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a country remote from the place of its pro- history of the trade between India and duction.
Western Europe, from its early beginning, “These facts have wholly demolished and more especially at that time, abundantthe hempen pillar of this free trade theory. ly proves the truth of this position. The Mr. Walker may lament over the destruc- establishment of domestic manufactories tion of revenue upon these articles, result- brings our markets of supply nearer our ing from the skill, industry and enterprise markets of consumption, which diminishes of our Western countrymen. They have these difficulties, and uniformly tends to
substituted,' as he terms it, cheaper and lessen the market price of commodities. It better articles of domestic production for produces competition between domestic the foreign products. I rejoice in every producers, and between the foreign and reduction of your revenue froin imports domestic producers, and between doinestic which is produced by this sort of of sub. traders and foreign and domestic traders, stitution. It is an unerring index of the all of which are usually beneficial to the upward progress of the nation. I have
The diminution of price prodwelt thus long upon cotton bagging be- duced by competition between foreign pro. cause it was selected by the Southern ducers alone, usually swells the profits of advocates of free trade to test their prin- the merchant more than it reduces the ciples in 1842, and because the whole his- price of the commodity to the consumer. tory of this trade is familiar to my own But if you so arrange your tariff laws as to constituents. There are many other ar enable the domestic.producers of such com. ticles protected by the Tariff of 1842 which modities as are suitable to the country to furnish similar results, but my time will compete fairly with the foreign producer of not allow me to dwell longer upon par. like commodities, the consumer will genticular and detailed illustrations. The erally get the chief advantage from the friends of free trade, to sustain their theory, reduction of price produced by competition are compelled to assume the fact that all in both countries. All these causes, tocommodities will, necessarily and invari- gether with many others which I cannot ably, and in all markets, sell for their now comment upon, counteract this tennatural price. This proposition, so far dency of duties to enhance prices, and from being generally true, is almost uni- overturn this assumption, upon which the versally untrue. The market price is sel. theory of free trade is built.” dom, in any market, the same
as the natural price; and even this natural price, Need we add one word? Is not the from the very nature of its constituent demonstration complete? elements, is subject to an infinite variety of disturbing causes, and, like the market doned us, extended as this article is. It
single quotation inore will be parprice, is as variable as the winds. You has reference to Mr. Walker's fundacan scarcely select a single item of material mental principle that no duty shall be wealth which will not demonstrate the truth of this position.
One grower of corn laid at a higher rate than that which in a particular neighborhood, who is fa- will produce the greatest aggregate of vored by propitious seasons, may grow an
revenue. That a tariff may be so adabundant crop in a year of great scarcity justed as in the whole to afford adequate
it may far exceed his average pro- Revenue and adequate Protection, is duct in ordinary years; yet in the sale of demonstrated by abundant experience. this corn, jin his immediate vicinage, or elsewhere, he does not, in the slightest de- be levied with express reference and in
But the requirement that each duty shall gree, regard the usual rent of land, nor wages of labor, nor average profits of stock
entire conformity to Mr. Walker's prinin his neighborhood, in fixing its price. ciple, is fatal to the existence of ProtecYour necessity is the usual measure of his tion as a recognized element of National price. The foreign manufacturer does not Policy. It makes the prosperity and concern himself about how cheap he can happiness of the People subordinate to afford to sell you his wares. He avails the needs and caprices of the Governhimself of every circumstance which af- ment-puts the creature above the creafects advantageously for him the market tor. It is giving, body and verity to price, and sells for the best price he can Moore's allegory of the Divine Right of get. He will not be apt to neglect to avail Kings as a fly worshipped as a God, with himself of advantages which remoteness from the market of supply gives him. ficed on this divinity's altar. This year
the People as the bullock daily sacriWhen the market of supply is remote from the place of consumption, the trade in the the Government needs money, and im. commodity becomes a quasi monopoly; poses a duty which operates as an incompetition is usually less ; combinations cidental Protection to some important to raise prices are more readily effected, branch of our_National Industry; but and consequently profits are larger. The next year this Revenue is not needed, so
the duty is taken off, and a large class of sands of operatives find good wages and our laborers exposed to a ruinous For constant employment; the consumption of eign competition. Tens of thousands of the country is supplied to the whole extent citizens must suffer because the Treasu- that these factories can make; and the dory is plethoric and the Government easy fast getting ahead of it. What happens?
mestic article vies with the foreign, and is in its money matters! Is this Republic the Government gets into a situation in can Legislation ? Consider the follow. which it needs more money; and what ing extract from the speech of the Hon. does the President say? I want a hundred REVERDY JOHNSON of Maryland, in the millions of dollars, and we cannot raise it, Senate, July 25th, viz:
without making as much out of foreign cot
tons, imported as we can possibly get. Ex“ See how this doctrine breaks down the perience shows, that under the tax of thirty whole domestic industry of the country. per cent., foreigners do not supply our marThe President says he has always been in
ket, that it discourages the importation; we favor of incidental protection; and he un must diminish our tax, we must tax foreign derstands that to be the protection which a
cottons to the revenue standard only, and tax imposed exclusively for revenue gives what is that? Why, the Secretary says, it to the manufacturer. Now, what is that is the lowest tax that will raise the greattax? It is, they tell us, a tax to be limited to the wants of the government, and you keeps out the foreign article; as long as
est revenue; thirty per cent. is too high, it are to look and see how much tax any par
we keep on that tax, American factories ticular article will bear, so as to yield the will continue to rise. Millions of dollars largest practicable amount of revenue: that
are invested ; thousands of families have is the principle. Well, if it is a sound dedicated themselves and capital to that principle, if it is the only constitutional branch of business, and they are contented principle, it will be as sound and constitu- and happy, and they are supplying the detional ten years hence as it is now. It is a
mand. This will never do, says the Presiprinciple which is always to limit the fiscal dent and his Secretary; we must bring in legislation of Congress. Now let us look at
more foreign goods, we must reduce the its practical operation upon the domestic tax so low that the foreign manufacturer industry of the country. It seems to me
can supply the whole demand : no sooner that its inevitable effect must be to strike it said than done; down goes the tax, and all down. In illustration of this, take any what is the result? Down go the factories ; taxable article-coarse cottons, for example, down goes the price of labor ; down falls I will assume that we have now no tax on the laborer and his dependents upon his coarse cottons, that they are free from duty, labor ; down goes the agriculture of those and that there is no competition here of a
who supply their various wants; and down home fabric; how are we to proceed that we
goes the wealth and prosperity of the na. may raise the largest practicable revenue tion. And why all this? Why, forsooth, on its importation? What is to be ascertain because the only constitutional mode of ed? First, what is the amount of their laying taxes is to make the tax the very consumption in the United States. When lowest, which will bring the highest amount we have ascertained this, then how much of revenue.” tax they will bear without diminishing the present consumption. These being found, It is remarkable that throughout the we lay our tax, say thirty per cent. ad valo- discussion of this Tariff, especially in the rem. The people of New England, famous Senate, there was scarcely an effort made as we all admit them to be for industry, enterprise and shrewdness, take it into their by the friends of the measure to meet heads that they could make the same arti. the strenuously urged objections of its
In vain did we press them, cle with the protection in the home market opponents. which a tax of thirty per cent. on the alike in the debates and in the journals, foreign articles would give them. Accord. to give us some reason, some excuse for, ingly, they proceed to establish their fac some palliation at least, of the extratories; they produce an article as good, if ordinary anomalies of this measure-of not better, than the imported, and they its duties of 30 per cent. on coarse make a heavy profit, perhaps more than the Wool, for example, parodied by the asordinary average profit of business men
sessment of 20 and 25 per cent. onaround them. Meanwhile the population of Woolen Blankets, Flannels, Baizes, &c., the country increases, the quantity of cottons &c.--its 30 per cent. on Hemp, and 25 consumed increases with it, and the annexa.
on Cables and Cordage-its 30 per cent. tion of Texas increases the demand still fur. ther. As demand increases, factories are mul
on Paper and 10 on Books—its 5 per cent. tiplied, until they have gone on and invested on Pig Copper, while Sheathing Copper a hundred millions of dollars in these es. and Sheathing Metal are admitted by it tablishments; thousands and tens of thou- free of duty, &c., &c. They were pressed
to reconcile these, not with our prin- a majority of a single vote, and became ciples, but with their own, or with any the law of the land. principles whatever that did not abso. As such, it behoves all good citizens lutely contemplate the building up of to obey its provisions. Let no factious Foreign Industry on the inevitable ruin resistance, no unmanly despair, be maniof important branches of our own. All fested by the friends of Protection. If was fruitless—they refused, as they still this measure be such as it seems to usrefuse, to offer or attempt any justification if it produce the results which appear to of these discriminations against American us inevitable—it cannot be persisted in. Labor. Indeed, they seemed in the We care not for the ostentationsly paSenate to regard all deliberation, all dis. raded majority of the Administration in cussion, as preposterous and out of the next Senate--we are confident that place. The Party,' had resolved that majority will never be practicably real, the bill should pass as it came froin the ized; or, if realized, can never be rallied House, therefore refused to send it to any to persist in a measure so baleful as committee, refused to debate its merits, we feel that this Tariff of 1846 must and when at last it was, by a majority of be. Patiently, firmly, hopefully, then, one,
referred to the Committee of Fin let the friends of Protection to Home nance with express instructions to cor- Industry bide their time. There is a rect these glaring, anomalies, it was recuperative energy in free institutions promptly reported back unaltered, with which rarely permits the continuance of a declaration that the Committee could flagrant impolicy or crying injustice. If not understand the instructions given we have not misread the signs of the them! Thus thrown back on the Senate, times, the Tariff of 1846 will precipitate all essential amendment refused, the the ruin of its contrivers and hasten the measure was driven through that body by day of our National redemption.
PAUL JONES. *
Mr. MACKENZIE, in the work before seems to view it in any light but that of us, has given a full and interesting ac an officer in the navy. count of the life of Paul Jones. The The Harpers have not got up the book narrative is easy, and unencumbered in a form to secure for it that place which with superfluous trash, such as is too it deserves. These two thin, coarsely frequently attached to works of this kind. printed volumes, should have been put Without any attempts at fine writing into one well printed, well-bound volume without even one brilliant passage that --fitted not only for private libraries, but we can now recall-it is still well writ- for those of our common schools. The ten. Very few military men are fit to life of the man who first hoisted the write popular works on war or warlike American flag on the ocean, and bore it characters. To them battles are a busi- triumphantly over the waves, should be ness transaction, and they describe them within the reach of every citizen. with true professional brevity and tech John Paul was born July 6th, 1747 in nicality. They give us but the skele. Kirkbean, Leith, Scotland, and was the tons of campaigns and engagements, son of a poor gardener on the estate of leaving them without flesh and blood. Arbigland. The name of Jones was enNapier is an exception to this remark, tirely assumed, though for what purpose and while his details of the peninsular is not stated ; it was probably affixed to war are complete and reliable, his de- render him unknown to his friends in scriptions of a battle are often thrilling Scotland, who might regard him as a and eloquent in the extreme. Mr. Mac- traitor if they knew he was fighting kenzie never paints a scene, and never against his country. At all events he
The life of Paul Jones, by Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, U. S. N. 2 vols. Harper & Brothers.
rendered his new name immortal, and the was, strange as it may seem, no record real name, John Paul, is sunk in that of or tradition can certainly tell. It was Paul Jones. By a large class of men not the stars and the stripes, for they Paul Jones is regarded as a sort of free were not adopted till two years after. booter turned patriot-an adventurer to Our author thinks it was a pine tree, whom the American war was a God- with a rattlesnake coiled at the roots as send, in that it kept him from being a if about to spring, and that is the generpirate. But nothing could be farther ally received opinion. At all events it from the truth. He was an adventurer, it unrolled to the breeze, and waved over as is true, as all inen are who are compelled gallant a young officer as ever trod a to make their own fortunes in the world, quarter-deck. If the flag bore such a and had all the boldness and rashness symbol it was most appropriate to Jones, which are necessary to success in milita- för no serpent was ever more ready to
Born by the sea-shore where the strike than he. Fairly afloat-twentytide heaves up the Solway-living on a nine years of age-healthy--well knit, promontory whose abrupt sides allowed though of light and slender frame-a vessels to approach almost against the commissioned officer in the American shore-surrounded by romantic scene. Navy—the young gardener saw with joy ry, and with the words of sea-faring men the shores receding as the fleet steered for constantly ringing in his ear, he natural- the Babama Isles. A skillful seamanly, at an early age, abandoned his employ- at home on the deck, and a bold and darment as gardener, and became a sailor. ing man-he could not but distinguish Independent of the associations in which himself, in whatever circumstances he he was placed leading to such a course might be placed. The result of this exof life, he was of that poetic, romantic pedition was the capture of New Provi. temperament which always builds gor- dence, with a hundred cannon, and abungeous structures in the future. No boy, dance of military stores. It came near with a fancy like that of Paul Jones, failing, through the bungling manage, could be content to live the hum-drum ment of the commander-in-chief, and life of a gardener's son.
To him this would have done so, but for the persegreat world presents too wide a field, and verance and daring of Paul Jones. opens too many avenues to fame, to be As the fleet was returning home, he lightly abandoned, and he launches forth had an opportunity to try himself in batwith a strong arm and a resolute spirit to tle. The Glasgow, an English ship, was hew his way among his fellows. chased by the whole squadron, yet es
Paul was but twelve or fourteen years caped. During the running fight, Jones of age when he was received as a sailor commanded the lower battery of the Alon board the ship Friendship, bound to fred, and exhibited that coolness and darRappahannock, Virginia. Thus early ing which afterwards so characterized were his footsteps directed towards our him. shores, and his whole future career shaped Soon after, he was transferred to the by it. The young sailor, by his skill sloop Providence, and ordered to put to and industry, was soon promoted to the sea on a six weeks' cruise. It required rank of third mate, second mate, first no ordinary skill or boldness to keep this mate, supercargo, and finally captain. little sloop hovering amid the enemy's Thus he continued roaming the sea till cruisers, and yet avoid capture. Indeed, he was twenty-six years of age, when a his short career seemed about to end, for brother of his, a Virginia planter, having he found himself, one day, chased by the died intestate without children, he took English frigate Solebay, and despite of charge of the estate for the family, and every exertion overhauled, so that at the spent two years on the land.
end of four hours his vessel was brought In 1775, when the American Revolution within musket shot of the enemy, whose broke out, the young Scotchman com- heavy cannon kept thundering against menced his brilliant career. His offer to him. Gallantly returning the fire with Congress to serve in the navy was ac
guns, Jones, though there cepted, and he was appointed first lieu- seemed no chance of escape, still kept his tenant in the Alfred." When the com- flag flying, and nothing but his extraormander-in-chief of the squadron came dinary seamanship saved him. Finding on board, Jones unfurled the national himself lost in the course he was pursuflag—the first time its folds were ever ing, he gradually worked bis little vessel given to the breeze. What that flag off till he got the Solebay on his weather
quarter, when he suddenly exclaimed the old continental rule, with which Boria.
up helm” to the steersman, and setting parte made such wild work, on giving the every sail that would draw stood dead places of trust to the sons of distinguished before the wind, bearing straight down gentlemen. Jones remonstrated against on the English frigate, and with his flag this injustice, and pressed the govern. still fluttering in the breeze, passed within ment so closely with his importunities pistol shot of his powerful antagonist. and complaints, that to get rid of him it Before the enemy could recover his sur sent him to Boston to select and fit out a prise at this bold and unexpected manæu- ship for himself. In the mean time he vre, or bring his ship into the same posi- recommended measures to government tion, Jones was showing him a clean pair respecting the organizing and strengthof heels. His little sloop could ouisail ening of the navy, which shows him to the frigate before the wind, and he bore have been the most enlightened naval proudly away. He soon after had an. officer in our service, and that his sound other encounter with the English frigate and comprehensive views were equal to Milford. He was lying to, near the Isle his bravery. Most of his suggestions of Sable, fishing, when the Milford hove were adopted, and the foundation of the in sight. Immediately putting his vessel American navy laid--thanks to the first in trim, he tried the relative speed of the man who ever hoisted our flag on the two vessels, and finding that he could outsail his antagonist, let him approach. Soon after, (June, 1777,) he was given The Englishman kept rounding to as he command of the Ranger, and informed in advanced, and pouring his broadsides on his commission that the flag of the Unit. the sloop, but at such a distance that noted States was to be thirteen stripes, and a shot told. Thus Jones kept irritating the union thirteen stars on a blue field, his more powerful enemy, keeping him representing a new constellation in the at just such a distance as to make his heavens. With joy he hoisted this new firing ridiculous. Still it was a hazard- flag, and put to sea in his badly.equipped ous experiment, for a single chance shot vessel, steering for France, where he crashing through bis rigging might have was by order of his government to take reduced his speed so much as to prevent charge of a large vessel, there to be purhis escape. But to provoke the English- chased for him by the American Com. man still more, Jones, as he walked qui- missioners. Failing in this enterprise, etly away, ordered one of his men to re- he again put to sea in the Ranger, and turn each of the enemy's broadsides with steered for Quiberon Bay. Here, sailing a single musket shot. This insulting through the French fleet with his brig, treatment made a perfect farce of the he obtained a national salute, the first whole chase, and must have enraged the ever given our colors. Having had the commander of the Milford beyond mea honor first to hoist our flag on the water, sure.
and the first to hear the guns of a pow. He continued cruising about, and at erful nation thunder forth their recogni. the end of forty-seven days returned to tion of it, he again
put to sea and boldly Newport with sixteen prizes. He next entered the Irish Channel and captured planned an expedition against Cape Bre. several prizes. ion, to break up the fisheries; and ihough Steering for the Isle of Man, he planhe did not wholly succeed, he returned ned an expedition which illustrates the to Boston, in about a month with four boldness and daring that characterized prizes and a hundred and fifty prisoners. bim. He determined to burn the shipThe clothing, on its way to the Canada ping in Whitehaven, in retaliation for troops, which he captured, came very ihe injuries inflicted on our coast by opportunely for the destitute soldiers of English ships. More than three hun. the American army. During this expe- dred ships lay in this port, protected by dition Jones had command of the Alfred, two batieries composed of thirty pieces but was superseded on his return, and put of artillery, while eighty rods distant was again on board his old sloop, the Provi- a strong fort. To enter a port so prodence. This was the commencement of tected and filled with shipping, with a a series of unjust acts on the part of our single brig, and apply the torch, under government towards him, which as yet the very muzzles of the cannon, was an could not break away from English ex act unrivaled in daring. But Jones ample, and make brave deeds the only seemed to delight in these reckless deeds road to rank. It insisted, according to —there appeared to be a sort of witch