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chiefly of grape-shot, for five hours, sick and disabled. In erecting the fortisometimes at the distance of a few hund. fications of Warsaw all the citizens were red paces only. Amidst the most fright- employed without distinction of age or ful carnage he remained calm and imper. sex, and to pay tribute to the patriotism turbable, and appeared more like a god of the women one of the outworks was dealing out deadly blows to mortals than named the lunette of the women, having an ordinary man. Although his clothes been raised entirely by their hands. were pierced through and through, and They also made sacrifices of their fortunes, his casque torn to pieces, yet his person plate, jewels, wedding rings, which they was not touched. Lieutenant Czaykow. turned into coin for the use of the counski (Chy-kov-skie) affords a noble exam. try. They even offered their lives on ple of a patriot struggling for the salva- the field of battle. Countess Plater, tion of his country. While at the bead after having armed the peasantry on of the grenadiers of the 7th regiment, he her estates with scythes, pitch-forks, received a grape-shot in his leg, which fowling-pieces, led them against the Rusthrew him down. Unmindful of himself, sian troops. This girl, who led a life of as he fell he cried, “Grenadiers, advance!” ease and pleasure, now faced the dangers and kept up this cry while he lay pros- and hardships of war in every battle that trate on the ground. Worthy of such a was fought in Lithuania. Constantia commander, animated by his noble spirit, Raszanowicz (Rah-shan-au-vich) was the grenadiers rushed to the charge and the Countesso companion in arms and drove the enemy from their position. He perils; she also spared neither her fortune is one of the heroes of the battle of Gro- nor exertions in the cause of freedom. chow. But here is another of them, Countess Claudine Potocka (Po-totsbombardier Kozieradzki. This brave kah) who spared neither herself, nor her soldier was sent to another battery with fortune in many dangerous enterprises, orders to change its position, and while gave particular proofs of heroic devotion, on his way to execute lis commission, a in the hospitals of Warsaw, where seated cannon ball carried away his arm. Ris- at the bedside, she spent seven successive ing from the blow, dangling the bleeding months in alleviating the sufferings, and mutilated stump as he went, he staggered dressing the wounds of the sick. In on, reached the battery, executed his connection with Countess Potocka we commission, and then fell from the loss cannot but pay a tribute of admiration to of blood.

her intimate friend and fellow-laborer We should do injustice to the Polish Miss Emily Szczaniecka (Shtchah-nietswomen if we should here overlook them. kah). This young and lovely lady, at Like the daughters of Sparta, they wished the age when hopes bloom the brightest, to share the dangers of war with their gave up the whole of her fortune to her countrymen, and so formed three compa- country, and then joined the Sisters of nies under the command of ladies of the Charity that she might continue to work most distinguished families. They were for the common cause. Many more to follow the army in the rear, and on a names may be mentioned that in future battle taking place, to take care of the will be like stars illumining the path of wounded. The first company, composed heroism and virtue, but we forbear. Yet, of the young and active, proposed to carry notwithstanding the efforts of such sons off the wounded from the field ; the sec and such daughters, Poland lies pros. ond, attending the vehicles designed to trate beneath that Power of the north, receive the wounded, were to take care which is never satisfied with human of them and dress their wounds; the blood; not however as conquered by third to take charge of the provisions, the force of arms, but as a victim to the inmaking of lint and bandages, and even trigues of her enemy, and the pusillaniof the washing of the soldiers' clothing. mity of her friends. The nation, proud of such daughters, was The lot of Poland after the last revolu. satisfied with their noble intentions, but tion has become harder than ever it was their services were refused, for the labor before, for the Russian autocrat neglects they were willing 10 task themselves no means that can oppress a people. If he with would have proved too much for cannot be master of flourishing Poland, he them. But not to deprive such noble is determined to possess at least the Polwomen of the luxury of sharing in the ish desert. He has already become the sole general toil, they were distributed among land-proprietor of more than the half of its the hospitals, where they could nurse the soil by the confiscation of the estates of the

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wealthy. By taxation, oppressive con- the country are to be found. In the scription, and keeping an army that is dead of night they are seized and carried fed by the people, he drains the last drop away from amidst their families to be of blood from the inhabitants. To make never more heard of. colonies in the deserts of Caucasus, he After the fatal termination of the last gave orders to transplant thither 5,000 revolution, the emperor gave orders to families from the south of Poland. Una- provide for the orphans of those who ble to resist, they were dragged into the were killed in war, or who went abroad wilderness to lead a life of misery, leav- leaving their children bebind them. This ing their homes, their country, and with was trumpeted throughout Europe as a them all that is dear to the human heart. benevolent, magnanimous act of the auTo see them depart amidst lamentations tocrat; while in fact it was designed to and cries of despair of the women and cover the most hideous crime. In consechildren, and dumb looks of the men, sur quence of this order, more than 5,000 chilrounded by the base, insensible crew of dren at a time, were torn from the bosoms the yet baser autocrat, to hear them in- of their mothers who were sufficiently voke destruction upon the head of the able top rovide for them : the most distininhuman enemy and their own; curse guished families were the victims of this their parents that gave them birth, the barbarity. These children were forced day that saw them born, would fill any away from their lamenting parents, in heart with the keenest indignation and the bitter cold of January, and with the deepest sympathy. But this is not scarcely any covering, packed up in wagall, brutal Russians have been introduced ons, and carried into the interior of Rusin their place to become a part of the sia to be educated for slavery as common population of the country.

soldiers' children. Many of them died The oppression does not stop here. on their way from hunger and cold, but Their religion and their priests are per- their numbers were replaced by those secuted; their universities and colleges, who were kidnapped on the way. It after being pillages of all that they had was a heart-rending scene to behold the valuable, as libraries, etc., were either streets of Warsaw resounding with the suppressed entirely, or supplanted by cries of agonized mothers throwing mock institutions into which the most themselves under the wheels of the wagcompulsive system of corrupted educa- ons to be crushed rather than survive tion was introduced. Their language that awful separation, or rudely pushed is excluded from courts and from schools; back by the brutal force of the Russian nay, it is even prohibited to speak Polish soldiery; and to witness the young vicin public places. Their lawsare abrogated, tims confounded with the sight, heaped and the Emperor's willor the ukase is made together like a flock of innocent lambs, their substitute, till the administration of separated from their parents, trembling justice is mere mockery. The caprice of with terror, utter in melancholy strains the officer, or a bribe, makes the scales dear mother! dear mother" What turn accordingly. No one is allowed to father's or what mother's heast could hold an office, but a Russian or a rene. withstand this sight without bursting gade Pole. It is considered an act de- with frenzy? serving punishment if one should pub The same infernal act was repeated in licly avow himself to be a Pole; and the country with the children of many everything that pertains to their national noblemen; and here is one of its tragic customs or habits is prohibited or derided consequences. After the vain attempts by those Moscovite barbarians. The of Lady Grozewska (Gro-zev-skah) to country is made a large prison-house in save her two sons by imploring mercy fested with spies. Thousands of the no- for them of the emperor, Cossacks were ble and daring are sent to work in the sent to carry the children away. On the mines of Siberia. According to an offi- appearance of these brutes to execute cial statement 75,000 men had been sent their commission, this noble woman deinto Siberia, since the accession of Nicho. termined to disappoint him. “No," said las to the throne up to 1832, which in. she, “that insatiable dragon shall not cludes the space of only seven years; drink the blood of my loins. My chilbut from that time to the present the dren shall live with me forever.” With number has trebled at least. These men these words she stabbed her two boys are mostly state criminals and chiefly by her side, and then with the same Poles, among whom the first names of steel pierced her own noble heart. Oh,

honorable weakness ! may God avenge yet found eulogizers in an English lord, thy innocent blood! Such are the deeds and even one of our republicans, who of this arch-Herod of the North ; but this was sent by the State of Ohio to inquire is not all.

into the condition of the Prussian schools, The Polish captives that were at Cron. and who informed the public that the demstadt were required to take the oath of ent Emperor is educating the Poles! Take allegiance to the Emperor, but they re shame to yourselves, men ! who let the fused, for which they were made to run present of a gold snuff-box with the desthe gauntlet. Two lines of soldiers were pot's portrait, cover the crimes of a made, each of 250 men. Each soldier fiend; or allow heartless, courtly politeheld a hazel switch, several feet in ness to go for benevolence. Shame! length. Through these ranks the con shame to you all, who screen flagrant demned Poles were forced to pass. First guilt from the world's indignation ! the victim's back was stripped of cloth Such is the lot of the Poles who are ing, then the butt-ends of two carbines within the reach of the Emperor Nicholas; placed under his arms, by which means as for those who are abroad, a few words he was dragged along, while a bayonet will suffice. The number of the latter was held against his breast to prevent amounts to several thousand, scattered him from going too quickly. Field-pieces throughout the civilized world; but they were placed at both ends of the ranks to reside chiefly in France and England. blow to atoms those of the Poles who About three hundred were sent by Aus. would dare to attempt to rescue these tria into this country. Their subsistence unfortunate victims. 3,000 Polish cap- depends on their exertion, but as a great tives were brought there to witness this number of them did not belong to workawful scene.

At the time we speak of, ing classes in their own country, their (November, 1832,) 50 men were the de- condition may be easily conceived. signed victims, eight of whom were Little is known of the character, hab. flogged the same day.

its and literature of the Poles in foreign The decree being read, the man was countries, and particularly on this side led between the two files, and with the of the Atlantic. The degree of ignofirst blow music began to play to drown rance that prevails in this respect is often his cries. Before the unfortunate crea- ludicrous." In the geographies used by ture reached the other extremity of the schools in this country, it is gravely ranks, streams of blood burst from his stated that they wear stockings and panback-his piercing cries were hushed in taloons of a piece; that when they are silence, and senseless he was dragged up invited to dine with their friends, they and down the files, though flesh flew bring with them their spoons in their from his back at every step. This bru- pockets ; and that during dinner they tality completed, the sufferer fell on the take care to have the door shut that noground, where he lay till the cart came body may come in! And an encyclopedto carry him away to the hospital, with- ist, speaking of their language, says, that out any other covering to his mangled it is so uncouth, that it bas words of sevbody than a mat. In this way, two or eral consonants without a single vowel ! three of these unfortunate men received This, besides being false, is an impossi. eight thousand, others from four to six bility ; for the human tongue cannot thousand lashes ! A priest, with the pronounce intelligible sounds, without cross in his hand, stood at the head of there is a vowel at a certain distance to the line near the general officer, and pro- support the consonants. No more than mised them pardon if they would recant; two sounds made of either two, three, but the noble-spirited sufferers preferred or at most six, consonants joined to a death to servitude. These are the deeds vowel can be pronounceable, is intelli. of the clement Emperor, who, to prove to gible, or capable of being written. the world that cruelty and faithlessness We can give here but an imperfect go hand in hand, after repeatedly pro- outline of the character of this people claiming amnesty to the Poles, seized and their literature. The means of edupon those who confided in his word. ucation since the introduction of Christi.

The picture we bave drawn here is anity into the country, were never neg. already horrible enough: though incom- lected in Poland; if not always in advance plete, yet it is sufficient to give some idea of, they always kept pace with, those of of the present state of Poland, and of the rest of Europe. Poland had her col. the character of the monster, who has leges and universities, in which the no

This poet,

bility and middle classes were instructed virtues, fans the spark of patriotism into with as much success as in any other vivid fame and ridicules national vices. part of the continent. The Polish no- The Polish theatre, a collection of the best bility also frequently sent their sons to dramatic writings of 56 volumes, testifies travel in foreign countries or attend for- to the talent, taste and judgment of their eign universities, being aware that inter- writers. They have their satiric, epicourse with various people enlightens grammatic and elegiac writers. Nor is the mind and expands the heart.

their pastoral poetry neglected, which To give the scope of the studies pur- is especially popular ; for the taste for sued in their universities, not to speak of rural enjoyments is universal with them. others, we will take for an instance the In Wallenrod and Chocim War they have university of Warsaw. Here the instruc two epic poems of great merit. In the tion in general knowledge was divided Historical Songs of Julian U. Niemcewicz into five faculties; that of law, of divin- (Niem-tseh-vich), the Polish literature ity, of medicine, of the natural sciences possesses what no other has; there the and literature, and that of the fine arts: minstrel sings in smooth numbers the 42 professors filled these departments. history of his own country. These The universities were well endowed, and songs are set to no less sweet music, all means that are indispensable to the and are frequently heard chanted by the completeness of instruction, such as li- fair daughters of Poland. braries, cabinets of natural history and soldier and statesman, is considered their so forth, were secured. This, we say, Walter Scott; and if there be another was, for what now is we have already Scott, the Poles may well claim to have told : the Russian autocrat has trampled him in Niemcewicz. upon all knowledge and freedom.

In Mickiewicz (Mits-kieh-vich) they If the Poles have not of late made have their Byron, with this difference themselves known to the scientific world that the Polish poet possesses the veheby any discoveries in the sciences, yet ment fire of the Englishman, but consethey have the merit of having availed crated by a purity which is his own. themselves of the investigations of others The Polish poetry abounds in ballads in their culture.

whose merit is their simplicity and sweetPoland has been enslaved and there ness of expression. They breathe either fore she could not share the honor of late the sighs of a Sappho or an Adonis, or discoveries in science with other nations, resound the glory of a Mars. The peoas her mind was too much engrossed ple are full of songs of great simplicity, with her calamities, which have given a and whose amorous and plaintive charpeculiar cast to her literature. Yet none acter bespeaks their docile nature. of the departments of Polish literature It is commonly believed that the southhave been neglected : science and belles- ern climes are most favorable to melody lettres had their guardians among the and poetical feelings. Everlasting verPoles, and philosophy had students, dure beneath, and continual serenity though no originators of new systems. above, seem to conspire to unfold the The activity of the national mind, how. whole soul of man. True as this is to ever, was particularly directed to polite a certain extent, yet there are some peculiterature, the burden of which is their liarities in the temperate zone which rencountry or the goddess of love.

der it equally genial to the cultivation of The love of their country, her calam- poetry. The continually exciting state ities, and the deeds of their heroes are the of the outer world in the southern skies soul of their literature to such a degree, may exhaust the capacity of the soul for that they make its characteristic distinc- its enjoyments, or render them less acute tion from that of other countries in Eų. by their familiarity, and thus produce a rope. Thus it is rendered eminently their fickle, capricious character in man. But own, and may be considered a true coun. in temperate climes whose winter and terpart of the character of the people. summer succeed alternately, imagination History and fiction have both been culti. in the presence of the former, paints the vated with ardor; and they have not latter in such vivid colors, that when the neglected to polish their language. They season returns once more, the capacity of are great lovers of music, song and the the soul for enjoying it is increased. The drama; and consequently these receive repetition of these enjoyments at inter. the impress of their character. The lat. vals, leaves their impression more indeliter, pointing out the beauty of domestie ble, and thus imagination is made to burn VOL. IV.NO. I.


with a more steady and vivid flame even German or English, which certainly canthrough the dreary reign of winter. Thus not be too high an estimate. We will the love for melody and poetical feelings not omit here to take notice of the pecumay be developed. At least the temper- liarity of Polish surnames, so generally ate climate of Poland has had such an remarked upon by foreigners; we refer effect on the inhabitants.

to their termination in ki. It is, howBesides the predilection which they ever, only equivalent to the De used by show for the romantic in their real life, the French, The Von by the Germans, the the great number of their poets entitles Van by the Dutch, and the of by the them to the appellation of a poetical peo- English grandees; and a distinction which ple. In the dictionary of the Polish po- only nobility and gentry have a right to ets of Juszynski (Yoo-shin-skie) we find make use of. Thus we say the Marfourteen hundred of them ; and yet the quis de Lafayette, Baron von Humboldt, names of those who flourished during the the Duke of Cumberland. The surnames reign of their last king Stanislas are not of the Polish nobility, are principally, included. Of course it must not be ex- though not wholly, derived from the espected that they are all of high merit. tates which the founder of a family beThere must be many mere rhymesters ; came possessed of at the time of his being but making even this allowance, a re made noble. They are, indeed, adjecspectable number of poets will be left. tives made of the proper names of estates,

The Poles, besides their original pro- and indicate the owners and proprietors. ductions, have enriched their literature And as the nature of the Polish language with translations of the Greek and Latin makes such adjectives in ki, hence the classics. And as the study of modern termination of such names is in ski (skie), languages is not neglected by them, the cki (tskie), or zki (zkie). For instance, beauties of foreign literature, as of the if the name of the Prince Wisniowiecki German, the French, the English, the (Vie-sniov-yets-kie) be accommodated to Spanish and the Italian, are transplanted English idiom, it would be Prince of into their soil and admired by the people. Wisniowiec (Vis-niov-yets); Count Pu. The Polish language is a dialect of the lawski (Poo-lav-skie) would make Earl Slavonian, which is, according to some, of Pulawy (Poo-lah-vy); Pan Zamoyski, one of the original languages, conse- (Zah-moy-skie) would be Lord of Zamosc quently it does not resemble any of those (Zah-most); and so with other names of of western Europe. In the termination the same kind. Such surnames change of its nouns and verbs, it undergoes their termination into ka to designate a changes like the Latin, and these various woman, as the Princess Lubomirska inflections render it difficult. But this (Lov-bo-meer-skah). quality in a language renders its sense The Polish nobility may be said to be intelligible, though the words may be a democratic blossom on an aristocratic thrown, as it were pell mell, together; and trunk; for this body within itself cherenables the poet to study the harmony of ishes the purest democratic principles, his numbers much better.

although its political relation to the mass The language has a great pliability of their people is aristocratic. It is in and a great variety of sound, the latter fact what the Roman republic was-deof which enables the Poles to conquer mocracy embossed in aristocracy. Their the sounds of foreign tongues with great- titles descend equally to their children, er facility than the inhabitants of most both male and female ; nor are their other other countries. It admits of a change children deprived of their share in the esof the termination of a noun to express tate on account of the first-born son. endearment or contempt, as is the case Their democratic spirit is seen in the fact with the Spanish ; an evidence of its pli- that they addressed their sovereign by ability and congeniality with love. The the title of king and brother ; for a Polish Polish must be considered as a language nobleman believes himself capable, by his of consonants rather than vowels, since birth, to wear his country's crown, should in it the former prevail over the latter. the voice of his brother nobles call him Its words are long, consisting of many to that honor. Such being the organizasyllables, but they never bave more words tion of the Polish nobility, their estates in one syllable, than the German admits. may pass into other hands, while the As for its melody, the natives might claim name and title are perpetuated in the for it a higher degree, but an impartial rightful heirs of the founder of a family, judge would put it on a level with the and as its numbers increase the name is

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