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The costume of the Chinese is probably consisting of a piece of silk embroidery familiar to most of our readers. The about a foot square, with the represhaven head, from the top of which- sentation of a bird, or other device, according to the custom that has been wrought upon the breast or back. To introduced since the Tartar ascendancy this is added a necklace of large court —the tails depend; the long, loose gown beads, which descends to the waist. In of silk gauze or linen, with large sleeves, the ceremonial dresses, the color of the sometimes gathered around the middle by spencer is of dark blue or purple, and a girdle of wrought silk, and which is the long gown is usually of a lighter fastened in front by a clasp of agate or hue, which, on state occasions, is jade stone; the worked silk fan-case wrought with dragons and other devices suspended from the girdle; the small embroidered in silk and gold. We are leather or silken bag containing the flint informed, that when the crowd of manand steel for the purpose of lighting the darins with their embroidered robes, pipe; the embroidered tobacco pouch; the crimson caps, and various colored balls, large trowsers and high-soled shoes; the are in full court dress, they present a very summer cap, composed of the woven imposing appearance, which is often filaments of the bamboo or of chip, sur contrasted with that of the Emperor, mounted at the apex by a red, blue, who, during the Embassy of Lord Macwhite, or gilded button, indicating the artney, appeared in a plain brown silk rank of the wearer, from which descends robe, and a black velvet cap adorned with a fringe of crimson silk or red horse a single pearl. Yet he occasionally prehair, and in front of which is sometimes sents himself among the mandarins of his worn a single large pearl ; constitute an court, in a yellow dress, that is the imordinary costume, which is daily becom- perial color, upon which the five-clawed ing more common to our sight, in the dragon is embroidered in gold. shop-windows of our principal com The ordinary costume of the females mercial towns. The dress worn in win- consists of a robe of silk or cotton with ter is somewhat different from that of large sleeves, which is worn over a longer summer. It consists of a larger gown of garment. Under these are loose trowsers silk or cape, reaching nearly to the fastened around the ancle above the deancles, and over this is worn a loose formed and cramped foot, the sleeve of the spencer descending to the hips, composed robe covering the hand, the whole being entirely of fur or silk, or of broadcloth modest and becoming. It is not our which is lined with skins. The neck is purpose, however, to enter into the in winter protected by a narrow collar of minute trifles of the toilet, but to exhibit silk or fur, the loose dresses folding over the more general, political and moral to the right breast, and fastened with features of the empire. gilt or crystal buttons. The winter cap It is the machinery of the government, fits close to the head, and the brim being which, after all, more directly indicates turned up all around, consists of black the actual condition of the country, as velvet or fur, while the top is surmounted well as the character of the people over by a button from which is suspended a whom it is exercised. The government bunch of criinson silk. Woven cotton itself being a despotism, the Emperor or silk stockings are also common among with the interior Council Chamber and those who camafford them, and boots of the great Council of State, constitute the cloth, velvet, or satin, with the well- grand source whence its administration known thick white sole, are worn by the in all its branches flows. The eighteen more opulent class.

provinces into which the empire is diThe Chinese dresses of ceremony, al- vided, are placed singly under the juristhough they appear somewhat gaudy and diction of a governor, or two provinces meretricious to a cultivated taste, are in are made subject to a general governor, some respects exceedingly splendid; and who has the power of appointing gov. indeed the relative degrees of rank are ernors under him for each province. sometimes designated by the various Such is the political organization of the costumes. The color of the ball upon provinces of Canton and Kuang-sy, adthe cap, whether red, light blue, dark joining, which are made subject to a blue, crystal, white stone, or gold, serves general governor who is entitled the to distinguish the nine ranks, civil and Viceroy of Canton. For each governmilitary. Each of those balls is ac. ment a chief criminal judge, as well as a companied by a corresponding badge, treasurer, are appointed; the latter hav

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be the first offence, and is not implicated subject only to the punishment of the with any act of treason or rebellion. A bamboo and a banishment of one year, part of the code is also devoted to pro- and if struck by them, to no punishment viding for justice in the administration at all. The penalty for striking parents, of legal punishments, and in establishing or for cursing them, is also death. The what are considered proper safeguards law of China is, it appears, very tena. of the subject. There are severe punish- cious of social order—so much so, indeed, ments denounced against officers of gov- that a punishment is inflicted upon the ernment for unjust imprisonments, delays act of striking another with the hand or of justice, cruelty, and such misdemea- foot, that being made a public offence in nors. In cases of sickness, a species of order to prevent the chances of death by bail is allowed to minor offenders, and quarrels. The law also provides a pun. they are exempted or released from im- ishment for opprobrious language, on prisonment on sufficient security being the ground of its having a tendency to given for their return. Torture is prohibit- produce quarrels and affrays. In refered to be exercised upon all persons who ence to the subject of debt, a period is are under fifteen and over seventy, as well allowed by law, on the expiration of as upon those laboring under permanent which the debtor becomes liable to the disease. Women can never be imprison- bamboo, if his obligations are not dised excepting for capital offences or for charged; and a creditor sometimes quaradultery, nor can torture or death be in- ters himself and his family upon his flicted upon a pregnant woman, until one debtor, and provided this is done without hundred days after her confinement. Sla- violence and tumult no relief is granted very exists in China to a considerable for such act by the civil authority. In extent. For a slave to kill his master is the light of the Chinese law it is deemed punishable with a lingering death, while a much greater offence to owe money to the converse is not capital. Yet for some a foreigner than to a native, and a banoffences servitude is visited upon a whole ishment to Tartary was formerly inflicted family, and personal service is frequently upon insolvent Hong merchants. The levied by the government upon the lowest scrupulous jealousy with which the class, or that which has only its labor government regards indebtedness to forto contribute. Robbery with offensive eigners is based upon the fact that there weapons is punishable with death, and were frequent embarrassing claims and if a burglar is killed by one whose house demands made by strangers for debts he invades, it is deemed an act of homi- which were thus incurred. cide which is justifiable. Stealing is The civil code of the present imperial punished with the bamboo or with exile, dynasty of China is composed of not less which is proportioned to the magni- than two hundred and sixty-one volumes! tude of the offence, while theft among and it contains an account of the changes near relations is visited with a less pun- and modifications which have been made ishment than ordinary theft. The Chi- in the laws by successive emperors since nese law of homicide is somewhat ex- the conquest in 1644, frequently the traordinary. Affrays are treated with reasons assigned for the repeal of the old great severity: killing in an affray, and laws and for the enacting of the new, as killing with a regular weapon without well as the entire body of the existing intent, are punished with strangling, and laws. It is divided into nine parts, the killing by pure accident is redeemable by first containing all the regulations cona fine of about four pounds sterling to cerning the imperial house now reigning, the relatives of the deceased. When a with the privileges of the descendants of person is wounded with the hands or a the Tartar conquerors in the direct and colstick, twenty days constitute the term of lateral lines. The second part relates to responsibility, after which the death of the palace and its regulations. The next the sufferer does not make the offence six parts refer to the six boards to which capital. With a sharp instrument, fire we have before referred, among which or scalding water, the term is extended the duty of regulating the details of the to thirty days; gun-shot wounds, forty government is distributed ; and under days; broken bones or violent wounds, the ninth division are included all those

laws relating to public education, the 'ents have virtually the power of examination of candidates for public

over their children ; for even if offices, as well as those peculiar laws kill them intentionally, they are which concern the Tartar dependencies

peror is concerned, in a beneficent spirit volves the consideration of the protection in many respects, and with remarkable of the palace, the regulation of the army, judgment and discretion, when we consi- the guard of the frontier, military horses der the Asiatic character of the people. and cattle, expresses and public posts.

There is one peculiar circumstance The next embraces criminal laws, and which indicates the pacific tendency of comprises eleven books, the principal the government, and this is the fact, that heads of which are treason, robbery, the military is subordinate to the civil theft, murder, homicide, criminal interpower. The system of police is con course, disturbing graves, quarreling ducted upon the same plan throughout and fighting, and incendiarism; while the various cities and towns of the em- the last division treats of public works, pire, and its searching influence springs, and contains two books relating to pubin a great measure, from the principle of lic buildings and public ways. responsibility, each town being divided The character of the Chinese laws is into tithings of ten houses, which are as equitable as might be supposed, from themselves combined in wards of one the circumstances which have marked hundred. The viceroy is thus made to the progress of the empire. In the case answer for the order of his own district, of treason, not only does the traitor un. the hundred and tithing man each for dergo the punishment of death, but all their respective charge, and the house- the members of his family. The capital holder for the conduct of his own fa- punishments are strangulation, decollamily.

tion, and for treason, parricides, sacrilege, Another feature of the Chinese govern- and other crimes of such character, a ment is the patriarchal character upon lingering death is required ;--the heads which it is based. The subordination of murderers and robbers being publicly which is preserved by a father over the exposed in a cage which is suspended members of his family, and the aged upon a pole. The Chinese prisons are over the young, is extended to the rela- likewise very severe; although women, tions of the Emperor over his subjects, in ordinary cases, have the privilege of he being deemed the father of the em- being placed in the custody of their nearpire. This spirit is inculcated in their est relatives. There are also sometimes ancient books. Submission to parental exercised certain modes of torture in authority is in fact, the type of all the po- forcing evidence, and these consist in litical relations which exist, and it is pro- squeezing the ankles or fingers between bably the discipline which this state of three sticks, tied triangularly. Oaths things inculcates that produces general are never required in judicial proceedmildness of manners, a pacific spirit, as ings, but severe punishments are attached well as docility and subordination. to false evidence. A species of king's

The jurisprudence which prevails evidence is permitted in some cases, and throughout the realm also exhibits a sys. there are ten privileged classes who cantem of policy, marked by some of the not be tried and punished, without a spebenefits of the common law, and at the cial reference to the Emperor !—the exsame time with objectionable features, emption being based upon public station, yet upon the whole, much superior to or upon relationship to the imperial line. that of other Asiatic nations. The All persons under fifteen years of age, penal code is extremely simple and clear, and over seventy, are permitted to reThe first head being composed of defini- deem themselves from punishment by a tions and explanations in reference to fine, in those cases which are less than the whole code, and the six following capital, and relatives and servants who relating to those subjects, which corres live under the same roof, are usually pond with the six supreme boards of held innocent, although they conceal the Pekin. In this code are considered, the offences of their fellow inmates, or even system of government, the conduct of assist in effecting their escape. officers, the enrollment of the people, In order to spread a knowledge of the lands and tenements, marriage in its sta laws throughout the empire, it is enacted tistical relations, public property, duties that those private individuals, who are and customs, private property, sales and able to explain their nature or to commarkets, and ritual laws, under which prehend them, shall receive pardon for are included, sacred rites and miscellane- all offences which result from accident, ous observances. That portion of the or that are imputable to them in consecode which treats of military laws in- quence of the guilt of others, provided it

nors.

be the first offence, and is not implicated subject only to the punishment of the with any act of treason or rebellion. A bamboo and a banishment of one year, part of the code is also devoted to pro- and if struck by them, to no punishment viding for justice in the administration at all. The penalty for striking parents, of legal punishments, and in establishing or for cursing them, is also death. The what are considered proper safeguards law of China is, it appears, very tenaof the subject. There are severe punish- cious of social order-so much so, indeed, ments denounced against officers of gov- that a punishment is inflicted upon the ernment for unjust imprisonments, delays act of striking another with the hand or of justice, cruelty, and such misdemea- foot, that being made a public offence in

In cases of sickness, a species of order to prevent the chances of death by bail is allowed to minor offenders, and quarrels. The law also provides a punthey are exempted or released from im- ishment for opprobrious language, on prisonment on sufficient security being the ground of iis having a tendency to given for their return. Torture is prohibit- produce quarrels and affrays. In refered to be exercised upon all persons who ence to the subject of debt, a period is are under fifteen and over seventy, as well allowed by law, on the expiration of as upon those laboring under permanent which the debtor becomes liable to the disease. Women can never be imprison- bamboo, if his obligations are not dised excepting for capital offences or for charged; and a creditor sometimes quaradultery, nor can torture or death be in ters himself and his family upon his flicted upon a pregnant woman, until one debtor, and provided this is done without hundred days after her confinement. Sla- violence and tumult no relief is granted very exists in China to a considerable for such act by the civil authority. In extent. For a slave to kill his master is the light of the Chinese law it is deemed punishable with a lingering death, while a much greater offence to owe money to the converse is not capital. Yet for some a foreigner than to a native, and a ban. offences servitude is visited upon a

whole ishment to Tartary was formerly inflicted family, and personal service is frequently upon insolvent Hong merchants. The levied by the government upon the lowest scrupulous jealousy with which the class, or that which has only its labor government regards indebtedness to forto contribute. Robbery with offensive eigners is based upon the fact that there weapons is punishable with death, and were frequent embarrassing claims and if a burglar is killed by one whose house demands made by strangers for debts he invades, it is deemed an act of homi- which were thus incurred. cide which is justifiable. Stealing is The civil code of the present imperial punished with the bamboo or with exile, dynasty of China is composed of not less which is proportioned to the magni- than two hundred and sixty-one volumes! tude of the offence, while theft among and it contains an account of the changes near relations is visited with a less pun- and modifications which have been made ishment than ordinary theft. The Chic in the laws by successive emperors since nese law of homicide is somewhat ex the conquest in 1644, frequently the traordinary. Affrays are treated with reasons assigned for the repeal of the old great severity: killing in an affray, and laws and for the enacting of the new, as killing with a regular weapon without well as the entire body of the existing intent, are punished with strangling, and laws. It is divided into nine parts, the killing by pure accident is redeemable by first containing all the regulations cona fine of about four pounds sterling to cerning the imperial house now reigning, the relatives of the deceased. When a with the privileges of the descendants of person is wounded with the hands or a the Tartar conquerors in the direct and colstick, twenty days constitute the term of lateral lines. The second part relates to responsibility, aster which the death of the palace and its regulations. The next the sufferer does not make the offence six parts refer to the six boards to which capital. With a sharp instrument, fire we have before referred, among which or scalding water, the term is extended the duty of regulating the details of the to thirty days; gun-shot wounds, forty governinent is distributed ; and under days; broken bones or violent wounds, the ninth division are included all those fifty days.

laws relating to public education, the Parents have virtually the power of examination of candidates for public death over their children; for even if offices, as well as those peculiar laws they kill them intentionally, they are which concern the Tartar dependencies

and the courts which take cognizance of disposition of grounds, woods, and lawns, their affairs. In the part which relates to are calcnlated to heighten the beauty of the first of the six executive boards—that nature by the aid of art, at least so far of civil officers—is an accurate list of all as Asiatic taste is concerned. The land. the appointments in the empire, the rela- scape gardening of the Chinese, although tive rank of each officer, and the regula- conspicuous in most of the more elegant tions which govern them. In the ar- country houses within and around the rangement of public officers, there is kept principal cities, is most conspicuously in view a comparison of the merits and displayed in the grounds around the imdemerits of each, and a record of this perial palace of Pekin, and in those exmerit is preserved and consulted, with a tensive parks called Yuen-ming-yuen, view either of degrading or of promoting which are decorated with all the elegant the incumbent.

embellishments that are calculated to In a country so densely populated as gratify imperial pride. China, where the pursuit of agriculture In the manufacture of certain articles, must from the nature of things supply it is well known that China formerly exthe essential means of subsistence, it celled all other nations, especially in holds the first rank among the useful their porcelain and silk, lackered ware, arts. It is in itself deemed second only carved work in wood, ivory, and other to literature; and we can scarcely won- materials. They were the first who der at the homage which it receives from manufactured porcelain, for which they the Emperor himself, who, with the have been long celebrated, and other naprinces and officers of the court, repairs tions who have borrowed the art from every year to the temple which is dedi- them, although they excel them in the cated to the inventor of agriculture, to painting and gilding of the surface, have plough the land as well as to offer sacri. not attained the art of making it so hard, fices. Without equaling the most ad- in the resistance which it offers to the vanced European nations in husbandry, heat without cracking, or in composing it must be admitted that the Chinese sp well the substance of the material. exceed all the Asiatic nations in the ex. They can also boast of the silk manufaccellence to which they have carried this ture as an original invention. Silk has useful pursuit. The principal object of long been an article of extensive use in culture is the rice, which supplies a various parts of the empire as well as a great proportion of the food to the in- principal staple of export, and its culture habitants; and two crops as well as one has received ihe principal care of the court, of vegetables are produced upon the same the empress according to authoritative spot of ground during a single year. The tradition, having originally planted the farms are small and without fences, but mulberry tree. With looms of simple conare usually guarded with ditches, and the struction they imitate the choicest patterns low wet lands, where the rice is culti- of the silk both of England and France, and vated, are divided by narrow embank- they produce elegant specimens of damments which are used as walks. Most ask and flowered satins. The crape of their agricultural implements are sim- manufactured by them is also of a very ple; and it is alleged that we are indebted fine quality, and they make also a species to them for the winnowing machine of silk called in Canton ponge, which which is now used in our own country. washes and is highly prized. The agriFrom the over-crowded population of the cultural staple which now forms the prinempire, space is greatly economized, and cipal article of export from China to forthe terrace cultivation has been long an eign ports, will be but briefly considered. object of admiration to travelers. Garden It would be unnecessary to describe the vegetables, such as cabbages, pease and various kinds of tea which are produced potatoes, grow abundantly at Macao; in the different parts of the empire, or but these were formerly, and we presume their mode of preparation; but as is are now cultivated only for the supply of known to most of our readers, it is yieldthe European and native Portuguese ed in vast quantity in the interior propopulation at that place. There is how- vinces, and is transported by water in ever one ornate branch of agriculture in the boats which crowd the rivers and which the Chinese peculiarly excel, and canals to the seaboard-principally to this is the department of landscape gar- Canton—where the greater portion is dening. The construction of artificial shipped to Great Britain and the United ponds, streams, and rustic work, and the States, and more recently to other parts

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