed open on a portion of brated theological professor at Berlin, died the service. The Times speaks of this as recently at the age of 68. M. Eyries, a one of those “events which impel even distinguished geographer, died at Paris, sober-minded men towards the conviction aged 80; and at Munich the Canon Balthat this condition of society should no thazar Sheath, one of the most learned longer exist, whatever be the cost of the archæologists of Germany, has died at the change.”
At Dusseldorff, Benzenberg, Captain Sturt has returned to England the eminent professor of astronomy and from his protracted and laborious explora- natural philosophy, who first made obsertion in Australia. He reached latitude 25ovations, at Gottingen in 1798, on the dis45' and longitude 139° 13'. His expedi- tance and the orbit of the falling stars, is tion, however, has proved quite as fruitless dead, aged 67. as those of his predecessors.
In a paper read before the London The Council of King's College have put Geological Society recently, Dr. Lyell forth proposals for the endowment of a expressed the opinion, that the ornithoi. Chinese Professorship in that institution, dichnites and the supposed mammalian the first of the kind in England, and, unless foot-prints, found in the coal-field of we are mistaken, in Europe. Dr. Pfitz- Pennsylvania, are not real impressions, but mayer, of Vienna, is named as qualified to artificial sculptures made by the Indians.
age of 72.
PARIS, July, 1846. responsible advisers. M. Guizot holds, IF security and stability were wanting to that the ministers are to aid the crown, and the Cabinet of St. James, these advantages to take the responsibility of its acts when have been enjoyed in a preëminent degree they approve them, or to retire from the by the ministerial council-board of the royal councils when they disapprove them. Tuilleries. As the Conqueror of Waterloo M. Thiers holds, that the ministers are to has lent in England the weight of his supersede the crown, which is to sanction name to the Cabinet, leaving the active their acts so long as the Chambers sanction leadership to Sir Robert Peel, so the Victor them. M. Guizot holds, that the sovof Toulouse has given his countenance, ereign is a real, an entire and intelligent and that only, to the Guizot ministry. The branch of the Legislature as well as being government of the middle classes repre- the chief of the Executive. M. Thiers sented by this cabinet has been ever since holds, that the sovereign is little more than the Revolution of 1830 gradually consoli a stuffed figure, gilt and adorned, and dating itself, as might have been antici- placed in a chair, called the throne, in pated. The national convulsions which whose name the acts of the state are done. attended its origin were succeeded by Perhaps we may have here a little overseveral rapid changes. Public feeling did charged the picture, but its general outline not all at once settle down into a state of is correct. The origin of these differences repose ; nor did public opinion at once is to be traced partly to the genius of the comprehend the scope and destiny to which French nation, partly to the traditions of the events of the Barricades inevitably led. the monarchy and the empire, but most, Time has, however, seemed to enlighten perhaps, to the personal character of Louis parties; and in proportion, as a consti- Philippe. In England the sovereign is tutional and representative monarchy is never present at the deliberations of the more clearly apprehended and fully under- Cabinet, nor are these deliberations made stood, government has become more stable, known to the crown until they have atand cabinets less transitory. The present tained some decisive form to give effect to cabinet has maintained itself undisturbed which the royal functions must be exerfor a longer period than any which has cieed. It is true that when a statesman been formed under the present dynasty, is charged by the sovereign to form a
On all the most essential points of his cabinet the general policy which he will policy, foreign and domestic, M. Guizot pursue is supposed to be made known, but and his colleagues are supported by a large this is needless since the circumstances majority of the Chambers. This policy which precede such a measure necessarily has been moderately conservative. The expose that knowledge to the whole naprecipitation of change which always fol- tion. It has been, however, the practice lows a revolution has been checked, but of the present King of France to adhere to the progress of real improvement has not the custom of former monarchs, and to been arrested. A studied effort to bring preside at the meetings of the Cabinet, the working of the Monarchical Institutions Against this practice it has been objected of France into conformity with the model by M. Thiers, that the presence of the afforded by England, has been the aim sovereign must injuriously restrict the equally of the two great parliamentary freedom of discussion ; that the influence leaders of the ministerial party and the op- of so exalted a personage must check the position. In their opinions of the way expression of opinion where that opinion to accomplish this they differ, but as to the deviates from the declared personal sentiobject they agree. The personal share of ments of the sovereign ; that questions the sovereign, in the direction of the state, must frequently arise, especially on mat. at this moment forms their most prominent ters of finance, dotation of the royal family, subject of disagreement. M. Guizot main- and other subjects in which the sovereign tains, that the personal influence of the must be supposed to have an immediate crown ought to be admitted, but should be interest, and that such questions cannot be exercised under ministerial responsibility. fairly and independently discussed in his M. Thiers holds, that the crown should presence. It is, therefore, contended that have an inert personality, exercising no the council of ministers ought to be free influence, and offering no interference with from the royal presence, as is properly the the measures of those who are called its custom in England.
On the other hand, M. Guizot, sensible on the life of the king had no political doubtless of the great advantage derivable meaning, and was totally unconnected with from the sagacity of the present sovereign any political party, directly or indirectly, of France, and feeling that from none of it has, nevertheless, tended to increase the his colleagues in the Cabinet does he de. king's popularity, and to strengthen the rive the same wise and prudent aid as from ministry. Great indignation has been exLouis Philippe himself, maintains that the pressed by the opposition, because the provoice and influence of the sovereign ought secuting officer instituted rigid inquiries, to be heard at the Council Board, where it and persevered in them to the last, with will be received for what it is worth, and the view of connecting the affair with some where, if it counsel dangerous measures, political party. the exclusive responsibility of the minis At present the commercial policy of ters, who alone can carry them into effect, France is, as it always has been, exclusive is the best guaranty for the safety of the and prohibitive in its spirit. The measures State.
now in progress in England are regarded This difference arising out of the personal with the
most profound interest, and a di. nature of the government of Louis Phil. vision of opinion has already manifested ippe, supplied the most striking part of itself on this subject. The existing adminthe debate with which the present session istration, without committing itself irrevoof the Chamber of Deputies closed. The cably to any policy, has expressed itself speeches of the leaders of the opposition with that moderation which indicates a were avowedly made as manifestoes to the disposition to wait events; to watch the constituents, preparatory to the approach- effects of the measure in England, and al. ing general election, and not with a view lowing fairly for the different circumstances to any practical effect on the measures be- of the two countries, to adapt to France fore the Chamber. In England the expe- such modifications of the English system dient of addressing the country through the as may seem best suited to it. In short, it Chamber, before an election, is not neces- requires no very extraordinary powers of sary, because the mode in which elections foresight to see that the liberty of comare conducted in that country, not only al merce once established in England, it will lows the candidates to address their con be impossible to prevent it from spreading stituents in meetings convened expressly into France and elsewhere. for the purpose, previous to the election, In general, France is slow in the adopbut also leaves an opportunity for speaking tion of great social changes. This arises from the hustings on the occasion of the in part from the character of the people, election itself. These meetings are not in but chiefly from the prohibition of all pubaccordance with the French law or custom, lic meetings. Still, though late, the imand would, it is said, be dangerous to the provements do make their way at last. At public order. Parliament and pamphlet, the commencement of the peace, there especially the latter, which are numerous were no footways in Paris. They are now ly and widely circuiated and read, supply in every part of the town. Walter Scott, their place.
conversing one day in the Rue St. Honoré, Notwithstanding the talent and tact of with a Parisian acquiantance, observed on M. Thiers, and the coalition which has the inconvenience arising from the want of taken place among different sections of the the accommodation of side-flagging for the opposition, the Guizot party still retains a pedestrian, when his Parisian friend relarge majority. What may be the result of plied, “ Mais, mon dieu, monsieur, moi, the coming election, it is impossible to say, j'aime mieux la totalité de la rue ! The but those best acquainted with the country Parisians have, however, at length, learned are of opinion that a majority will be re. to prefer the safety and cleanliness of a good turned in favor of the present government, footway, or trottoir, as they call it, to the sufficiently large to give it perfect stability; totalité de la rue. They have, moreover, Much is said of the extent to which official constructed sewers so as to produce an excorruption is carried, by the use or abuse cellent system of drainage; they have car. of the vast patronage of the crown. But it ried water-pipes in all directions; they may be answered, that in a purely represen- have lighted the city with gas, and have, tative governments, no administration could at last, brought themselves to adopt the go on independently of the influence of railway system. patronage ; that this is the fly-wheel which If the Parisians have been behind the regulates the machine, helping it on when English in the progress of the Industrial the moving power gets enfeebled, and mo. arts, and have been slow to adopt imme. derating its energy when it becomes too diately the vast improvements in the Social active. At all events, it is certain that the system, such as the cheap postage system, present opposition would avail itself of the which, next to the great measure of free. same engine of power to quite as great an dom of trade, will signalize the present extent if it succeeded to office.
epoch of English history, there are two Although the recent atrocious attempt stupendous moral reforms to which the