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artists residing abroad, and all other paint. metal; specimens of natural history, minerings and statuary : Provided, The same be alogy, or botany; trees, shrubs, bulbs, imported in good faith as objects of taste, plants, and roots, not otherwise provided and not of merchandise ; personal household for; wearing apparel in actual use, and other eflects (not merchandise) of citizens of the personal effects, not merchandise, profes United States dying abroad ; plaster of Paris sional books, instruments, implemenis, and unground; platina, unmanufactured ; sheath- tools of trade, occupation, or employment, ing copper, but no copper to be considered of persons arriving in the United States such, and admitted free, except in sheets Provided, That this exemption shall not be forty-eight inches long and fourteen inches construed to include machinery or other arwide, and weighing from fourteen to thirty- ticles imported for use in any manufacturing four ounces the square foot; sheathing establishinent or for sale.
The British mails for the last month In connection with its discussion of the brought little intelligence of marked inter- ministerial sugar bill, the Spectator has est. The new ministry has carried its pro some interesting remarks upon slavery, posal for the settlement of the sugar duties, suggesting certain measures which, in its through its first stage, by the very decided opinion, would do much towards procuring majority of 265 to 135, much larger than its ultimate abolition. Of these, the chief had been anticipated. Sir Robert Peel is the abandonment, on the part of Enggave the proposition his hearty support, land, of her armed intervention for the upon the ground that it was necessary to prevention of the slave trade. This, it is supply the deficiency in the sugar duties, urged, would remove the distrust with and that the system of differential duties which foreign nations now regard the accould not have been permanent. A strong tion of the British Government upon this effort was made, out of Parliament, mainly subject-make the traffic free, and thus by Anti-Slavery men, to excite the country increase the value of slaves, making their against it, on the ground that it would aid health and comfort matters of interest to the extension and retard the abolition of their owners, and thus removing many of slavery. But it proved entirely abortive, the horrors which now surround the tradeand the measure was carried by a most tri- give to the West Indies the population of umphant vote. A very decided conviction which they now stand in greatest need, was generally manifested that evil, instead that of free laborers, and thus set an exof good, had resulted from the insulting ample of successful emancipation in those and dictatorial interference of England in islands which would exert a most beneficial the affairs of other countries, under pre- influence upon slaveholding nations. At tence of suppressing slavery. The Times present, abolition in the West Indies seems upon this subject held the following strong to have failed, from the lack of that kind and judicious language: “What right have of labor by which alone their plantations we to interfere with the national institu can be worked. The immigration which tions and customs of another country, ex the abandonment of the armed intervention cept by the usual methods of example and would promote, it is contended, would precept? Ilow should we feel if the United supply this want, and thus show that States should insult us with prohibitions emancipation was not only safe but profit
commerce, because we treated our able. The effect of this policy upon Africa white servants with hauteur, or because is also discussed. It would tend greatly the laborers in England and the peasantry to people her western shore with free in Ireland are in a degraded and suffering blacks, and thus gradually substitute the condition ?”
civilization of Europe for the savage and There was reason to believe that an effort brutal ignorance which now overshadows would next be made to destroy or greatly that immense continent. “Were the West reduce the enormous duties at present Indies fully peopled,” says the Spectator, levied upon tobacco; and certainly, if free “our stations on the coast of Western Af. trade is to be adopted as the basis of the rica would become really colonies. Al. British commercial policy, there would though the climate excludes the Angloseem to be no reason for maintaining so Saxon race, Anglo-Saxon influences would striking an exception as is manisest in the take root, would fructify, and would spread existing tobacco duties. The new ministry towards the interior.” thus far has ably and successfully main A very serious schism has occurred in tained its position.
the ranks of the Irish Repealers. It grew
out of the difference of opinion which has liberty, national independence. She has a existed for a long time, upon the propriety liberal government, and therefore a govern. of an ultimate resort to physical force to ment of progress ; for “when liberty exists accomplish the objects of the Association. in a country, when it dwells in the bosom of O'Connell has always avowed the most order, progression is infallible; it is accomdecided opposition to such a step, and has plished spontaneously, day by day, in the uniformly insisted that they must rely en free development of individual liberties, tirely upon moral suasion. The younger under the protection of public order." This branch of the Repeal league have from is the progress which meets all real wants time to time evinced a disposition to go from its natural tendency. And a survey farther, and to threaten the government of the condition of France, M. Guizot con. with revolution and a civil war if their de. tended, would show that it had been semands were not granted. The Nation cured. We make the following extract newspaper, originally the leading Repeal from this address, not more for its descriporgan in the kingdom, has of late fallen tion of the state of things in France, than into Young Ireland's hands, and has pro. for the force and pertinence of its senti. claimed, in terms too explicit to be mis. ments when applied to the condition of this taken, the necessity of an ultimate appeal country : to arins. It was finally found necessary to repudiate these opinions, and accordingly “ Are material interests in question ? at at a late meeting of the Association at what period have they been found to make Dublin, Mr. J. O'Connell, in obedience to a progress so rapid, so expanding, increashis father's injunctions, proceeded to de- ing with so much activity, not only by the nounce the Nation and its friends as unsafe efforts of the citizens, by individual induscounselors, and as advising a course to try, but with the energetic and permanent which Repealers could not accede, and for concurrence of the government, of all the which the Association must not be held great powers of the State ? Is the political responsible. The debate which followed progress the matter for consideration ? ended in the withdrawal of Young Ireland, This I shall comprise in one word. The led by Mr. Smith O'Brien, There has first, the most urgent, the most essential been for some time a suspicion on the part point of all, was the creation of a grand of the latter, that Mr. O'Connell and his party for constitutional government-a friends would form a union with the Whig Conservative party. All the world has said party in Parliament. It has been indig- this. The true constitutional system connantly denied; but fears were undoubtedly sists in the presence of two parties-a Gov. entertained that it would, nevertheless, bé ernment party, and an Opposition party; effected, and this apprehension had not a each having their principles, their standlittle to do in bringing about the result. ards, their leaders-daily discussing, each The rupture must destroy the
on his own side, the affairs and interests of O'Connell will probably join the Whigs, the country; opposing idea to idea, judg. or at all events will have nothing to do ment to judgment, system to system. This, with physical force. If Young Ireland gentlemen, is what every true friend to our preserves its existence, it must go on to institutions has earnesly prayed for. This, the violence which it threatens. Such an in fact, is the only regular condition of a appeal would plunge the country into a representative government-is the present civil war, in which, however, the immense want for the future security of the country. superiority of England would speedily pre. This progress is beginning to be accomvail, and thus would the repeal agitation be plished among us. It is important for the brought to a bloody conclusion. It is much present, and still more important for the more probable that O'Connell's policy will future. We shall one day have need of all prevail, and that, through his union with the strength, all the consistence, all the the Whigs who are now in power, some authority of a Conservative party. We shall satisfactory measures for the relief of Ire. congratulate ourselves, therefore, if it be land will be adopted.
formed, exercised, and brought into disciUpon the continent, nothing has trang. pline in advance, during times more free pired of special interest. Another attempt than those when all its wisdom and energy has been made upon the life of Louis Phil may be put to the proof. This, however, lippe; but it had no importance, and was is certainly not the sole political progress simply the freak of an insane boy. M. we have to make. We are now commencGuizot, at a public dinner given him by ing, and shall perfect many others. We his constituents, made an address full of are proceeding to the most essential, the wise and judicious reflections upon the most pressing; but very far from rejecting condition of France, and the governmental any others, the Conservative policy is desirpolicy which her prosperity demands. ous of having them, and will accept them France, he said, requires no new revolution, all. It will examine them, and discuss but only a government determined to fulfill them, with a sincere disposition to adopt all its duties. She is a free country, pos- such as are eligible. It only wishes, as it sessing and enjoying equality, constitutional has its duty to do, that they may be genuine
and serious improvements, in harmony with proceedings of the new sovereign, thus far, the general wants of society-its essential have given universal satisfaction, and the principles. Do not believe, gentlemen, belief is general that he will go on with that material and even political progression the work of reform and carry it into every are the only subjects of contemplation in department of the state. The Rome corthe Conservative policy. It holds also, and respondent of the Times says that the ad. above all, to the promotion of the moral ministration of justice, which is in a deinterests, the moral prosperity of the peo. plorable state, will shortly be improved ; ple. It wishes the increase of the moral and a rigid inquiry is going on, not only value of the citizens quite as much as their as to the sources from whence the public welfare and liberty. How should it be revenue is raised, but into the causes which otherwise? How could the Conservative render taxation so oppressive to the people, policy not propose and not attain this ob- and so unproductive in the result. New ject? What are the principles, what the principles are about to be established; a sentiments, upon which it labors to estab- reduction of duties so as to prevent smuglish and to honor ? Respect for order-re- gling from the Neapolitan territory, is prospect for laws-respect for duties—respect pared; and in the course of another year for religious creeds. What influence is vast and beneficial changes will be made. there more moral than that of such princi. These expectations give new promise to the ples and such sentiments ? And how should Papal States, and in connection with the not the policy which takes them as its rule movements which have been exhibited in of conduct not tend to the moral ameliora- other quarters, encourage the belief that a tion of society? Such are, gentlemen, un new day is dawning upon Italy. der whatever aspect you consider it, order The excavations of Pompeii are still conor liberty, material or moral interests in tinued, and in recent Italian journals some everything relating to the life and internal interesting details are given of their results, affairs of our society, such are the effects During the recent session of the Scientific of the Conservative policy, judged, not by Congress a house was exposed in their its promises, but by its works.”
honor, which had evidently belonged to a
rich citizen. The frescoes found there The new Pope, Pius IX., had published were well executed, but the other parts his general amnesty, which was received were not in any way remarkable. The with universal rejoicing. In the commence house known by the title of the “ Hunters'," ment of the document he tells the people is now entirely exposed. It is only remarkthat, at the very moment when their re able for its pictures, which all relate to joicing at his elevation to the pontificate hunting, and are executed with a certain rose sweetly to his ear, he was penetrated vigor. The house examined on the occawith sorrow on thinking that many heads sion of the visit of the Emperor of Russia of families and misguided youth were lan- presented nothing worthy of notice; a few guishing in prison ; and that he then deter- amphoræ and some bronzes were found, but mined to liberate all those who were sin. their quality was exceedingly ordinary. cerely repentant, and who would pledge The visit of the Empress of Russia brought themselves to future good behavior. He to light a portable kitchen. It is made of next announces, that not only political pri: iron, and prepared with cavities to receive soners should be released, but that all the saucepans containing the meat and veexiles might return to their country, pro- getables. A recent excavation has discove vided they made known their intentions to ered a house, in one of the rooms of which the several Nuncios within a year; and he was lying the skeleton of a man, and near ends by stating, that though ecclesiastics, him thirty.six silver coins and two gold military officers, and public employés are ones. The latter were of the time of Doexcluded, their cases will be taken into mitian, and the silver pieces bore the likeconsideration, and he holds out a promise ness and name of Vespasian. of grace to them. The concluding words The difficulties in the Caucasus still conof the address are as touching as the com tinue. The latest accounts state that the mencement. The Pope calls on the people late appearance of Schamyl in the Plains of to combine for the common good, “ in order Cabardia had produced an immense impres. that every link of the chain uniting father sion among all the mountain tribes of the and son by the grace of God shall remain west. Notwithstanding the jealousy and unbroken,” and then, like a wise monarch, natural antipathy of the various populahe tells them, “that though clemency is tions, who do not speak the same language, the pleasing attribute of a sovereign, justice the voice of the prophet Schamyl had not is his first duty.”
failed to produce its effect in Cabardia, and The amnesty was published on the 17th numerous tribes of the Plain had taken up of July. The political prisoners in the arms for him. The numerical superiority castle of St. Angelo were at once released, of the Russian army, which amounts to and orders were dispatched to all the de- 60,000 men, on the borders of the Terek, pôts for the immediate liberation of all has compelled Schamyl to retire into the persons included in the act of grace. The mountains, not having the means to con.
tend in the Plain with advantage against as several antique objects, which he has the combined Russian compact infantry and presented to the Bibliotheque du Roi. The cannon; but many of the Cabardian tribes most remarkable object which he speaks of have followed him into the interior of the as having seen in his travels is a large slab great Tschetschuya, leaving behind them of basalt, covered with cuneiform inscriptheir villages to be destroyed by the Cos- tions, and bearing the figure of a king or sacks, and only carrying away with them priest, holding a sceptre in the left hand. their arms. These tribes have considera- This curious monument, which appears to bly increased Schamyl's army, which als belong to the period of the Assyrian Art, ready consisted of 20,000 men, when he could, M. de Mas-Latrie believes, be easily crossed the Terek. Although the bold plan obtained possession of. of this renowned chief did not wholly suc In India the triumphant success of the ceed, his intrepidity is, however, to be ad- British has met with some check at the mired. He had spread alarm even to the Fortress of Kote Kangra, belonging to the walls of Tekaderinadid, the capital of the Sikhs, which still holds out against all the Tschernomerian Cossacks. At no time had efforts and artillery of the English army a Tschetschentsian chief ventured to un which has invested it; and, what is worse dertake so long and bold a march through still, there is no prospect as yet of its being a triple line of Russian fortresses. So great taken. It is said to be equal to Gibraltar, was the consternation among the Russians, and absolutely impregnable. The Sikh that General Luders did not think himself commander of this extensive place is called safe at Stauropol, the head-quarters of the Killadar, which signifies “ the handsome Russian army of operations, which he has lion.” An immense treasure in gold and tily left, marching in the direction of the silver is said to be contained in the fortress, fortresses on the borders of the Kuban. and the greatest anxiety prevails to reduce
M. de Mas-Latrie, who had been charged it. The “ handsome lion” has refused to by the Minister of Public Instruction with listen to any terms, and rejects every offer, a scientific mission in the East, has just re while the place and the garrison are proof turned home, after visiting Syria, Balbec, against the bombs and every missile of the Sidon, Tyre, Egypt and Cyprus. He staid British army. The English are greatly irsome time in the last named place, and ritated by the delay, and fear, if longer procured there a number of original docu- continued, the treasure may by some means ments relative to the Middle Ages, as well escape their grasp.
STANDARD LIBRARY.-Roscoe's Life of fore, would, in fact, form a large part of
Leo the Tenth. London, Bohn; New Italian history, and that altogether the most York, Bartlett & Welford.
brilliant and varied. And such is Roscoe's
life and character of Leo. It is quite as It has been conceded on all hands, that full as any history of that period need to be. one of the most classical and elegant pieces It is written, too, not only with a singular of writing in our language is the Life of union of dignity and grace, so that in point Lorenzo de Medici, the father of Leo the of style it may be compared with any nar. Tenth, by the distinguished Merchant rative in the English language, but with Author, of Liverpool. Even an ordinary those higher requisites of history, thorough treatment of such a subject as the times candor and humanity. Roscoe may have and career of the brilliant Florentine would had his prejudices, but he has shown very be of very great interest. Leo X. was few of them in his work. This is espe. one of the most remarkable men that Italy, cially evident in his portraiture of Cæsa: a country for several centuries prolific in Borgia. He does not forbear to give the great men, ever produced. Ambitious and true and terrible character of the man, but accomplished, his plans of aggrandizement it is done with such modifications, as be. were made to embrace the widest reign of long to the reasonable spirit of impartial taste-the establishment of Literature, and history. Cæsar Borgia was acknowledged the cultivation of the arts—rendering his to have great talents—and, as to characperiod the second Augustan age. In addi. ter, no man has ever become utterly intion, moreover, to the number of splendid human. This work has had high praisemen and the stirring events belonging to but nothing, we think, that it has not dehis own time, a satisfactory account of the served. career of Leo X. must take in a large We so utterly dislike the reciprocal pi. portion of Florentine history, connected racy system of republication on both sides with the annals of the Medicean Family, of the Atlantic, that we are glad to see and many preceding characters and events, good books introduced at such low prices whose course affected the condition of Italy as are these volumes of “ The Standard Li. and of Europe. Such a biography, there. brary,” by Messrs. Bartlett & Welford.