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assembled at Dresden, in the summer of American raw tobacco were, in these 1838, which contains the only scale of countries, very small; not half what they reduction which would really benefit the now are, except in Prussia. And this growers of American tobacco. We quote notwithstanding that in the two first-namfrom it:
ed States, the greatest quantity, and the “ 1st Project.—To reduce the import du- best quality of tobacco is produced, that
Yet when ties now levied on tobacco stems to two is grown in all Germany. thalers per centner, and to reduce the du- these States successively entered the ties on all other kinds of tobacco imported Zoll-Verein, Prussia succeeded in having from North America to three thalers per her Tariff adopted, so that in fact the tocentner,
bacco planters of the United States have “ 2d Project. -1. In order to continue the most severely felt the adoption of the protection already granted to the cultiva. Prussian Tariff on that article, in formtion of the indigenous plant, a considera- ing the German Union of Customs. ble duty might be levied (of three thalers,
We have no other desire than fairly for example) upon all kinds of tobacco costing not more than 4} thalers, at the and candidly to examine the Wheaton first port of entry in Europe, which is Treaty, and for the sake of the argument deemed the average price of indigenous may admit that some increase in the con-. tobacco in Germany.
sumption might possibly have taken “2. To lay upon leaf tobacco imported in place in case it had been adopted; but it hogsheads from North America, of which surely could not have been beyond the the value at the first port of entry is more ratio in which the duties were diminished, than 4thalers, a duty of two thalers and and had such increase taken place, it must 23 silver groschens per centner. This duty necessarily have been by a slow process. will be equal to the average of that levied Now suppose the term of the Treaty to be in Bavaria and Wurtemburg, according to the tariff of 1823, namely: 'of five florins four years, the first year's increase would
not have exceeded 800 hogsheads; the per centner, sp-gewicht, equal to four florins and twenty-seven and one half kreut. second year in the same ratio 2,040 hogszers per Prussian centner, and in Baden heads; the third year 4,247 hogsheads, according to the tariff of 1827, that is to and the fourth year 7,087 hogsheadssay twenty-five kreutzers; and in Prussia the annual average being 3,543 hogsaccording to the tariff of 1931, which is the heads, and the total increase 14,174 hogspresent tariff of the Zoll-Verein, of five heads. The increase on the stems the and one half thalers per centner. The av.
first year 250 hogsheads, the second year erage of those several rates is two thalers 550, and the fourth 1,687 hogsheads. and twenty-three silver groschens per cent- Total of stems in four years 3,374 hogs"3. To lay a duty on tobacco stems im- heads, or an annual average of 884 bogs
heads. ported from North America of two thalers
Now the cost in the United States of
3,543 hogsheads of tobacco, of the quali. Such a diminution would be of real ty which is usually sent to Germany, and service by increasing the demand, while of 884 hogsheads of stems, at an average the slight reduction of the “ Wheaton of $3.55 per one hundred pounds, is treaty” would be next to, if not quite, nu
$155,738. And it is on this small amount gatory. Mr. Dodge on this part of the alone, that the most sanguine friends of subject justly says:
the Treaty could possibly urge its bene“ A slight diminution of the duty on our
fits. For it has already been shown that, leaf tobacco would not effect the object we so far as regards the articles of cotton have in view. To be effectual and of mu. and rice, the decided interest of the Zolltual benefit to both parties, it ougbt to be Verein has been to diminish the duty on reduced to such a rate as will encourage an the first, and to admit the second duty increased consumption and prevent smug. free, without reference to the Tariff of gling.'
the United States, and with regard to lard, To effect this Mr. D. proposed three it is only matter of astonishment how it thalers per centner as the proper duty to found its way into the Treaty at all. be levied, while the duty of the Treaty Having thus examined with candor was four thalers.
the supposed advantages of the Wheaton It should here be stated that previous Treaty, let us now look at the positive to the joining of the Zoll-Verein, by Prus- evil to this country which would have sia, Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, resulted from its adoption, and which Wurtemburg, and the other countries now must result from the future adoption of composing that Union, the duties on
such a treaty.
There is no difficulty in proving that has made fully appear by his able Report, it would havegreatly lessened the Revenue in which ninety-six articles of the growth, of the country. From the report of the produce or manufacture of Germany are Hon. Rufus Choate, of the Committee of detailed, but many of which in the treaty Foreign Relations, of the Senate, the fol- are concealed under their Generic names. lowing concessions were made, under The large importations into the United the false assumption that they were only States of German manufactures are not equivalents to those made to us, by the known in this country. Our official ReZoll-Verein.
port of Trade and Navigation slates the
country from which articles imported are “ Article 1. The United States of Amer- shipped, and makes no reference to the ica agree not to impose duties on the im. place of their production or manufacture. portation of the following articles, the Germany has but few shipping ports, States of the German Association of Cus. hence its most valuable articles, as silk, toms and Commerce exceeding
velvet, &c., come to us through the Port First, twenty per centum ad valorem on of Havre, and thus appear as importations the importation of
from France. From information which 1. All woolen, worsted, and cotton mits, the writer collected in Paris he has no caps and bindings, and woolen, worsted, doubt at least $2,500,000 of silks, silk and cotton hosiery, that is to say, stock- velvets, and other fine merchandises of ings, socks, drawers, shirts, and all other German manufacture are actually shipped similar manufactures made on frames. 3. On all musical instruments of every Many also of their bulky articles, manu
to the United States from French ports. kind, except piano-fortes.
Second. Fifteen per centum ad valo- factured in the Prussian provinces of the rem on the importation of
Rhine, and in the south of Germany, bor1. All articles manufactured of flax or dering that river and the Mayne, or in hemp, or of which fax or hemp shall be their vicinity, the seat of great industry, the component part of chief value, except are shipped through Rotterdam, at the cotton bagging or any other manufacture mouth of the Rhine ; the Mayne flowing suitable for the uses for which cotton bag- into that river near Mayence, and now ging is applied.
that there is a railroad from Cologne on 2. All manufactures of silk, or of which the Rhine to Aix-La-Chapelle, and from silk shall be the component part of chief ihence to Brussels and Antwerp, it is prob. value. 3. Thibet, merinos, merino shawls, and from Antwerp. The importations to the
able many German goods will be shipped all manufactures of combed wool, or of worsted and silk combined.
United States of German goods from Rot. 4. Polished plate glass, silvered or not terdam is estimated by Mr. Dodge to be silvered ; small pocket looking-glasses, above half a million of dollars annually. from three to ten inches long and from one The extremely imperfect manner in and a half to six inches broad ; toys of eve which the report of trade and navigation ry description, snuff boxes of paper mache, annually issued by the Secretary of the lead pencils, lithographic stones, and Treasury is made up, so many goods being wooden clocks, known under the name of placed under the term of articles not enuSchwarzwalder clocks. 5. Cologne water, needles, bronze wares
merated, we can only approximately arof all kinds, planes, scissors, scythes, files, rive at the articles mentioned in the treaty, saws, and fish-hooks ; gold, silver and and by examining the list of articles copper wire, tinfoil, and musical strings of in the report of Mr. Dodge, it would ap. all kinds.
pear that at least an amount equal to 6. Leather pocket-books and etuis, and five-sevenths of the importations direct all sorts of similar fine leather manufac- from Germany, and all of the indirect imtures, known under the name of Offen- portations, through France, Holland and bacher fine leather fabrics.
Belgium, would certainly be included in Third. Ten per cent ad valorem on the it—those through France being mostly importation of 1. All thread laces and insertings, laces, is diminished to fifteen per cent—a rate
silks and silk velvets, the duty on which galoons, tresses, tassels, knots, stars of gold of duty on these luxurious articles much and silver, fine, or half fine.
2. Mineral water, spelter, and hare's below what is charged on some articles wool dressed."
of the first necessity. Mr. Dodge on this
subject says, Sec. 4 : Here is enumerated almost every article of German produce or manufacture “ According to the aforementioned reusually imported by us, as Mr. Dodge port, the importations into the United
States direct from Prussia, the Hanse trade as the present duty. But even if it Towns and other ports of Germany from would increase the consumption twentythe 1st day of October, 1834, to the 30th
seven per cent., it would only be for four day of September, 1836, amounted to
years a total of 9,720 hogsheads, or an$8,790,192 ; making an annual average nually 2,430 hogsheads- which being of amount of German produce and manufacture of $4,395,096. "To which are to be
a superior qualiiy, may be estimated at added the importations of German produce $75 per hhd.; the reduction would then and manufactures by the way of Holland be $182,250, for which reduction we and France, which, from a strict exami- should have to grant Great Britain an nation of official documents, and other in- average diminution of tifty per cent on formation derived from correct and well. the duties on the importation of a large informed sources, may fairly be estimated portion of her manufactures. Let us by at an annual average for those two years as way of argument see what such reduction follows:
with less revenue would amount to. Mr. Through Holland, $525,000 ; through Dodge states in his report to Mr. WheaFrance, $2,500,000. Making an annual
ton, that from the 1st of October, 1834, average total of importations into the Uni
to the 30th September, 1836, the average ted States of German produce and manufacture of $7,420,096.”
total importations for those two years
into the United States from Great Britain, During the fiscal years 1836, 1837, the were $69,947,722. Now at least one exportation of German manufactures di- quarter of that amount may be estimated rect and indirect, amounted 10 $8,700,000. to consist of similar articles to those
The annual average value for 1834, from Germany. One fourth would be 1835, 1836, was $4,395,096, of which at $17,486,930. The average duty 30 per least five-sevenths are included in Whea. cent. would be $5,246,879, a reduction of ton's treaty, and amount to $3,139,355, 50 per cent of which would be $2,623,039, and to which are to be added the making an annual deficit in the treasury average amount of the indirect impor- of the United States to that amount from tations through France and Holland, such a miscalled reciprocity treaty with $3,025,000, making an average amount Great Britain. But France, too, may wish included in the treaty, $6,025,355. to make such a one-sided treaty with
It is not an easy matter to make exact us; how would it affect our comparative calculations between the merce with that country? The average duties fixed by the Tariff of 1842 and the annual importation of unmanufactured duties in the treaty; but upon the best American tobacco into France may be data, we have no doubt the reduction estimated at 12,000 hhds. annually. In will average fifty per cent. The rate of France there is no duty on our tobacco, duty in German manufactures is on an but there is what is much worse, a average about 30 per cent. under that law. government monopoly. Where there is Then 30 per cent. on $6,025,355, would no duty we cannot ask for a reduction, be $1,807,406, and the treaty diminution but suppose the French government of fifty per cent. would amount to would agree to a purchase of twenty$903,853.
seven per cent more tobacco. The Regie But this is a small part only of the would then have to purchase 1,620 hhds mischief which would have resulted to more, being 27 per cent on 12,000 hhds., the revenue by the adoption of the Whea- the consumption as before stated. This ton treaty. Suppose England should would make a total increase in four choose to follow in the train of this reci- years of 6,480 hhds., which at a cost in procity treaty, the actual duty there is the United States of $65 per hhd., would three shillings sterling, or 72 cents be for 1,620 hhds. equal to $105,311, anper pound on unmanufactured tobacco— nual purchase. (a nice comment by the way upon the The total importation from France is pretended Free Trade.) The annual con- $26,265,396. One half would be $13,sumption of unmanufactured American 32,697, the average duty on the same at tobacco may be estimated at 18,000 hhds. 30 per cent. would be $3,939,809, and a Twenty percent. deduction on 724 diminution of fifty per cent on the same, cents, would be about 20 cents, which would be $1,969,954, consequently there would make the reduced duty in Eng would be this further annual deficit in land, upon the principle of the Wheaton the revenue of the United States. treaty, 52 cents per lb., which enor The following recapitulation will show mous duty for all practical purposes, the supposed advantages and disadvanwould be as restrictive upon our tobacco tages of the Wheaton treaty, supposing a
similar one to be made with England and On annual importations from France, and the actual disadvantages of France
1,969,934 the Zoll-Verein treaty.
$5,496,846 “ Recapitulation of the supposed advan Making an annual deficit in the revenue
tages and the positive disadvantages to of the United States of $5,496,846, and in the United States, had the treaty with four years a deficit of $21,987,384 ! the Zoll-Verein been confirmed.
Besides which, during these four years the United States could not make any at.
tempt to diminish what would still be an The supposed increased consumption in the Zoll-Verein would be 3,543 hhds. of change in the monopoly of France.”
enormous duty in England, or to effect any our raw tobacco and 884 hhds. stems, annual average, and costing in the Uni
Thus much for views and calculations ted States $35 55 cents per hogshead, of the Wheaton treaty as a financial af. say
fair—but we contend against it for its England, 2,430 hhds., annual average at $75 per hhd.
injustice, and the unconstitutionality of
182,250 France, 1,620 hhds., annual ave
frittering away the protection to our home rage, at $65 per hhd.
interests—the admission of the proceeds
of the degraded labor from abroad to the Supposed annual advantage to the
destruction of our own industry interests. United States,
$443,299 For although we do not make silks and
velvets, yet admit the principle that the Diminution in the duties on im
President and Senate have the power to portations from the Zoll-Ver
regulate commerce by treaty stipulations, ein annually
$903,853 and then what use would there be in On annual importations from
the people being represented in the lower Great Britain
NOTE TO THE ARTICLE ON HOMERIC TRANSLATIONS IN OUR OCTOBER No. Through the kindness of Mr. J. G. Cogswell, I have been able to obtain a copy of Ogil. by. He is alınost as prosaic as Hobbes in many places, but much more literal. Indeed, much of his version is as close as a translation in verse can well be, nothing having fallen out except the poetry. A few lines from the opening may serve as a specimen.
“ Achilles Peleus' Son's destructive Rage
Great Goddess sing, which did the Greeks engage
Atrides and you well-armed Greeks, the Gods
Paying illustrious Phæbus due respect. Some of Ogilby's lines appear to have served as ground-work for other translators to work their improvements upon.
“ Dreadful the Twang was of his silver Bow."-Ogilby.
“The stately quarry on the cliffs lay dead.”—Pope. But in these the improvement justifies the appropriation.
The following typographical errors occur in the October article, the Author not having been able to revise the proof, on account of absence from the city.
P. 352, 2d col. 1. 10, for “sansenden” read “ sausenden”—p.353, 1st col. last 1. but 2 for “edition” read “addition”—p. 353, 2d col. 1. 1, for “ Hale” read “ Hall"-p. 355 1st col. 1. 35, for “ TVXÓVTOS” read
Tuxóvros”-p.358, 1st col. 1. 1, for “lag" reai “ Tūg”—p. 359, 2d col, 11. 16, 32, for “base” read “ vase”—p. 362, 1st col. 1. 11, fo “there” read “ these”—p. 372, 1st col. 1. 9, dele “ shining" before “brilliant."
Of all living statesmen there is none and descent to the working class; his more strongly marked by peculiar indivi- mother gave him an origin a shade less duality than M. Thiers. Of all living humble, being descended from a mercanstatesmen there is none whom it is more tile family whose reverses had lowered difficult to sketch. He resembles those por- her to the level of her husband. Thus, traits exhibited in a certain class of low as has been truly observed, M. Thiers, print-shops which are covered with fluted in coming into the world, was not craglass. Their features are striking, but dled on the lap of a Duchess. In childentirely change with the point of view hood, as in youth, he had all the disadfrom which you behold them. Look at vantages of poverty and obscurity 10 it from the right, it is Lafayette ; move struggle against; but, on the other hand, to the left, it melts into Metternich! M. he had in his favor those advantages Thiers is a journalist in the bureau of the which the necessity for exertion always National or the columns of the Constitu- affords to those in whom great talents are tionnel,—M. Thiers on the benches of associated with aspiring ambition. the opposition, assailing the Cabinet, and The condition of his parents would M. Thiers as a ministerial deputy, de- have excluded him from the advantages fending cabinet measures,—M. Thiers as of education, were it not for the influence a subordinate agent of power, and M. of some of his maternal connections who Thiers as president of the Council,—M. discovered in the child traces of that inThiers, as historian of the Consulate and tellectual capacity which, at a later period, the Empire, and M. Thiers at the head of elevated him to a higher sphere. By his own hospitable board in the splendid their interest he was nominated to a free halls of his mansion in the Place St. scholarship in the Imperial Lyceum of George-are different individuals and yet Marseilles. His progress there soon justhe same personage, and are all marked tified the sagacity of ihe friends to whom by features strongly characteristic. he was indebted for the opportunities of
Born poor, he had fortune to make. instruction which the institution afforded. Born obscure, he had fame to acquire. He was loaded with academical honors, Failing at the Bar, he took to literature; The course of education pursued at and aspiring to distinction in politics, he these establishments, under the Empire, enlisted under the banner of liberalism was mainly directed to military acquiremore from necessity than taste. It was ments; and consequently the exact sci. the only party under the restoration ences held a prominent place, and diswhose ranks were open to a parvenu and tinction in them was the surest road to an adventurer. He commenced by some honor and promotion. From the first, grotesque revivals of revolutionary asso M. Thiers evinced a decided aptitude for ciations, and dressed himself à la Danton. this department of his studies. The Like most persons of lively imagination, traces it Jeft upon his mind are visible in who in youth have been excluded from the style and structure of all bis writings tho enjoyment of the luxuries of wealth and speeches. But for the events of and the consideration of rank, he was 1814-15, bis destination would probably devoured with wants. To the muniti- have been the army. But the fall of the cence of Lafitte he was first indebted for Empire and the restoration of the Bourthe means of their satisfaction. It was bons turned his talents in!o other chanby his genius alone, however, and the nels, and at the age of eighteen he was opportunity afforded by the revolution of entered as a law student at Aix, in ProJuly for its development, that he was vence, not far from his native city. enabled to pass from a garret to a palace; Here he became the friend and the in. from the position of a penniless adven- separable companion of a youth who, turer to the head of the first constitutional like himself, sprung from the lowest government on the continent of Europe. strata of society, had his fortune to make,
M. Thiers is now (1846) in his forty- and who, as well as Thiers, felt that ninth year, having been born at Mar. within him which assured him of success seilles on the 15th April, 1797. His in the pursuit of fame in letters and in father, a locksmith, belonged by family politics. The two friends prosecuted to
VOL. IV.-NO. VI.