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dangers in the navigation of the Mis- of harbors around Lake Michigan, the busissippi and its tributaries arising from siness is wholly confined to its Western snags, logs and rocks; the whole re coast. From 1834 to 1841, the business sponsibility—and it is a fearful one-for West of Detroit, was found by accurate the destruction of life and property oc- statistics to have grown from $6,272 to casioned thereby, rests upon the Federal $226,352. The sail vessels then on the Government, which alone has the power lakes were estimated at 250, varying from and the requisite authority and means 30 to 350 tons, and costing from $1000 to for their removal.

$14,000. The aggregate capital they reHaving thus shown-imperfectly doubt. present may be put down at one and a less, yet, as we cannot but think, in a quarter millions, and the annual earnings most imposing form—the importance, of these vessels amount to about $750,000. value and steady growth of the coin In 1845, there were on the lakes above merce and navigation of the Mississippi Niagara, the following vessels : and its tributaries, we will now turn to Steamboats, 52—20,500 tons. the lakes, and see what their claims are Propellers, 8- 2,500 to the liberal care and protection of the Brigs, 50-11,000 government.

Schooners, 270–42,000 The letter addressed by James L. Barton of Butfalo, to Mr. McClelland, Chair.

380 76,000 tons. man of the Committee on Commerce in Costing in their construction, $4,600,000. the House of Representatives, will fur On lake Ontario, at the same period, nish the statistics to illustrate this portion there wereof our inquiry.

7 Steamboats, confining their trade to. In 1818 the first steamboat, the Walk that lake. in the Water, was seen upon Lake Erie. 8 large Propellers, and 100 Brigs and Itsvoyage to and from Buffalo and Detroit Schooners—which, passing through the occupied ten days. Its business was Welland Canal, traded to the extreme end chiefly contined to Lake Erie, but it made of Lake Michigan, and at all the interme. an annual trip to Mackinac—then the diate points. Ultima Thule of lake navigation. It was A large accession has since been made not till 1826 or 1827 that the waters of to the navigation on all the lakes, as well Lake Michigan were invaded by a steam- to repair the disasters of the boisterous boat, which ran with a pleasure party to autumn of 1845, as to meet the increased Greenbay. The southern part of the demand. lake and Chicago were not visited till The loss of life in 1845 was 60 per1832, when the necessities of the gov. sons, and 36 vessels were driven ashore. ernment requiring the transportation of During five years ending with 1845, more troops and munitions for the then exist- than 400 lives were lost, and more than ing Indian war, steamboats were chartered one million of dollars damage was susto carry them to Chicago.

tained by the shipping. In 1840, there were 48 steamboats on The following comparative table of the lakes, of from 150 to 750 tons, and two periods, ten years apart, will show costing about $2,200,000; the business the great growth of the trade : that year West of Detroit, produced In 1835, the State of Ohio, the only $201,838—chiefly freightand passage mo- Exporting State on the upper lakes, passney. Owing, however, to the entire wanted through the Erie Canal to tide water

bbls. flour. bu. wheat. bdls. staves. bbls. prov's. bbls.ashes. lbs. wool. 1835,

86,233 98,701 2,565,272 6,502 4,410 149,401 1645, from Ohio and

other States, 717,466 1,354,990 88,296,431 68,000 34,000 2,957,761 All this passed through Buffalo into who are annually transported upon them the Erie Canal—but the whole quantity were overlooked. of flour and wheat sent over the lakes “Last year,” says Mr. Barton's letter, in 1845 from these States, exceeded “during the season of navigation, there 1,500,000 bbls.

were three daily lines of large steamboats But the claims of the trade of these leaving Buffalo for Toledo, Detroit, and lakes to the care and protection of the the Western shore of Lake Michigan as far Federal Government, would be imper- as Chicago, besides other shorter lines.” fectly set forth, if the number of persons A very carefully made list from the

passenger rolls and accounts of these every notion of the uses of Government steamboats was prepared and duly veri. to say, that interests such as we have fied, and the result is thus stated : shown to exist, in constant peril from 1845, number of passengers who

causes susceptible of removal, are not en

titled to claim that in some shape and by Jeft Buffalo,


some competent power, these perils shall way passengers taken on board en route,


be abated. No one will maintain that a

sagacious and practical people have 98,736

agreed to bind themselves into a form of

government wbich is powerless to reOf these, 40,630 were landed at ports move patent evils—and that the force of West of Detroit and principally on the certain metaphysical abstractions is such, Western shore of Lake Michigan from that countless lives and countless treasure Shebrygan to Chicago.

may be annually destroyed, because that These are the passengers going one people cannot agree where the power is way and by steamboats. But if those placed to apply the remedy, which all coming from the West, in vessels of all admit can be effectually applied. Such sorts, be added, and those passing and re power must reside somewhere in every passing from port to port, it will not social and political organization, and be unreasonable to state at 200,000, the when it is shown where, from the nature number of persons who were embarked of things, it cannot reside, a great step is on the upper lakes in that year. If to made towards determining where, of nethese be added the number of passengers cessity, it must reside. on Lake Ontario, and thence through the In regard to the Mississippi, Mr. Cal. Welland Canal to the upper lake, the ag- houn's Report already so copiously regregate would not fall short of a quarterferred to, after asking“ where the power, of a million of human beings, whose and where the duty, to improve the navi. lives areannually hazarded on these lakes. gation of the Mississippi and its tributa

Such is the present state of the navi- ries,” thus proceeds to answer : gation and commerce of the great lakes; But when the Illinois and Michigan Canal, the improvement is beyond the reach of

“ It is certainly not that of individuals ; to terminate at Chicago, which connects their means and power. Nor is it that of the the Mississippi with Lake Michigan, is several States bordering on its navigable finished when Wisconsin, the finest ter

waters. It is also beyond their means and ritory in the Union, shall be filled up and power acting separately. Nor can it be cultivated, and the process is now ra done by their united and joint action. pidly going on-and when a Railroad or There are 16 States and two Territories lyCanal shall traverse its level prairies and ing wholly or partly within the valley of bring into connection the upper Missis- the Mississippi, and there still is ample sippi and the lake, who shall even con

space for several more-these all have a jecture the extent of commerce and navi

common interest in its commerce-their gation then to be carried on over these united and joint action would be requisite great inland seas? The commerce of the But the only means by which that could be

for the improvement of the navigation. port of Buffalo alone, during the year 1845, done, is expressly prohibited by the 10th amounted to $33,000,000 in value; that Sec. 1st Art. of the Constitution, which of all the other ports on the lake would provides that “ No State shall enter into exceed that sum, and probably swell the any treaty, alliance, or confederation." total to $70,000,000, and even that large But if neither individuals nor States acting figure fails to mark the real value of the separately or jointly, have the power to whole lake trade, seeing that a consider- improve its navigation, it must belong to able portion of it goes through the Wel- the Federal Government, if the power exland Canal, direct to Canadian ports.

ist at all, as there is no other agency or In duly considering the facts here authority in our system of Government by

which it could be exercised.” brought together, it will, it is thought, be readily admitted, that when Mr. Polk This is well and soundly said, and eve. treats the object for which appropriations ry word of it is alike applicable to the were made by the River and Harbor bill case of the lakeseven in a greater de. vetoed by him, as of secondary impor- gree indeed, than to that of the Mississippi. tance to the Mexican war, and of no Mr. Calhoun then proceeds to inquire pressing urgency, he does great violence under what provision of the Constitution to truth. It is uiterly inconsistent with the power can be exercised. It must be

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comprised, he argues, “ among the ex- superfine for use, and quite inconsistent pressly granted and enumerated powers, with the robust arguments of other pora or among those necessary and proper to tions of the Report. carry them into effect.” If not to be found

After establishing the right of the among them it does not exist at all. Federal Government to improve the Mis.

It is admitted that whether the Federal sissippi—even to the cutting down and Government possesses the power or not, removal of trees on its banks—Mr. Calit has heretofore acted on the supposition houn denies that “ Harbors or canals that it did, “ as the numerous acts of Con- round falls” in the river can be justly congress for the improvement of the Missis. structed under this power! It would be sippi, including its principal tributaries, perfectly competent, according to such abundantly prove." These appropria- reasoning, for ihe Federal Government to tions-so far as appear-were made under blast and clear away the falls of the Ohio, what is usually called the money power, for instance at Louisville—which at an that power which Madison, Monroe, and enormous expense might probably be Jackson considered as still preserving to done—but it is not competent to obtain the Federal Government the means of at the same object, that of facilitating the taining the great ends of internal improve- navigation, by turning those falls with a ment, even while they denied to that Gov. sufficient canal!! So again, it is admiternment the right to carry on such im- ted that the Federal Government may provement, directly.

dredge out, improve and render more seBut Mr. Calhoun is not content with cure, any existing harbor; but they may this source of the power, and he looks not, however valuable the commerce that elsewhere for it--and after some fine spun may have sprung up to require it, form a metaphysics about the “common defence" new harbor!!! and the general welfare,” which he in And yet the men who indulge in such like manner rejects as the source of this hair-splitting subtleties, and, where great power, he finds it at last, though limited benefit is certain to grow out of a common in degree, and tied up by subtleties most sense and liberal construction of the Consophistical, in the authority granted to the stitution, insist upon adhering to its letFederal Government “ to regulate Com- ter, have no scruples at other times, and merce with foreign nations and among the for the furtherance of one special interest States."

—that of slavery-to open wide the door After adverting to the constant and un of the Constitution. controverted exercise of this power in es Mr. Polk and Mr. Calhoun would tablishing lighthouses, beacons, piers, search in vain for the provision of the &c. on the Atlantic, Mr. Calhoun assumes Constitution which will justify the adthat the good sense of the thing requires mission of Texas into the Union, in the that a like practice on the lakes and the manner in which that State was admitted. great inland water-courses can be main. They can find no warrant in it, for an tained and justified under the same pro- admission by act of Congress to the origi, vision.

nal limited partnership of these United Hence, says he, the Committee are of States, of a foreign territory and all its opinion that it (the power of Congress) citizens. Such a power belongs, if it extends to removing all obstructions with exist at all, to the treaty-making branch : in the channel of the Mississippi, the re nor can even that justify cancelling two moval of which would add to the safety Representatives in Congress to the sparse and facility of its navigation. It includes white population of that foreign territory, the removal of snags, logs, rocks, shoals, numerically below the ratio which in the sand-breaks, bars—including that at its United States is required for one Repremouth, and trees projecting over or liable sentative-thus giving to Texas twice the to slide into its channel where the re- weight in the popular branch possessed by moval would improve or secure the Delaware—one of the old thirteen originavigation.”

nal founders of the Constitution—and This is all clear and undoubted; but in equal weight in the Senate. the next breath, Mr. Calhoun limits this The same sticklers for the letter “ which power to the case where a river bounds killeth” can find authority in the Constithree or more Slates, and denies that it tution to fit out exploring expeditions, by can be rightfully exercised where a river land and by water, can approach the runs clearly through one State, or be. hyperborean rigors of the South pole, in tween two States. The reasoning is too their effort to solve a problem in geogra

phy, and spend treasure and human lives predecessors have, in some form, exerin surveying the coasts and rivers of cised, refuses his final and formal foreign countries; but they can find no assent to a bill—of which many of the authority to render our own coasts and appropriations were suggested by his own rivers secure by harbors and breakwaters, officers—were reinforced by the Presior by removing obstructions. Verily, dent's own recommendation—were subthey“ strain at a gnat while swallowing sequently approved in principle, if not in a whole drove of camels."

absolute detail, by the President personBut Mr. Polk would seem to lack the ally—and which would, it is hardly, apology of an apparent conviction- doubtful, have been all passed by him, if erroneous though that might be-ontbis the veto on the Tariff Bill had been postsubject : for if there be any faith due to poned till the return of the River and the representations of Mr. Brinckerhoff Harbor Bill. and Mr. Thompson, which have been The lamentation of the country, therealready quoted, and to the hardly less fore, and especially of that large portion expressive silence or costiveness of of it more immediately bordering on the Messrs. McClelland and Constable, Mr. great lakes and rivers, for the improvePolk has played a part in this whole ment and security of which this bill was matter. After using the influence which mainly devised, are embittered and exthe possession of a Veto power and the asperated by the conviction, that their apprehension that he might use it against interests, and the safety of life and comthe Harbor Bill, gave him to carry the merce among them, have been sacrificed, Tariff—after appealing to the principle, not to any honest conviction-not to any and appearing to assent to the details of pardonable doubt about the true meaning the appropriation in that Harbor Bill of the Constitution—but to a wanton and while another favorite object was in corrupt exercise of a monarchical prerog. abeyance-Mr. Polk, at the eleventh ative, which in the purest hands is of hour, makes a stalking horse of the Con- dangerous reach, but which in such stitution, in order to cheat his friends hands as it has fallen into, should be and upon pretended scruples, about the abolished, or we cease to be free. existence of a power which almost all his

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And thou art passed from life! Th' uncounted years—
That rose so glorious on th’ horizon’s verge,
Airy and winged, and touched with many hues,
When thou rod’st sparkling on the crest o' the wave,
And dreamed no end could come to their bright change,
Thy cloud-flushed Future-blankly have put on

sudden blackness, and thy little drop
All darkly glided down into the deep,
The vast of ocean, never more to rise
Into the dear realm of this mortal light!
Yet art thou not all gone! Thy memory still
Lingers around me, whether at the hour
Of sacred Evening, or when Morning tills
The world's great face with solitary beams-
And thy strong spirit, swift and fresh and calm,
Oh Brother! cleaves the ambrosial stellar space,
Or with an earnest joy, contemplative,
Sits in hushed valleys, and by chaunting streams,
To which Earth's beautiful places all must seem
Poor-very poor! And yet could we but see
Thy face among us !—could we feel thy hand!
Thy voice but hear, and-hush! no more of thee!
Art thou not made immortal ?


New-Haven, April, 1840.





CUPID SMITH was by no means an un- the infant the trouble of living. But common man. We do not remember that magazine authors have an affection for anybody ever called him one of the most their offspring, as well as other people, remarkable men of the age. He was one of and feel it a sacred duty to keep them those persons who pass in a crowd without alive as long as possible. And even this being seen; one who impresses you with little bit of a digression has added some the thought, the first time you happen to lines to the span of our bantling's life, meet him, that you must have seen him as you see, without doing anybody any before ; and when you meet him a second harm; and also shown you how easy a time, causes you to doubt whether or no matter it is to get up a magazine story, you ever did see him before-so nearly nothing being necessary with a practiced did he resemble the average of humanity. writer but pen, ink and paper, a subject He was of middle age, middle size, and and sure pay. But to resume the thread in middling circumstances. But he once of our story. met with an uncommon adventure, which Cupid Smith had some kind of employserves to segregate him from the rest of ment in Wall street. What it was we his tribe. Then there was something un do not know; but it was a gentlemanly common in his very common name. Cu occupation which never soiled his hands, pid and Smith are both common names however much it might have soiled his enough, but it is not often that we see thoughts; he was always dressed exthem united. We are not positive that ceedingly well, a little within the exhis Christian'name was Cupid. Perhaps treme of the fashion, and was always at not. But we are positive that we never leisure of an evening. Consequently he heard him called by any other. He was was a valuable acquaintance to ladies of a a very smiling, agreeable gentleman, with certain age, and was always willing to a fine head of glossy, brown hair, which devote bis time to them, but he never curled pleasantly round his very common manifested any particular desire to devote face, and, together with his attention to any money to their enjoyments. We the ladies, had probably caused his friends have heard it said, but mind it is only to apply to him the appellation of the lit- what the newspapers call an on dit, that tle curly-headed God of Love. Cupid in passing by an ice-cream saloon with a was unmarried, of course; it would be a lady on his arm, or a pair of them on his strange freak for the God of Love to mar. arms, he never could be induced by any ry. Catch him doing such a thing. How- sly hints or inuendoes to stop, but on the ever, our Cupid really had a desire to contrary was certain to quicken his pace marry: why he never did, is more than and pretend to be in a great hurry to get we know; but we know why he did not home. Ladies are terrible scandalizers, marry one of the Miss Prymsticks, and and they will give a gentleman a worse the reason of it will form the burden of name for refusing them a glass of iceour story. We could divulge that rea cream, than for breaking half the laws son at a word, and put the reader out of of the Decalogue; and we suspect that suspense at once, and bring our story to the ladies of "Cupid's circle had told as an immediate close: and so might a moth- many bad things of him as though he had er with a spoonful of laudanum put an been a downright Don Giovanni. And. end to the life of her infant, and save this might have been one reason why he herself the trouble of bringing it up, and bad never succeeded in obtaining any VOL. IV.-NO. IV.


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