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every opportunity, however trifling, for his opponents who have been accustomed self-improvement, will undoubtedly, with to employ their minds on more elevated few advantages, make much greater pro- and humanizing subjects. gress both in culture and acquisition, We are for cheap manufactures: and will drink more copious and invigorating a demagogue is an article of much cheapdraughts, than he who sits listlessly er manufacture than a Statesman. But down beside the gushing fountains of the process does not end here. When all science, truth and refinement. The dili. Statesmen have been thrown quiie off gent and studious mechanic, who can the course, and their competitors are left steal but a few moments from his daily in exclusive possession, these will not be toil to devote to the culture of bis mind, able quietly to divide the prizes among if be improve those few moments, will themselves. What is cheap is abundant; infallibly become a better educated, bet- and now he will succeed best among ter disciplined, more civilized as well as them who can descend lowest. The more respectable and useful man, than problem now is,“ beneath the lowest the college fopling, dunce or drone. But deep to find a lower deep.” But when such a comparison is a comparison of he who is most skillful in solving this extremes, and though often made to the problem has got himself into high office, manifest disadvantage of colleges, is as he may be brought into contact with the manifestly unfair. Good were it for highly cultivated and refined minds who colleges as well as for society, if dunces act as the representatives of other counand drones received their deserts—a silent tries. And if he has any discernment or dismission instead of an honorary degree sensibility left—which indeed is hardly -or by some means or other were abol to be supposed—how must he quail beished. They bring more discredit upon fore them ! how keenly must he feel his colleges than all other causes combined. inferiority! Or if-as must too often be But are the classics or mathematics to the case—he is utterly callous and unablame for it?

ble to appreciate anything above his acBut we dismiss this subject, content customed habits ; though he and even the with protesting against the utilitarian, less informed and cultivated portion of uncivilizing tendency, which would per. his countrymen may exult in his republivert or destroy our higher institutions of can superiority to all the forms of refinelearning; and with insisting on these two ment and rules of propriety; yet what points, that discipline and not acquisition must be the judgment, the just judgment, is the fundamental idea of a liberal edu- of other nations in regard to our progress cation, and that public institutions can in civilization, when they see such men only furnish the means, but each individ. acting as our organs and representaual must perform the work for himself. tives?

We readily admit that, without the aid We may be proud of coarseness, vulof any public institution of learning, a garity and ignorance, if we please. We man may, though at great disadvantage, may affect to consider them as signs acquire all tbat is essential in a liberal manual of true democracy. education. We readily admit, also, that despise, or if we cannot despise, dewithout any thorough education a man nounce and renounce, all refinement may not only get a livelihood, but may and taste and learning as useless, pemake no little sensation in the world. dantic, or worst of all, aristocratic. We The modesty and refinement that ought have a right-a sort of right-80 to do, to grow out of such an education may if we please. Nobody has a right to ineven unfit a man for successful competi- terfere, but let us not then enter the lists tion with audacity and coarseness. In in the race of civilization. Let us rather political life is this especially true. The be consistent, and despise and denounce rude and reckless demagogue may secure civilization itself as a badge of slavery. more popular votes than his refined and Let us rejoice and exult that we are free cultivated rival. A man of tolerable --savages. If we are not ready to do original capacity will naturally busy his this—and assuredly we are not-there is mind about something, and for want of a but one other way of being consistent: higher and more generous discipline, he seeking after civilization to seek those may direct all his efforts to acquiring the things which constitute it. mastery of that craft and management, The first step should be to ascertain that system of little arts and low cun- our true position, to recognize our defining, by which to insure a triumph over ciencies, and look our dangers full in the

We may

face. Let us make a brief recapitulation boasted paternal governments on earth ; of some of some of our comparative dis nor yet for the shocking contrasts beadvantages

tween the thousands of English aristoWant of the refining and uniting influ crats and the millions of English menials ences of national antiquity, and with a and paupers. We would not exchange disposition to reject the experience and our church institutions, fragmentary, illauthority of others; want of a highly digested and unsettled as they are, with educated and cultivated class; overshad- the organism of death, the galvanized owing and oppressive incubus of popular corpse of the Romish hierarchy; nor yet opinion ; excessive absorption in thrift with a corrupting and degrading dependand money-getting; a habit of change; ence on the civil government. an anticipative millenium; an impatience In respect to intellectual cultivation, and restiveness under the transient or ac too, America need not be ashamed of her cidental evils on which the final and per. position and prospects; and the Amerimanent good is conditioned ; the general can mind possesses many excellent points. preponderance of the centrifugal over the It is generally true of Americans abroad centripetal, of the disorganizing over the that they have more sensibility to objects conservative, of the leveling over the ele- of taste, more susceptibility of culture, vating tendencies; of selfishness over more apreciation of what is foreign, less humanity, of partisanship over patriot- of national narrow-mindedness, than ism, of sectarianism over catholicity; in their English brethren. We can learn. a word, of the negative, the immediate, Besides the English can claim little supethe tangible, the useful, the practical, riority over us either for great useful inover the positive, the distant, the ideal, ventions or for taste and genius in the the general, the humanizing. We are fine arts. In painting and sculpture, in in danger of being all carpenters without poetry and eloquence, we are already an architect-tinkers and cobiers without their rivals. a master-workman.

But as a nation we are yet in our That is the dark side of the picture. youth. We achieved our independence But, courage! there is also a bright side. before we had passed our non-age. We Our first hope is in a Divinity that have the characteristic faults, follies, ex. shapes our ends, rough-hew them as we travagancies, dangers and defects of will.” God has given us a great work youth ; but we have also its vigor and to do, and we trust he will secure its ac- freshness, its buoyancy and hope. It is complishment, though it may be by such indeed time for us to begin to cherish the methods as to save us from all occasion sober thoughts of manhood. Wild sallies of glorying in ourselves. Faith is the and boyish excesses must have an end. first element of success.

Besides we In developing a manlier and maturer have still an open field; no insuperable state, our men of education and culture obstacle has yet been thrown in our way. have a most important and noble office to Our body social has certain bad habits perform. If they put themselves in the and tendencies, but no deep-seated, fatal right spirit and with due energy to the disease, no old, festering wounds, no work, they will yet perform it. Their shriveled limbs, no exhausted spirits. first step must be to cherish and advance We have evils, but they are far from their own culture. Their next step must remediless. Will and wisdom are all we be to renounce distinctly and resolutely want. After all that we have said, and all pursuit and expectancy of wealth and that some may be ready to condemn as political station. They must set their unpatriotic and undemocratic—though faces as a flint against such temptations. we would warn all such beforehand that Called to act as judges on subjects of the the only proper way to manage an argu- highest import, they must not be bribed. ment is to reason and not to revile-after They must above all things studiously all that we have said, we would not ex- preserve their mental independence. change our whole situation, opportuni. Let them remember that those who ties, prospects, with those of any other figure most largely in their generation are people on earth. We would not exchange not ordinarily those who survive it longest. our boisterous, changeful, rude, impa. Poets and artists are proverbially poor and tient, but active and energetic democracy, despised ; and this is as it should be. If for the vegetable life, the lethargic tran- poets could be idle and honored, all would quillity, the silence and slavery, of Rus- be poets, hence Providence has appointed sian or Austrian despotism, or any of the a needful remedy. For all real greatness

the present is the time of outlay, of seed- fluence? Truly a prophet is not accepted sowing; its harvest lies in the future. in his own country. What was poor, blind, puritanic Milton, Let then our men of intelligence and to Charles II. and his licentious cava virtue-of true culture and refinementliers ? What was the incarcerated and set about their task with singleness of half-maddened Tasso to the noble and eye and simplicity of heart; and let them haughty Duke of Ferrara ? Inspired pursue it with a noble disinterestedness, men, with a still holier mission-when with an earnest and undaunted boldness, not endued with miraculous powers- with energy, prudence and perseverance; formed no exception. What was Jeremi- and our American civilization, under the ah in his dungeon to a Jehoiachim? the blessing of God, is safe ; and good Bishop imprisoned John Baptist to a Herod and Berkeley's prophetic lines will yet be his merry-making Court, or Paul to an fulfilled": Agrippa or a Nero ? Nay, what was

“ Westward the star of empire takes its Jesus of Nazareth to the kings that set

way; themselves and the rulers that took coun The four first acts already past, sel together against him? But how stand the fifth shall close the drama with the their memories now? And what is the

day ; comparative measure of their present in Time's noblest offspring is the last."

A FATHER'S REVERIE.

BY MISS ANNA BLACKWELL.

When float light clouds on heaven's azure sea,

When through the trees low breathes the whispering wind,
While clustering roses, in sweet canopy,

Hang overhead, in fragrant wreaths entwined,
And small glad voices ringing through the air,

Speak of the innocent, the good, the fair,
Then, my beloved ! then do I think of thee!

Then seem thy soft blue eyes to rest on me!

And when the sorrowing and gentle eve

Follows, with dewy tears, the dying sun,
And all the shining clouds, as he doth leave,

Wrap them in mourning garb and mantle dun,
I think of thee--for thou, like him, in light,
Didst pass from earth and my too-loving sight,
And my soul wrapped herself in shroud of night!

My best beloved ! my beautiful! my child !

Still, still I press thee to my throbbing breast;
Still yearns, by thy sweet memories beguiled,

My heart toward thee, brightest thou and best
Of all God's gifts to me! Fame, wealth and friends,

And all the bounties that kind Heaven lends,
Were but as dust, my child ! to me, the while

My life was gladdened by thy voice and smile !

The earliest bird that welcomes in the day

Recalls thy morning greeting to my ear,
And how the sunshine fell with brighter ray

When thy light footstep told that thou wert near :

And when, at night, ’mid pleasant household sounds,

The blazing hearth a kindred group surrounds, I pause and listen, feeling sudden lone,

The music of thy ne'er forgotten tone !

I miss thee, dearest! when the hour of prayer

Gathers heart-incense on the holy shrine, For angels ever, through the solemn air,

Bore thy pure worship unto Heaven with mine; And now, while reverent at His throne ) kneel,

'Tis joy to me, mine own loved child, to feel, Though nobler raptures now thy bosom thrill,

We worship the same great All-Father still!

I on the threshold of the mighty fane,

Whose vast dimensions fill the infinite-
Whose forms, dim-looming, we but strive in vain

Fitly to apprehend with mortal sight:
But thou hast passed the shadowy portal through,

And Heaven's arcana open to thy view;
While round thy widening path way daily shine

Glory and beauty ever more divine !

O wondrous spirit-world! that lies so near,

Yet seems so distant from our yearning thought, Around, within, so real, during, clear,

And yet our earth-dimmed vision sees it not! Would that thy loving voice, my gentle child !

Might whisper me in accents undefiled, Some dulcet echo of that inner land 'Mid whose full harmonies thy young feet stand!

My child! my child ! those sounds, how sweet they fall,

Waking loved memories on thy father's ear; But thou no more art mine, nor dare I call

Thee by the gentle name thou wearedst here! No! thou art mine no longer! earthly ties

Melt into nobler kindred in the skies; And all the glorious company of heaven

To thee, for parents, and for friends, are given !

My child ! my glorious, translated child !

From the deep beauty of thine angel-home, Would 1, with yearnings vain, or wishes mild,

Withdraw thy feet, o'er earth’s rough ways to roam ? Wither the rose upon thy brow that lies,

And dim the light of heaven from thy dear eyes ? No! to my love for thee let power be given

To draw, not thee to earth, but me to heaven !

THREE CHAPTERS ON THE HISTORY OF POLAND.

CHAPTER III.

CHARACTER

OF

THE POLES.

REFLECTING upon the fate of Poland, land may be gathered from the endearing one is surprised and pained at the melan- appellation of our mother, which with choly issue of so many great sacrifices, them is synonymous with Poland. Their so much bloodshed, heroic devotion and last revolution is but one grand display fervid patriotism! The love of country of the noblest self-devotion-every man with the Poles cannot be said to be a was a patriot, and every woman a hero. sober virtue. It is rather a passion that ine. never ceases to agitate their breasts ; it is We will introduce here a few instances the enthusiastic devotion of a chevalier to which will give an idea of the spirit that the queen of his heart; being always animated this people when struggling for foremost in his thoughts and feelings. their liberty. Besides exposing their True, there are some traitors among them; lives to the chances of battle, many conbut what nation has them not? Still it tributed large sums to the national treaswill be found true that no modern nation, ury. General Pac (Pats) was the first, or any of the ancient, have produced so who in the very beginning of the revolumany instances of enthusiastic patriotism tion laid on the altar of his country the as they: Other nations have not suffered sum of 100,000 florins, (equal to 12,400 such calamities—they were more or less dollars,) and though nearly sixty years prosperous; but it was not so with the old, fought bravely to the close. Prince Poles. If in prosperity man is not so Czartoryski, (Charto.ryskie,) whose much tempted to crime, his virtue at the yearly income was £80,000, has had his same time is not so great, and does not estates confiscated, and yet he prefers to stand out in bold relief. Misfortune has liv an exile in foreign countries, on a contrary effect; it either plunges him scanty means, than sue for pardon though into the abyss of iniquity, or hardens his the emperor be glad to grant it. virtue so that it will resist both time and As for personal devotion, we must change.

only mention a few among the bravest The chivalry of modern nations suc. of the brave, and the Generalissimo ceeded to the patriotism of the ancients; Skrzynecki deserves the first notice. It but in this age of prudence and expe- would be impossible to display more diency we rather choose to keep aloof courage than he did at the battle of Osfrom the extremes of either, for they be- trolenka. He conceived the idea of at. come rather uncomfortable virtues. Not- tacking the enemy at the nearest distance withstanding this general tendency, the possible. He took twelve field-pieces, Poles give us examples of patriotism and two regiments of cavalry for their which, if they do not surpass, certainly protection, and profiting from the dusk, equal any to be found in antiquity—of led them in person, fixed the battery at patriotism that is not based on mere selfish three hundred paces from the enemy, and feeling, but on the noblest sentiments of ordered it to open. At the same time he the human heart. Their history proves seated himself, with the utmost coolness, they were never the aggressors, but at the head of the battery, exposed to the fought only to defend their own rights and incessant fire of the enemy's artillery. In their own territory. The saying Ubi vain did the officers beg him not to expatria, ibi bene," became theirs. Zol. pose his life thus : he sat immovable as kiewski's last breath when falling on the a marble statue till he saw the enemy battle-field, dulce pro patria mori,” is shaking and finally forced back. worthy the best Roman or Greek days. Nor is this a single instance of such Their history and literature are replete intrepidity ; Colonel Piernka, whose batwith sayings and deeds whose exalted tery at the battle of Grochow was the

was love of country. What most destructive to the enemy, and frefeelings they cherish towards their own quently the most exposed, kept up a fire,

* In the last number, on page 638, 1st line in Ist column should be transferred to the bottom of the 2d column.

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