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or goes out of his way to gather knots of this piece was written, but it must have flowers; but contents himself with un been either at an early period, or if lately folding to the reader's eye the quiet land- written, the author had certainly. fallen scape of his own thoughts, fields in back into the style of his youth on recur. highest culture, gentle undulations, and ring to scenes which he visited so long fertile intervals covered with crops, and ago. It is so different in style and coninterspersing trees, with here and there ception from the article “ On the profesa majestic mountain, uplifting itself in sion of the bar,” that the most careful exthe distance. You see nothing that is amination can scarcely detect that they tame, barren, or trite, but art and nature sprung from the same fountain, His smiling and contented in each other's speeches in Parliament on the “ Law of

He does not seize you by main Copyright”-bis powerfully adroit destrength (as Carlyle sometimes seizes fence of Moxon, prosecuted by the Queen, some of his readers), and force you away for a libel against God and Religion, in to the summit of some Alpine peak, the publishing of Shelley's works, in where your ears are stunned with the which he weaves over the subject a web din of waterfalls, and your head made of sophistry, artful enough to have done dizzy by Jooking into unfathomable honor to Cicero—are among the most depths ; nor does he, like the same gigan- splendid exhibitions of his oratorical tic author, have you away before resist- genius, in its ripest maturity and highest ance is possible, to the gloom of inter- stretch of invention. minable German forests, where every He is essentially a delightful moral. stream that you meet is liable to start up izer as well as a respectable politician, a at any moment, a mischievous disturber successful lawyer, and a poet, in one de. of your journey, and where the very partment at least, the most accomplished caves of the earth are luminous with of his time. Witness that sweet fugitive the eyes of goblins of various char Chapter upon Time,” where the auacters, some beckoning you towards thor's imagination soars upwards as if by them, some vociferatirg their curses in its own natural flight, until the reader, unearthly accents, and some curling their in following him, is lost behind the curlips in bitter, though uncouih iruny, at tains of other worlds. The other essay. you and your benighted condition. Car- ist, who is bound up with Talfourd, in lyle, though an excellent moral teacher, the present volume, has been long before has so little patience with the faults of the public, and the name of James Steothers, there is so much of the scorner phen is not among the last that are of in him, that his best friends are apt to nole among British essayists. Even wish that he would try to learn forbear. Talfourd need not be ashamed of such ance. Talfourd, on the other hand, is company. One word more upon our fagentle as summer. The one is colossal, vorite and we will bid him adieu. He the other has also his colossal propor- possesses that happy combination of do. tions, but they are relieved by the mild mestic qualities, so rarely to be met with and softening effect of distance.

among men of genius, which endears him We have already alluded to the gradu- to a large circle of friends, and gives to the al growth of Talfourd's mind. This is roof-tree and the hearth-stone the sacredanother of the characterizing traits of ness of a father's superintending love. genius. Whoever takes up his volume Sweet poet, kind, yet formidable critic, a of prose compositions, cannot fail to be prop of the constitution, and a pillar of struck with the steady progression that the throne, his head crowned with a marks the several offspring of his mind. chaplet, woven from the best virtues, In his article entitled " Recollections of public and private, that ever graced our Lisbon,” there is a diffuseness of style, a common nature—may that calm lip and tendency, I had almost said an effort, to contemplative brow long linger with us, spread himself over a large surface, that like a summer twilight, and that gentle, gives anything but a favorable impres- though heroic spirit, breathe itself out at sion of the writer's powers. It is os. last like that of its own Ion, upon the sible to discover from the volume when altar of his beloved country!




“Iξον δε σπείος γλαφυρόν θεά ήδε και ανής. .

ODYSSEY v. 194. 'Twas far in Eld, the youth of Time, Wise Numa long and warless reigned, Where Right and Worship conquered crime, Nor Peace was with red slaughter stained ; And where by shady grot a spring Went wimpling through a high dark grove, Alone, the just and pious king Would seek a Nymph-no mortal love ! When Eve o'er Rome's mild landscapes falling, Flushed wood and mountain darkly red, And solemn trees heaven's winds were calling, She, Goddess, came with airy tread; And all Night's starry hours of sleeping Sat they communing side by sideOne sweet and holy love-watch keeping, That earthly man and heavenly bride. She whispered in his tranced ear Of glorious truths-mysterious things; His sight to grander views made clear, And lent his soul her seraph wings: Her sister Muses came and sung Their warblings of unearthly word ;Such strains as touched no other tongue, And erst, rare mortal ear had heard. And men revered the Sage who brought them Pure draughts of Wisdom's sweetest dew; All, in Egeria's name he taught them, And ruled as none else, old or new. To Faith and Heaven rich fanes he builded, Led men to feel the laws divine ; And Love and Awe that dark grove shielded A hallowed ground, the Muses’ shrine. And round the spot as small first-flowers Came o'er the cool sward's mossy green, And voices hymned of hidden Powers, Who made their haunt that sylvan scene; Each year, in slow, solemnial train, Pontiff and vestal Maids would throng, And pay their worship and the strain, To sacred Faith and starry Song. So Sage and Bard, sublime of feeling, Will oft from strife retire alone, Wooing calm Thought great truths revealing From higher Worlds to light their own. And such, the Nymph coy Contemplation, Seeks every pure and pensive mind, And Her in holy meditation, His Love, his Bride of Heaven shall find.



China, although it has been long Peculiarly favored in point of climate, it known in its general features, has re is to this circumstance that we may atcentiy, from the concurrence of circum- tribute the fact, that the people are adstances, attracted to itself the special at mitted to be the most industrious, welltention of foreign nations. Occupying, ordered and intelligent, of any of the with Tartary, a territorial domain more Asiatic nations. It is watered by two extensive than the whole of Europe, and principal rivers—the Yang-tse Keang, embracing within its jurisdiction a popu- and the Yellow River-- which flow lation, which, notwithstanding the con- through the central part of the territory flicting statistical calculations that we and its most salubrious climates, and bederive from various sources, may be esti- ing inferior in size only to the Amazon mated at about four hundred millions; its and the Mississippi, they are peculiarly actual condition involves the fortunes of favorable to navigation by steamboats. one-third of the human race. So great Besides the position of the eastern part of an interest has, in fact, been manifested the empire upon the sea-coast, which afregarding this extraordinary nation, that fords to that portion a foreign commerce to collections have been brought into our

an almost unlimited extent, it possesses a own country which were made at a great vast inland trade, which is prosecuted upon expense in various parts of the empire, the Imperial Canal, extending from a point exhibiting the costumes of various ranks, near Pekin through the interior for a disthe mansions, vessels, temples, tombs, tance of six hundred geographical miles, bridges, shops, paintings, utensils, and and the various waters by which the counmanufactures of the country, and indeed try is intersected. Its soil although unequal of everything which shows the real in fertility is sufficiently productive, with character of the people. A museum of industry, to maintain its leeming populathis kind was opened in Philadelphia, in tion, and it is understood that about twothe year 1839, and after being exhibited thirds are under cultivation. The princithere for a short time, was removed to the pal agricultural staple is rice, which is city of London. But the magnificent the chief support of the populationcabinet of this sort which is now in Bos- the soil, by artificial forcing, being made ton, is probably the most extensive in to produce two or three crops during the the world, and contains everything of year. The common garden vegetables in importance relating to that singular na use with us, may also be produced, but tion. There is another consideration little attention is expended upon their cultiwhich makes the condition of China an vation ; it yields also, to some extent, the interesting topic to us at the present time, species of cotton for which the country has and this is the negotiation of a commer been long celebrated. Silk, another prin. cial treaty between our own government cipal staple of the empire-although of and that empire, placing the commerce course not an agricultural product, yet de. of the Union, that has been heretofore riving its existence in a great measure from subjected to capricious and oppressive the soil-has long been produced, as is exactions in the Chinese ports, upon an well known, to a considerable amount, the equal footing with that of the most fa- provinces of Che-keang, Keang-nan, Hoovored nations. It is our design, in the pe and Sze-chuen, being peculiarly favorpresent article, aided by numerous works able for the production of fine silk. which have been published upon the

The actual condition of China appears subject, to enter into a somewhat extend to have been but partially known to the ed consideration of this nation, the con- people of ancient times. "The Arabs first dition of the people, and the character of gave us a distinct account of the country, the institutions.

but it is to Marco Polo, a Venetian, who The territory of China is divided into visited the court of Cublai-Khan, the eighteen provinces, extending from north Sovereign of the Tartars and Emperor to south a distance of about twelve hun- of China, about the year 1271, that dred geographical miles, and but a little we derive the most satisfactory informashort of that distance from east to west. tion of the empire—this traveler being re

garded as the most authentic writer ed with favorable results. It was followof his age respecting that region. The ed up soon after by a letter from the Catholic missionaries, who-whatever King of Great Britain to the Emperor, may have been their motives, and we with presents; and with letters and presdo not design to discuss them here - ents also from the Ministers and from the appear to have been the advance-guard of Chairman of the East India Company to civilization in our north-western wilder the Viceroy. Notwithstanding that Emness, early penetrated to the interior of bassy, however, interruptions to British the einpire, even to Pekin; and from commerce were resumed, in consequence their urbanity and practical acquisitions, of the caprice or corruption of the local were received into imperial favor, and government. The continuance of the some of them resided within the circle of obstacles which were presented in the the court. It is from the journals of port of Canton to fair trade, induced the these missionaries that we obtain our Embassy of Lord Amherst, which was most satisfactory knowledge concerning dispatched in 1816, but having proceeded the early condition of the government; to the interior, it'appears to have been and we are designing to draw some im- suddenly checked in consequence of the portant light from that source, during refusal on the part of the British Ambasthe progress of the present paper. sador to perform the prostrations which

During the year 1546, the Portuguese were required--a point either of etiquette made their first appearance in Canton, for or of homage, which has been generally the purpose of trade; and about the mid- strenuously exacted by the Court from dle of the sixteenth century they estab. the Envoys of foreign nations. lished themselves at Macao, with the Meanwhile our own commerce with privilege of self-government, for the con China was commenced in 1784, and it sideration of five hundred taels per annum, has been gradually increasing, so that at by the way of ground-rent--a residence the present time the number of American which is continued to the present time. vessels employed in the trade is second

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth to that of Great Britain only. in 1546, the English also first made an The mode in which China was first attempt to establish a permanent trade colonized is unknown. According to the with China, but the vessels which they opinion of Sir William Jones, the Empire dispatched were wrecked on their way out, was originally peopled in part from India; and in consequence of the intrigues of the but that opinion appears to be entirely Portuguese, their commercial projects, as conjectural. The Tartars, who now comwell as those of the East India Compa. prise a considerable part of the population, ny, were unsuccessful, until somewhere have recently become more especially about the beginning of the last century. mingled with the original Chinese inhabi

The gradual increase of the trade of tants since the accession of the Mantchou China with Great Britain, until it finally Tartar dynasty to the imperial throne. exceeded that of any other nation, at In forming a judgment respecting the length induced the Embassy of Lord character of the people, it must be reMacartney, which was dispatched from membered that they are not to be estimated England during the year 1792, in the by those tests which we apply to the civLion, a sixty-four gun ship. It was the ilized nations of the West. They are design of this expedition, to extend if distinct in their principles, character and possible the commerce of Great Britain institutions. They are in their essential with China to other ports besides Canton, traits, Orientials--the loyal and self-satisto rescue it from the exactions which it fied subjects of an Asiatic despotismhad endured from the caprice of the local idolators in religion, recognizing in no officers of the sea-ports, and to place form the system of Christianity as a the interests of British trade upon a more nation-docile, quiet, pacific, and effemiliberal, certain, and solid footing, in re nate, with habits of industry and even ference to the local government of Can- ingenuity in material enterprise, not comton, which maintained the same oppres mon among more civilized states-vain of sive and capricious policy that has mark- their empire as the most ancient and ed their course down to the last invasion populous upon the globe, and from long of their territory by a British fleet. This habit regarding all other nations as suborEmbassy, which succeeded in advancing dinate to them in dignity and power. do Pekin, and in conciliating the local In the first place, ihe social divisions of government, was upon the whole attend the population are peculiar, and indicate

a political system entirely different from collateral line—the former of whom are that of any other nation of modern times. invested with the right of wearing the The learned are held in the highest esti- yellow, and the second the red girdle. mation-husbandmen, or rather agricul- Their dress and equipage, their establishture, follows, for it would seem that the ments and retinue, are each regulated by respect is paid to the importance of the minute rules—some possessing the priviart rather than to those who are employ- lege of the decoration of the peacock's ed in its exercise-manufactures rank feather, and others that of the green senext, and merchants come last-an esti. dan. These constitute the only hereditamate, which, however just in the primi- ry aristocracy of China, although the tive state, could hardly prove so, in an lineal descendants of Confucius, the grand advanced stage of civilization.

founder of the present etherial system of The political structure of the empire the empire, ale entitled to hereditary exhibits the features of a full and com honors. But the Emperor is, after all, in plete despotism. So far as the powers point of fact, the sole director of the nawhich are conferred upon him are con tion; and from his office all the streams cerned, the Emperor is invested with all of political honor flow; he wields an is. the attributes of an Oriental despot. He responsible power, and has the right of is deemed 'by his subjects the Son of appointing his successor, even out of the Heaven-he is the sole fountain of hon- circle of the imperial family. or and office, and he is worshiped with Besides the Emperor and suite, the divine honors and with a homage which official aristocracy of China is composed would seem to belong only to the Deity. of those individuals who are selected His edicts are law, and the persons of his from the body of the empire for their subjects, if not their property, are at his literary talent, and they consist of the disposal. Those edicts, when addressed to viceroys who are the governors of the the proper tribunal or other authority, are several provinces, and the civil and promulgated in the Pekin Gazette-a military mandarins, besides numerous sort of Court Journal, containing reports other subordinate officers. The administo the Emperor, or mandates from him. tration of the government is chiefly conEnthroned in that vast city, Pekin, the fined 10 these official persons, while the most populous metropolis in the world, great bulk of the people not in official he preserves around him all the pageant- positions, are employed in the different ry and magnificence of a Court, and he departments of pursuit connected with alone, of all the people of the empire, agriculture, internal, coastwise and forsacrifices to Heaven with incense and eign commerce, manufactures, and the victims, which are heaped around the various arts and trades. From a view of temples there erected for this purpose. their pursuits, it is obvious that the His interior Council Chamber consists of Chinese are much further advanced in four chief counselors, two of them Tar- those material improvements which are tars and two Chinese. Subordinate to connected with the mechanic arts, and in these is a number of assessors, who with the ordinary refinements of civilized the chief counselors constitute the great life, than in those principles of liberal Council of State ; those ministers being science and pure morals which constitute derived from the Imperial College or Na- the essential glory of modern civilized tional Institute of the Han-lin. There is nations. The women are distinguished also provided for occasions when great for many amiable traits, suffering without secrecy or unusual dispatch is required, complaining, although down-trodden by a body of Privy Counselors, who act a base system of oriental tyranny, in a upon such occasions as an extraordinary country where the infamous practice of tribunal. The only rank, beside the Em- concubinage prevails. They are accomperor, hereditary in the state, are the de. plished in a certain degree, receive in. scendants of the Mantchou Tartar fami- structions in embroidery and in painting ly, of the race of the imperial line, who on silk, and music is with them a favor have small revenues allowed them for ite accomplishment. The dress of the subsistence, but who possess no effective female part of the community is also political power, and whose principal peculiarly modest and becoming, and province it is to swell the pageantry of among the higher classes is distinguished state. There are two lines of this impe- for its costly richness, being frequently rial kindred, the first being descended adorned with a profusion of gold and from the Emperor, and the second in the jewels.

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