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which the civilized world will benceforth provocation for the act that was comhold to be just. Mr. Webster displayed plained of. the true grounds of national equality and We have not space to pursue the reindependence, pointed out the just limita- flection, how important to the peace of tions to the force of municipal law, and the world is the establishment of the docmade declarations, which cast the respon- trine of equality and independence besibility of war arising from any of these tween nations. Nothing can be a more causes of offence upon those who shall fruitful source of wars and conquest and give the offence. The probability of universal dominion, as all history shows such wars is therefore vastly lessened, than the absence of that doctrine from the and the principle of national equality practice of nations in their relations with and independence is advanced to a stage each other; and in nothing can mankind which it had not reached before. When be greater gainers, than in the negotiathe Secretary threw out the broad banner tions, between powerful states, in which of that Declaration, which is to float that doctrine is made the leading idea on hereafter over every American vessel which the merits of all complaints and that shall be found upon the sea, he made controversies are made to turn. It is it certain to England, that her extreme quite true, that this doctrine may not doctrines about the force of English law have been likely to be denied in terms, cannot hereafter be practiced, in internafor a long time; but there bave been tional relations, without the peril and the practices and objects of national policy responsibility of wars, in which the sym- which have been virtually a denial of it, pathies and the judgments of mankind and it concerns the great purposes of the will be against her.*
law of nations that they should be stayWith the same bold and acute discrim- ed. To this end, our illustrious counination, Mr. Webster seized the promi- tryman has been a great contributor, in a nent facts in the case of the Caroline, manner which will carry his name and and at once extracted the real cause for fame to the remotest ages, in wbich that complaint which we had against Eng- sublime code shall continue to govern the land. He made it manifest that a viola interests of mankind. tion of our soil and territory had been We have thus only sought, at this committed, which could not be justified time, to seize upon a few bold points by any inquiry into the lawfulness or of Mr. Webster's public career.
We unlawfulness of the employment in which have not attempted to enter into the the Caroline had been engaged. This great nature of his oratory, his masterly view of the case he had the satisfaction legal acquirements and forensic eloof seeing admitted, upon his reasoning, quence, his high statesmanship and peby the British Envoy, who made for the culiar qualifications for diplomatic staact all the apology which the case re- tion, or any of the chief qualities of his quired. In this admission, that most im- mind and character. These will make portant principle, the sanctity of soil and the subject of a future paper, when a territory, was fully established; and it greater remove from late canses of irriwas established too in a case in which tation, will allow a greater freedom and our own citizens bad given very high dignity of discussion.
NAPOLEON AND HIS MARSHALS.t
We have read this second volume of of the same great drama, it was hardly Mr. Headley's martial sketches with an possible that successive representations interest quite equal to that with which of the qualities and actions of Napoleon's we perased the first. This is saying a Marshals should not tire somewhat with great deal for the sustained vigor and ef. repetition of like effects. Such a result fectiveness of the work as a whole. was likely to be enbanced by the pictures Being all actors with like objects, mov- presented being mainly of blood and caring in similar, often in the same, scenes nage-the terrible and loathsome mise
* “IN EVERY REGULARLY DOCUMENTED AMERICAN MERCHANT VESSEL, THE CREW WĦO NAVIGATE IT WILL FIND THEIR PROTECTION IN THE FLAG WHICH IS OVER THEM. "- Mr. Webster to Lord Ashburton, Avg. 8, 1842.
Napoleon and his Marshals. By J.T. Headley. Vol. II. Baker & Scribner.
ries of war.
The same gory fields are astonishing scenes—for nearly the whole constantly spread before us, covered with work is made up of such-would have the ruins of battle-dead men and horses made the volumes more permanently piled in heaps of flesh among shattered pleasing; and Mr. Headley's general cannon--and drenched with a sea of style, by a little more under-current, blood. The chief variations were to be would be decidedly improved. But with found in the storming of some city, where all this, and some other things, which famine, rapine, lust and indiscriminate other readers will have noted with our. massacre, almost make the sanguinary selves, we cannot but again express our triumphs of the open field seem stainless. opinion that no second writer among us That such difficulties did not destroy the could have flung off these sketches with interest of the separate sketches, when nearly as much spirit and power. read together or in a volume, is partly It seems to be felt by some of the owing, no doubt, to that love of conflict "new age,” whose souls are as easily in human nature, which carries the mind alarmed as a sitting-hen, that these picthrillingly through even the horrors of tures of war are calculated to foster a human carnage.
It is due still more, war spirit in the bosom of our “ beloved however, to the vigor and freshness of country.” Now we do not hesitate to Mr. Headley's style, and the skillful say that we consider war in any shape manner in which he has presented each as a great evil; that the chief nations of character as the agent or exponent of Christendom could forever prevent any some one of the great scenes that made general contest taking place again in the up the career of Napoleon. The faults, world, and that the efforts of all should be indeed, as in the first volume, are mani. sedulously directed to create and diffuse fest enough. There are too many care- such an impression-since the impresfully constructed sentences for the work sion, once universal, would be sure to be of a habitual writer-too plentiful a use followed by such a result. So much the at times of strong epithetsand numer more reason for not blessing, if we do not ous repetitions—unnecessary and which curse, our present Administration, which, a quick-sighted vision should have done creating difficulties with a wretched and away with-of words and forms of ex- half-savage nation, makes this Republic pression, the appearance of which might the first Christian people to break a peace just as well have been avoided. A little of thirty years, strews the hot plains of more labor would have imparted to the the South-West in summer with festering work an element of the classical, which corpses, takes the lives of hundreds of now it certainly has not. We doubt, in- our countrymen, and puts back, twen. deed, if it is in Mr. Headley's nature to ty years, the dominion of the spirit of produce true classical writings. We should peace, if it do not end in making us a judge him, in the first place, to be a man military people, delighting in war, and of impatient nerves. "His mind “can. looking on bloodshed as the noblest ters” too much. True, we would not means of distinction. If such, also, have him, like--whom shall we say ? were to be the effect of Mr. Headley's Mr. Cooper or J. K. Paulding, getting off book, we would condemn it at once and from his lymphatic “cob” every few without reserve. But the impression on miles, and taking a nap by the road; but our own minds has been precisely the reneither is it wiser, when his beast is nat. verse. We have never been so 'shocked urally a keen pacer, to be always rising with a view of the horrors of war, and in his stirrups that he may see to the end we believe the same feelings must be proof his journey. Aside from temperament, duced upon the minds of others. It however, Mr. Headley loves too much must, indeed, be a very oblique or diluted the flush and life of splendid general ef. intellect, which could gather anything fects to be chiseling statues, or the nice different on reading the whole work; and proportions of architecture. He has too we should just as soon think of preclud. great earnestness of imagination--he ing people from reading all history, becannot think in marble. As for the cause one-half of it is made up of the sketches before us, they would undoubt. sanguinary records of war. This feeble edly not bear much elaboration-such as puling is not the way to change the opinmost writers who think “to live” bestow ions of men on this subject. Let them upon their efforts—without losing some- have a plain view of everything; let thing of their strength and vividness of them be able to condemn all evil on coloring ; still a more easy and subdued grounds of knowledge. Such a condemtone in parts, a less constant array of nation, when it comes, will stand. We
believe in having the history of every treat from Moscow. The entire sketch thing written.
of this Marshal is perhaps the most pow. Mr. Headley himself, though excited erful in the two volumes. It will bear, with the movements of such mighty ar- what indeed all the sketches will not, to mies, and all the splendid scenery of be read over three or four times—the Napoleon's victories, is still plainly im. hardest test to which a book can be put. pressed throughout with the terrors of It is as thrillingly and strangely terrific human warfare. He has taken many oc- as that of Macdonald, formerly published casions to comment upon them. What, in our pages-as full of painful interest for example, could be more appalling as that of Massena, in which occurs the than the following picture of the battle- awful siege of Genoa-and as replete field of Eylau, where Murat's terrific with a high chivalry as the brilliant accharge was made, through a whirling count of Murat—while in the representasnow-storm, with 14,000 cavalry. tion of a stern dignity and grandeur of
nature almost solemn in its aspect, and a “ Let the enthusiast go over the scene bravery utterly immovable and natural on the morning after the
battle, if he would as the silence of a rock, it surpasses them find a cure for his love of glory. Fifty; all together. Ney was an astonishing other in the short space of six miles, while character-and Mr. Headley's sketch is
We would quote the snow, giving back the stain of blood, worthy of the man. made the field look like one great slaugh- the whole description of the Retreat from ter-house. The frosts of a wintry morning Moscow, but for its extreme length. A were all unheeded in the burning fever of powerful extract to the same effect would ghastly wounds, and the air was loaded be some paragraphs from the terrible with cries for help, and groans, and blas Passage of the Beresina.” This event phemies, and cursings. Six thousand took place as a part of that disastrous horses lay amid the slain, some stiff and retreat, but the account of it is given in cold in death, others rendering the scene the sketch of Victor. still more fearful by their shrill cries of
So also of the awful sieges of Genoa, pain. The cold heavens looked down on this fallen multitude, while the pale faces Saragossa and Talavera, so vividly deof the thousands that were already stiff in scribed-how strong are the pictures death, appeared still more appalling in their they present of the horrors of Christian vast winding-sheet of snow. Foemen had warfare! It is honorable to Mr. Headfallen across each other as they fought, and ley, that though captivated too much, lay like brothers clasped in the last em- perhaps, by the splendors of such great brace ; while dismembered limbs and dis- military movements, he constantly shows emboweled corpses were scattered thick as his sense, that nothing can compensate autumn leaves over the field. Every form for the evils that follow after them. of wound, and every modification of wo
Mr. Headley's descriptions of battles were here visible. No modern war had hitherto exhibited such carnage, and where though by no means the most compreMurat's cavalry had charged, there the bensive and satisfactory, are quite the slain lay thickest. Two days after the most graphic and powerful we have ever battle five thousand wounded Russians lay seen. He does not attempt minute hison the frozen field, where they had dragged tory; but a few glowing dashes of the out the weary nights and days in pain. brush sets all the most striking parts of The dead were still unburied, and lay amid the scene most wonderfully before us. wrecks of cannons, and munition wagons, We make room for two passages --The and bullets, and howitzers ;-whole lines Battle of Dresden and the conflict of Hohad sunk where they stood, while epaul. henlinden. They are no more striking ettes, and neglected sabres, and muskets than many others, but are sufficient to without owners, were strewed on every show with what kind of a pen Mr. side, and thrown into still more terrible relief by the white ground of snow, over Headley writes : which they lay. Said Napoleon, in his bulletin home, after describing the dreadful appearance the field presented,- The
“On the evening of their approach, St. spectacle is sufficient to inspire princes Cyr wrote to Napoleon the following letter : with the love of peace and horror of war.""
• Dresden, 23d Aug., 1813; ten at night.
Atfive this afternoon the enemy approached More terribly impressive to the same Dresden, after having driven in our cavpoint is the account, in the sketch of alry. We expected an attack this evening; Marshal Ney, of that most terrible para- but probably it will take place to-morrow. graph in all modern history—The Re. Your Majesty knows better than I do, what
BATTLE OF DRESDEN.
time it requires for heavy artillery to beat filled with marching columns, prepardown enclosure walls and palisades.' The ing for an assault; while the beams of the next night, at midnight, he dispatched an- morning sun were sent back from countless other letter to him, announcing an im- helmets and bayonets that moved and mediate attack, and closing up with · We shook in their light. Here and there are determined to do all in our power ; but volumes of smoke told where the batteries I can answer for nothing more with such were firing, while the heavy cannonading young soldiers.' Immediately on the re- rolled like thunder over the hills. There, ception of the first letter, Napoleon too, was the French army, twenty thou. surrendered his command to Macdonald, sand strong, packed behind the redoubts, and turned his face towards Dresden. yet appearing like a single regiment in the Murat was dispatched in hot haste, to an midst of the host that enveloped them. nounce his arrival and re-assure the be- Courier after courier, riding as for life, sieged. In the middle of his guards, which kept dashing into the presence of the Emhad marched nearly thirty miles a day since peror, bidding him make haste if he would the commencement of the war, he took the save the city. A few hours would settle road to the city.
its fate. Napoleon, leaving his guards to “ To revive his sinking troops, he or follow on, drove away in a furious gallop, dered twenty thousand bottles of wine to be while a cloud of dust along the road, alone distributed among them, but not three told where his carriage was whirling onthousand could be procured. He, how. ward. As he approached the gates, the ever, marched all next day, having dis. Russian batteries swept the road with such patched a messenger to the besieged to a deadly fire, that he was compelled to leave ascertain the exact amount of danger. Said his carriage and crawl along on his hands Napoleon, to the messenger Gourgaud, and knees over the ground, while the can• Set out immediately for Dresden, ride non balls whistled in an incessant shower as hard as you can, and be there this above him. evening--see St. Cyr, the King of Na Suddenly and unannounced, as if he ples, and the King of Saxony--encour. had fallen from the clouds, he appeared at age every one. Tell them I can be in the Royal Palace, where the King of SaxDresden to-morrow with forty thousand ony, was deliberating on the terms of men, and the day following with my capitulation. Waiting for no rest, he took whole army. At day-break visit the out a single page so as not to attract the enemy's posts and redoubts--consult the command. fire, and went forth to visit the outer works. er of engineers as to whether they can So near had the enemy approached, that hold out. Hurry back to me to-morrow at the youth by his side was struck down by a Stolpen, and bring a full report of St. spent musket ball. Having finished his Cyr's and Murat's opinion as to the real inspection, and settled his plans, he restate of things. Away dashed Gourgaud turned to the Palace, and hurried off in hot speed, while the Emperor hurried couriers to the different portions of the on his exhausted army. Gourgaud did not army that were advancing by forced marchwait till day-break before he returned. He es towards the city. First, the indomitable found everything on the verge of ruin—the guards and the brave cuirassiers, eager for allied army was slowly enveloping the de- the onset, came pouring in furious haste voted city, and when, at dark, he issued over the bridge. The overjoyed inhabit. forth from the gates, the whole summer ants stood by the streets, and offered them heavens were glowing with the light of food and drink; but though weary, hungry their bivouac fires, while a burning village and thirsty, the brave fellows refused to near by, threw a still more baleful light take either, and hurried onward towards over the scene. Spurring his panting the storm that was ready to burst on their steed through the gloom, he at midnight companions. At ten o'clock the troops burst in a fierce gallop into the squares of commenced entering the city-infantry, the Old Guard, and was immediately ush- cavalry and artillery pouring forward with ered into the presence of the anxious impetuous speed—till there appeared to be Emperor. The report confirmed his worst no end to the rushing thousands. Thus, fears. At daylight the weary soldiers without cessation, did the steady columns were roused from their repose, and though arrive all day long, and were still hurrying they had marched a hundred and twenty in, when at four o'clock the attack commiles in four days, pressed cheerfully for. menced. The batteries that covered the ward; for already the distant sound of heights around the city, opened their terriheavy cannonading was borne by on the ble fire, and in a moment Dresden became morning breeze. At eight in the morning, the target of three hundred cannon all trained Napoleon and the advanced guard, reached upon her devoted buildings. Then coman elevation that overlooked the whole menced one of war's wildest scenes. St. plain in which the city lay embosomed; Cyr replied with his artillery, and thunder and lo! what a sublime yet terrific sight answered thunder, as il che hot August met their gaze. The whole valley was afternoon was ending in a real storm of
heaven. Balls fell in an incessant shower the Young Guard arrived, shouting as they in the city, while the blazing bombs tra- came, and were received in return with versing the, sky, hung for a moment like shouts by the army, that for a moment messengers of death over the streets, drowned the roar of battle. Then Naand then dropped with an explosion, that poleon's brow cleared up, and St. Cyr, for shook the ground, among the frighted in the first time, drew a sigh of relief. habitants. Amid the shrieks of the “ The gates were thrown open, and the wounded, and the stern language of com. impetuous Ney, with the invincible Guard, mand, was heard the heavy rumbling of the poured through one like a resistless torrent artillery and ammunition wagons through on the foe, followed soon after by Murat, the streets; and in the intervals, the with his headlong cavalry. Mortier sallied steady tramp of the marching columns, forth from another; and the Young Guard, still hastening to the work of death though weary and travel-worn, burst with while over all, as if to drown all; like suc. loud cheers on the chief redoubt-which, cessive thunder-claps where the lightning after flowing in blood, had been wrested falls nearest, spoke the fierce batteries that from the French-and swept it like a torwere exploding on each other. But the nado. confusion and death and terror that reigned “Those six massive columns, thinned through the city, as the burning buildings and riddled through, recoiled before this shot their flames heavenward, were not fierce onset, like the waves when they yet complete. The inhabitants had fled to meet a rock; and slowly surged back from their cellars, to escape the balls and shells the walls. In the mean time, dark and that came rushing every moment through heavy clouds began to roll up the scorching their dwellings; and amid the hurry and heavens, and the distant roll of thunder bustle of the arriving armies, and their mingled with the roar of artillery. Men hasty tread along the streets, and the roll had turned this hot August afternoon into of drums, and rattling of armor, and clangor a battle-storm, and now the elements were of trumpets, and thunder of artillery, the to end it with a fight of their own. In the signal was given for the assault-three can- midst of the deepening gloom, the allies, non shots from the heights of Raecknitz. now for the first time aware that the EmThe next moment, six massive columns, peror was in the city, drew off their troops with fifty cannon at their head, began to for the night. The rain came down as if move down the slopes--pressing straight the clouds were falling, drenching the liv. for the city. The muffled sound of their ing and the dead armies; yet Napoleon, heavy, measured tread was heard within heedless of the storm, and knowing what the walls, as in dead silence and awful great results rested upon the next day's acmajesty they moved steadily forward upon tion, was seen hurrying on foot through the the batteries.
streets to the bridge, over which he expect“ It was a sight to strike terror into the ed the corps of Marmont and Victor to heart of the boldest, but St. Cyr marked arrive. With anxious heart he stood and their advance with the calmness of a sear. listened, till the heavy tread of their ad. less soul and firmly awaited the onset that vancing columns through the darkness, even Napoleon trembled to behold. No relieved his suspense; and then, as they sooner did they come within the range of began to pour over the bridge, he hastened artillery than the ominous silence was back, and traversing the city, passed out at broken by its deafening roar. In a mo the other side, and visited the entire lines ment the heights about the city were in a that were now formed without the walls. blaze ; the fifty cannon at the head of these The bivouac fires shed a lurid light over columns belched forth fire and smoke; the field, and he came at every step upon and amid the charging infantry, the burst- heaps of corpses, while groans and lamentaing of shells, the rolling fire of musketry, tions issued from the gloom in every direcand the explosion of hundreds of cannon, tion; for thousands of wounded, uncovered St. Cyr received the shock. For two and unburied, lay exposed to the storm, hours did the battle rage with sanguinary dragging out the weary night in pain. ferocity. The plain was covered with Early in the morning, Napoleon was on dead—the suburbs were overwhelmed with horseback, and rode out to the army. Ta. assailants, and ready to yield every mo. king his place beside a huge fire that was ment—the enemy's batteries were playing blazing and crackling in the centre of the within fifteen rods of the ramparts—the squares of the Old Guard, he issued his or. axes of the pioneers were heard on the ders for the day. Victor was on the right; gates; and shouts, and yells, and execra the resistless Ney on the left, over the tions rose over the walls of the city. The Young Guard, while St. Cyr and Marmont last of St. Cyr's reserve were in the battle, were in the centre, which Napoleon com. and had been for half an hour, and Na. manded in person. poleon began to tremble for his army. But “ The rain still fell in torrents, and the at half past six, in the hottest of the fight, thick mist shrouded the field as if to shut