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similar one to be made with England and On annual importations from France, and the actual disadvantages of France

1,969,934 the Zoll-Verein treaty.

$5,496,846 Recapitulation of the supposed advan Making an annual deficit in the revenue tages and the positive disadvantages to

of the United States of $5,496,846, and in the United States, had the treaty with four years a deficit of $21,987,384! the Zoll-Verein been confirined.

Besides which, during these four years the United States could not make any at

tempt to diminish what would still be an The supposed increased consumption in

enormous duty in England, or to effect any the Zoll-Verein would be 3,543 hhds. of change in the monopoly of France.” our raw tobacco and 884 hhds. stems, annual average, and costing in the Uni.

Thus much for views and calculations ted States $35 55 cents per hogshead, of the Wheaton treaty as a financial af. say


fair—but we contend against it for its England, 2,430 hhds., annual

average at $75 per hhd. 182,250 injustice, and the unconstitutionality of France, 1,620 hhds., annual ave

frittering away the protection to our home rage, at $65 per hhd.


interests—the admission of the proceeds

of the degraded labor from abroad to the Supposed annual advantage to the

destruction of our own industry interests. United States,

$443,299 For although we do not make silks and

velvets, yet admit the principle that the Diminution in the duties on im.

President and Senate have the power to portations from the Zoll-Ver

regulate commerce by treaty stipulations, ein annually

$903,853 and then what use would there be in On annual importations from

the people being represented in the lower Great Britain

2,523,039 house.



Through the kindness of Mr. J. G. Cogswell, I have been able to obtain a copy of Ogil. by. He is almost as prosaic as Hobbes in many places, but much more literal. Indeed, much of his version is as close as a translation in verse can well be, nothing having fallen out except the poetry. A few lines from the opening may serve as a specimen.

“ Achilles Peleus' Son's destructive Rage
Great Goddess sing, which did the Greeks engage
In many Woes, and mighty Heroes' ghosts

Sent down untimely to the Stygian coasts;
| Devouring Vultures on their bodies preyed

And greedy Dogs (so was Jove's will obeyed ;)

Atrides and you well-armed Greeks, the Gods
Inhabiting Olympus' high abodes
Grant you may Priam's wealthie Town destroy
And thence triumphant Home return with Joy,
If you my Daughter's ransome not reject,

Paying illustrious Phæbus due respect. Some of Ogilby's lines appear to have served as ground-work for other translators to work their improvements upon. e. g.

“ Dreadful the Twang was of his silver Bow.”—Ogilby.
" Dire was the twanging of the silver bow.”-Sotheby.
“ The bleeding Quarry on the Stone lay dead."-Ogilby.

“The stately quarry on the cliffs lay dead.”—Pope. But in these the improvement justifies the appropriation.

The following typographical errors occur in the October article, the Author not having been able to revise the proof, on account of absence from the city.

P. 352, 2d col. 1. 10, for “sansenden” read “ sausenden”—p.353, 1st col. last 1. but 2 for edition” read "addition”—p. 353, 2d col. l. 1, for “Hale” read “ Hall”—p. 355 1st col. 1. 35, for “ Tvxóvtos” read “ Tuxóvtos”—p.358, 1st col. 1. 1, for "lag" reas " Tūg”—p. 359, 2d col, 11. 16, 32, for “base” read “ vase”—p. 362, 1st col. 1. 11, fo “ there” read “these”—p. 372, 1st col. 1. 9, dele “ shining" before "brilliant."


Of all living statesmen there is none and descent to the working class; his more strongly marked by peculiar indivi- mother gave him an origin a shade less duality than M. Thiers. Of all living humble, being descended from a mercanstatesmen there is none whom it is more tile family whose reverses had lowered difficult to sketch. He resembles those por- her to the level of her husband. Thus, traits exhibited in a certain class of low as has been truly observed, M. Thiers, print-shops which are covered with fluted in coming into the world, was not craglass. Their features are striking, but dled on the lap of a Duchess. In childentirely change with the point of view hood, as in youth, he had all the disadfrom which you behold them. Look at vantages of poverty and obscurity to it from the right, it is Lafayette; move struggle against; but, on the other hand, to the left, it melts into Metternich! M. he had in his favor those advantages Thiers is a journalist in the bureau of the which the necessity for exertion always National or the columns of the Constitu- affords to those in whom great talents are tionnel.-M. Thiers on the benches of associated with aspiring ambition. the opposition, assailing the Cabinet, and The condition of his parents would M. Thiers as a ministerial deputy, de- have excluded him from the advantages fending cabinet measures,–M. Thiers as of education, were it not for the influence a subordinate agent of power, and M. of some of his maternal connections who Thiers as president of the Council,—M. discovered in the child traces of that inThiers, as historian of the Consulate and tellectual capacity which, at a later period, the Empire, and M. Thiers at the head of elevated him to a higher sphere. By his own hospitable board in the splendid their interest he was nominated to a free halls of his mansion in the Place St. scholarship in the Imperial Lyceum of George--are different individuals and yet Marseilles. His progress there soon justhe same personage, and are all marked tified the sagacity of the friends to whom by features strongly characteristic. he was indebted for the opportunities of

Born poor, he had fortune to make. instruction which the institution afforded. Born obscure, he had fame to acquire. He was loaded with academical honors, Failing at the Bar, he took to literature ; The course of education pursued at and aspiring to distinction in politics, he these establishments, under the Empire, enlisted under the banner of liberalism was mainly directed to military acquiremore from necessity than taste. It was ments; and consequently the exact sci. the only party under the restoration ences held a prominent place, and dis. whose ranks were open to a parvenu and tinction in them was the surest road to an adventurer. He commenced by some honor and promotion. From the first, grotesque revivals of revolutionary asso. M. Thiers evinced a decided aptitude for ciations, and dressed himself à la Danton. this department of his studies. The Like most persons of lively imagination, traces it left upon his mind are visible in who in youth have been excluded from the style and structure of all bis writings tho enjoyment of the luxuries of wealth and speeches. But for the events of and the consideration of rank, he was 1814-15, his destination would probably devoured with wants. To the muniti. have been the army. But the fall of the cence of Lafitte he was first indebted for Empire and the restoration of the Bourthe means of their satisfaction. It was bons turned his talents in!o other chan. by his genius alone, however, and the nels, and at the age of eighteen he was opportunity afforded by the revolution of entered as a law student at Aix, in ProJuly for its development, that he was vence, not far from his native city. enabled to pass from a garret to a palace ; Here he became the friend and the in. from the position of a penniless adven- separable companion of a youth who, turer to the head of the first constitutional like himself, sprung from the lowest government on the continent of Europe. strata of society, had his fortune to make,

M. Thiers is now (1846) in his forty- and who, as well as Thiers, felt that ninth year, having been born at Mar- within him which assured him of success seilles on the 15th April, 1797. His in the pursuit of fame in letters and in father, a locksmith, belonged by family politics. The two friends prosecuted to.



gether their professional studies; were the competition till the next year. When called to the bar the same day; failed the next year arrived, the same essay equally in the profession they had chosen; was again offered; but to the infinite de competed for the same literary prizes; light of the heads of the academy, another and were destined, during the remainder essay had been sent from Paris, which of their career, to pursue iogether a paral- had been found incontestably superior to lel course, and to mount to the Temple of that which was known to be the compoFame and Fortune by the same path. sition of Thiers. But in order in some They have never separated. Through measure to make up for the disappointment poverty and through wealth, in the ob of the preceding year, they granted to scurity of the garret and the splendor of that essay an accessit, being an acknowthe palace, they have still, as in boy- ledgment of the merit of the second dehood, continued hand in hand; and the gree of excellence. name of Thiers is not pronounced among The essay from Paris, then, being prohis friends without that of Mignet recur nounced to be deserving of the prize, the ring to their memory.

sealed packet containing the name of the With little natural inclination for the anthor was formally opened, and the dry study of the law, the two young mortification of the judges may be imafriends obeyed a common instinct, and gined, on discovering that this essay also gave themselves up to the more fascinat was the production of the same hand! ing pursuit of literature, philosophy and Thiers, in order to surmount the preju. history, but more especially to politics. dice which prevailed against him, wrote The ambitious and aspiring spirit of a second essay, got it copied in another Thiers soon acknowledged a presenti. hand, and sent it to Paris, from whence ment of the brilliant future which awaited it was transmitted, the better to mislead him. Already, he was the recognized the judges. Thus, both the prize itself leader of a party among his fellow-stu- and the accessit were conferied on the dents. Already he engaged in debate, obnoxious student. · and harangued his comrades against the At the Bar of Aix, Thiers soon found government of the restoration. Already that it was vain to struggle against the he evoked the recollections of the Em- disadvantages of his birth and parentage. pire, and recalled the glorious victories of It was too near the scene of his infancy, the Republic. It will be easily believed and the humility and obscurity of his that a spirit so turbulent was soon put origin were too well known. Besides, upon the black list of the Royalist pro- the city of Aix was one of those provinfessors, was execrated by the commissary cial places to which the influences of the of police, and worshiped by his fellow- revolution had scarcely penetrated, and students. His activity and talents were Royalism and aristocracy prevailed there as sure to entitle hiin to scholastic hon- almost as much as before 1789. Imors as to render his superiors unwilling pelled by mutual hopes, and full of those to confer them upon him.

aspirations of the future which are so An amusing anecdote, characteristic of natural to youth, Mignet and himself him, is related of this early period of his determined to seek their fortunes in Paris,

A literary society established at where alone, as they rightly concluded, Aix, offered, in 1819, a prize for the best their genius could surmount the diffieulogy of Vauvenarguès. Thiers deter- culties opposed to them. To Paris they mined to compete for this honor, and ac- accordingly determined to go, and packcordingly sent in his manuscript in the ing up their little all, they took the dilicustomary manner, with a fictitious sig- gence and set out, as rich in hopes as nature, accompanied by a sealed packet they were poor in cash. Mignet went containing the name of the author, which first to feel the way, and was soon folwas only to be opened in case the essay lowed by his friend. should receive the prize. It had, how During the first months of their resi. ever, through his own imprudence, trans- dence in Paris, our two aspirants took a pired that he was among the competitors, lodging, which, since their arrival at and the judges, knowing from his genius fame and fortune, has become classic the probability of his success, and unwil- ground. The house of Shakspeare at ling to add to the influence of the turbu- Stratford-on-Avon, was never visited by lent little Jacobin by conferring the honor the votaries of the bard with more enthuupon hin, declared that none of the siasm than the admirers of French literaessays merited the prize, and postponed ture have examined the dwelling of the


future Prime Minister of France, and the cannot be denied that he has turned it to distinguished Professor of History. A profitable account. dirty dark street in the purlieus of the The traces of his genius did not fail to Palais Royale is called the Passage be speedily visible in the columns of the Montesquieu, situate in the most crowded Constitutionnel

, and his name was proand noisy part of Paris. Here you as nounced with approbation in all the cend by a flight of steps into a gloomy political coteries of the opposition, and and miserable lodging-house, in the fifth detested in the saloons of the Faubourg story of which a smoked door conducts St. Germain. He soon became a constant you into two small chambers, opening and admired frequenter of the most bril. one from the other, which were the liant assemblies of Lafitte, Casimir dwellings of two men, whose celebrity, Perier, and Count Flahaut. The Baron within a few years afterwards, filled the Louis, the most celebrated financier of world. A common chest of drawers, of that day, received him as his pupil and the cheapest wood, a bed to match, two friend, and at his table a place was always rush-bottom chairs, a little rickety nut- provided for M. Thiers. wood table, incapable of standing steadily His natural endowments were admiraon its legs, and a white calico curtain, bly calculated to turn to profit the innuformed the inventory of the furniture merable opportunities which were thus which accommodated the future Prime opened to him. Combining a memory Minister of the greatest country in Eu- from which nothing was allowed to esrope, and the future historian of the Re- cape, with an astonishing fluency and volution.

quickness of apprehension, he was enaThose who have visited the two friends bled, without neglecting those exigencies in their obscure attic, and have since par- of the daily press, to which he was intaken of the sumptuous hospitalities of the debted for his elevation, and at this time one, in his residence in the Place St. for his subsistence, to pass much time in George, and have witnessed the respect society, where he spoke much, heard and admiration manifested towards the more, and carefully treasured up in his other, at the assemblies at the Institute, memory as food for future meditation, the will find abundant food for reflection on matter of his conversations with the leadthe mutability of human affairs, and duly ing actors in the great Drama of the Reconsidering what we shall have to relate volution and the Empire. These personof them, will be ready to allow that ages he passed in review with a keen

and observant eye,—the aged survivors “ There is a tide in the affairs of men,

of the constituent assembly, members of Which, taken at the flood, leads on to For- the national convention, of the council of tune.”

five hundred, of the legislative assembly, Mignet had brought from the South of the Tribunate, Girondists, Montanists, introductions to M. Chatelain, then the generals, and marshals of the Empire, chief editor of the Courier Français, to diplomatists, financiers, men of the pen which journal he immediately became a and men of the sword, men of the head contributor. M. Thiers at the same time and men of the arm-he conversed with had found means to introduce himself to them all, questioned them, and extracted the notice of Manuel, who at that mo- from their memories of the past and ment had been elevated to the summit of their impressions of the present inexpopularity by his violent expulsion from haustible materials for future speculaihe Representative Chamber, at the in- tion. stance of the Ministry of M. de Villèle. As his relations with society became Manuel, in whose veins also flowed the more extended, he became more and warm blood of the South, received Thiers more sensible of those material inconwith the utmost cordiality and kindness, veniences which attend straightened peand presented him to M. Lafitte, under cuniary resources. Fortune, however, whose auspices he was received among of which, even from infancy, he seems the writers of the Constitutionnel, which to have been a favorite, soon came to his at that time was the most influential relief. He had, soon after his arrival in journal on the Continent of Europe. Paris, become acquainted with a poor Thus was laid the foundation of the for. and obscure German bookseller, by name tunes of M. Thiers. It was, in fact, all Schubart, who passed for a person of some he needed. It was the opportunity which learning, but whose knowledge, in fact, Fortune supplied to his genius, and it extended to little beyond the mere titles of


books. This individual had conceived have been supposed to have been able to an extraordinary predilection for Thiers. bring about such an event. He acted as his secretary and agent, One who knew this unfortunate and sought for him the documents which he enthusiastic person has alleged that, af. required, found a publisher for him, and, ter M. Thiers had arrived at the summit in fine, hired for him a more suitable of his power and greatness, he met on a Jodging than the attic in the passage burning day in the middle of summer, a Montesquieu, in which the friends were poor man whom affliction and misery installed. This humble but ardent ad. had oppressed to such a degree as partimirer had often spoken with enthusiasm ally to alienate his understanding. He to Thiers of his distinguished country was then being conducted to his family man, the Baron Cotta, the publisher and at his native town. He looked at the proprietor of the well-known newspaper narrator with a vacant stare, without the Augsburg Gazette, or Allgemeine recognizing one whom he had often seen Zeitung, as a remarkable man, who had with his favorite protégé. This wretched by honorable industry acquired an im- individual was Schubart, the most hummense fortune, of which he made a noble ble, the most devoted, and the most for.

Originally a bookseller, he had gotten of the friends of the prime minisbeen elevated to nobility, and was re ter of France.* ceived and acknowledged with respect in The course of life which Thiers purhis acquired rank, by the hereditary sued at this time, and in which he has aristocracy of his country, the proudest since preserved through all the brilliancy and most exclusive in Europe. A sim- of his successes, affords an instructive ple master of a printing office, he was lesson to those who aspire to elevate admitted to the intimacy of the most themselves, and struggle against the adillustrious of the age, the kings of Prus- vantages of birth, position, and even of sia, Wertemberg and Bavaria, -of Goethe, person and manners. He rose at five in Schelling, Schlegel, and the highest no ihe morning, and from that hour till noon, bles of Saxony. By means of his jour- applied himself to the columns of the nal he became the depository of the con- Journal, which soon in his hands quintufidential measures of all the governments pled its receipts. After having thus dewhich made those treaties between voted six hours to labor which most Northern and Southern Germany, on persons consume in sleep or idleness, be which the commercial prosperity of the would go to the office of the paper and country rested.

confer with his colleagues, among whom Just at this time it happened that a were MM. Etienne, Jay, and Everiste share in the property of the Constitu Dumonlin. His evenings were passed in tionnel was offered for sale. Schubart de- society, where he sought not only to er. termined to spare no exertion to procure lend his connections, but to collect inforit for his idol Thiers. With this view mation which he well knew how to turn he actually started for Stuttgard ; there to account. In accomplishing his object, persuaded Cotta to lend the funds neces some struggle was necessary to overcome sary for the purchase, returned and his personal and physical disadvantages. realized his object. Half the revenue In stature he is diminutive, and alarising from this share (which was then though his head presents a large forehead considerable) was placed at the disposal indicative of intellect, his features are of M. Thiers. This arrangement re common, and his figure clumsy, slovenly, mained a secret, a:d M. Thiers was and vulgar. An enormous pair of specallowed to enjoy the credit of being a tacles, of which he never divests himself, joint proprietor of the Constitutionnel, half cover his visage. When he begins the most influential journal of Paris. to speak you involuntarily stop your This act of generosity was at the moment ears, offended by the nasal iwang of his generally ascribed to Latitte, who was voice, and the intolerable provincial certainly quite capable of it, and with sing song of his dialect. In his speech whose known muniticence it was quite there is something of the gossip; in his in keeping. The poverty of Schubart, manner there is something of He which from day to day increased, ren is restless and fidgety in his person, dered him the last individual who could rocking his body from side to side in the

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Revue des deux Mondes.-Vol. iv., p. 661.

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