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Message of the President of the United States lo the Twentieth Congress.-

Second Session.

Fellow Citizens of the Senate,

of the Ottoman Porte, a nation and of the House of Representatives: from which geographical distance,

If the enjoyment in profusion of religious opinions, and maxims of the bounties of Providence forms a

government on their part, little suitable subject of mutual gratula- suited to the formation of those tion and grateful acknowledgment, bonds of mutual benevolence which we are admonished, at this return result from the benefits of com. of the season, when the represen. merce, had kept us in a state, per. tatives of the nation are assembled haps too much prolonged, of cold. to deliberate upon their concerns, ness and alienation. The exten. to offer up the tribute of fervent sive, fertile, and populous domi. and grateful hearts, for the never nions of the Sultan, belong rather failing mercies of Him who ruleth to the Asiatic, than the European over all,

He has again favoured division of the human family. They us with healthful seasons, and enter but partially into the system abundant harvests. He has sus. of Europe ; nor have their wars tained us in peace with foreign with Russia and Austria, the Eucountries, and in tranquillity within ropean states upon which they bor. our borders. He has preserved us der, for more than a century past, in the quiet and undisturbed pos. disturbed the pacific relations of session of civil and religious liberty. those states with the other great He has crowned the year with his powers of Europe. Neither France, goodness, imposing on us no other nor Prussia, nor Great Britain, has conditions than of improving for ever taken part in them, nor is it our own happiness the blessings to be expected that they will at this bestowed by his hands; and in the time. The declaration of war by fruition of all his favours, of devo. Russia has received the approbating the faculties with which we tion or acquiescence of her allies, have been endowed by him, to his and we may indulge the hope that glory, and to our own temporal and its progress and termination will be eternal welfare.

signalized by the moderation and In the relations of our federal forbearance, no less than by the Union with our brethren of the energy of the Emperor Nicholas, human race, the changes which and that it will afford the opportu. have occurred since the close of nity for such collateral agency in your last session, have generally behalf of the suffering Greeks, as tended to the preservation of peace, will secure to them ultimately the and to the cultivation of harmony. triumph of humanity, and of free. Before your last separation, a war dom. had unhappily been kindled be. The state of our particular relatween the empire of Russia, one tions with France has scarcely va. of those with which our intercourse ried in the course of the present has been no other than a constant year. The commercial intercourse exchange of good offices, and that between the two countries has con


tinued to increase for the mutual ration of the several acts imposing benefit of both. The claims of duties on imports, and by acts of indemnity to numbers of our fellow more recent date of the British citizens for depredations upon their Parliament. The effect of the inproperty, heretofore committed, terdiction of direct trade, comduring the revolutionary govern menced by Great Britain and rements, still remain unadjusted, and ciprocated by the United States, still form the subject of earnest has been, as was to be foreseen, representation and remonstrance. only to substitute different channels Recent advices from the minister for an exchange of commodities of the United States at Paris, en. indispensable to the colonies, and courage the expectation that the profitable to a numerous class of appeal to the justice of the French our fellow citizens. The exports, government will ere long receive the revenue, the navigation of the a favourable consideration.

United States, have suffered no diThe last friendly cxpedient has minution by our exclusion from been resorted to for the decision of direct access to the British colo. the controversy with Great Britain, nies. The colonies pay relating to the northeastern boun- dearly for the necessaries of life, dary of the United States. By an which their government burdens agreement with the British govern. with the charges of double voyment, carrying into effect the pro- ages, freight, insurance, and com. visions of the fifth article of the mission, and the profits of our extreaty of Ghent, and the convention ports are somewhat impaired, and of 20th September, 1827, his ma more injuriously transferred from jesty, the king of the Netherlands, one portion of our citizens to ano. has, by common consent, been se. ther. The resumption of this old, lected as the umpire between the and otherwise exploded system of parties. The proposal to him to colonial exclusion, has not secured accept the designation for the per- to the shipping interest of Great formance of this friendly office, Britain, the relief which, at the exwill be made at an early day, and pense of the distant colonies, and the United States, relying upon the of the United States, it was expect. justice of their cause, will cheer. ed to afford. Other measures have fully commit the arbitrament of it been resorted to, more pointedly to a prince equally distinguished bearing upon the navigation of the for the independence of his spirit, United States, and which, unless his indefatigable assiduity to the modified by the construction given duties of his station, and his inflex- to the recent acts of Parliament, ible personal probity.

will be manifestly incompatible Our commercial relations with with the positive stipulations of the Great Britain will deserve the se. commercial convention existing rious consideration of Congress, between the two countries. That and the exercise of a conciliatory convention, however, may be ter. and forbearing spirit in the policy minated with twelve months' notice, of both governments. The state at the option of either party. of them has been materially A treaty of amity, navigation, changed by the act of Congress and commerce, between the United passed at their last session, in alte. States and his majesty the empe.

mor of Austria, king of Hungary the United Netherlands, Sweden, and Bohemia, has been prepared and Prussia. During those wars, for signature by the Secretary of treaties with Great Britain and State, and by the Baron de Lederer, Spain had been effected, and those intrusted with full powers of the with Prussia and France renewed. Austrian government. · Indepen. In all these, some concessions to dently of the new and friendly re- . the liberal principles of intercourse lations which may be thus com proposed by the United States had menced with one of the most emi. been obtained; but as in all the nent and powerful nations of the negotiations they came occasion. earth, the occasion has been taken ally in collision with previous in. in it, as in other recent treaties ternal regulations, or exclusive aud concluded by the United States, excluding compacts of monopoly, to extend those principles of liberal with wbich the other parties had intercourse, and of fair recipro- been trammelled, the advances city, which intertwine with the ex. made in them towards the freedom changes of commerce the princi. of trade were partial and imperfect. ples of justice, and the feelings of Colonial establishments, chartered mutual benevolence. This sys. companies, and ship-building influ. tem, first proclaimed to the world

ence, pervaded and encumbered in the first commercial treaty ever the legislation of all the great com. concluded by the United States, mercial states; and the United that of 6th of February, 1778, with States, in offering free trade, and France, has been invariably the equal privilege to all, were comcherished policy of our Union. It pelled to acquiesce in many exis by treaties of commerce alone ceptions with each of the parties that it can be made ultimately to to their treaties, accommodated to prevail as the established system their existing laws and anterior of all civilized nations. With this engagements. principle our fathers extended the The colonial system, by which hand of friendship to every nation this whole hemisphere was bound, of the globe, and to this policy our has fallen into ruins. Totally abocountry has ever since adhered- lished by revolutions, converting whatever of regulation in our laws colonies into independent nations, has ever been adopted unfavoura. throughout the two American con. ble to the interest of any foreign tinents, excepting a portion of ternation, has been essentially defen- ritory chiefly at the northern exsive and counteracting to similar tremity of our own, and confined regulations of theirs operating to the remnants of dominion reagainst us.

tained by Great Britain over the Immediately after the close of insular Archipelago, geographithe war of independence, commis. cally the appendages of our part sioners were appointed by the Con. of the globe. With all the rest gress of the confederation, autho. we have free trade-even with the rized to conclude treaties with insular colonies of all the Euroevery nation of Europe disposed pean nations except Great Britain. to adopt them. Before the wars Her government had also manifestof the French revolution, such treaed approaches to the adoption of a ties had been consummated with free and liberal intercourse be

tween her colonies and other na. dered, examined, and decided upon, tions, though, by a sudden and in a spirit of determined purpose scarcely explained revulsion, the for the dispensation of justice. I spirit of exclusion has been revived have much pleasure in informing for operation upon the United Congress that the fulfilment of this States alone.

honourable promise is now in proThe conclusion of our last treaty · gress; that a small portion of the of peace with Great Britain was claims has already been settled to shortly afterwards followed by a the satisfaction of the claimants ; commercial convention, placing the and that we have reason to hope direct intercourse between the two that the remainder will shortly be countries upon a footing of more placed in a train of equitable ad. equal reciprocity than had ever justment. This result has always before been admitted.

The same

been confidently expected, from principle has since been much far. the character of personal integrity ther extended, by treaties with and of benevolence which the so. France, Sweden, Denmark, the vereign of the Danish dominions Hanseatic cities, Prussia in Eu. has, through every vicissitude of rope, and with the republics of fortune, maintained. Colombia, and of Central America, The general aspect of the affairs in this hemisphere. The mutual of our neighbouring American na. abolition of discriminating duties tions of the south, has been rather and charges, upon the navigation of approaching than of settled tranand commercial intercourse be. quillity. Internal disturbances have tween the parties, is the general been more frequent among them maxim which characterizes them than their common friends would all. There is reason to expect have desired. Our intercourse with that it will, at no distant period, be all has continued to be that of adopted by other nations, both of friendship, and of mutual good will. Europe and America, and to hope Treaties of commerce and of boun. that, by its universal prevalence, daries with the United Mexican one of the fruitful sources of wars states have been negotiated, but, of commercial competition will be from various successive obstacles, extinguished.

not yet brought to a final conclu. Among the nations upon whose sion. The civil war which uofor. governments many of our fellow tunately still prevails in the repub. citizens have had long pending lic of Central America, has been claims of indemnity, for depreda. unpropitious to the cultivation of tions upon their property during a commercial relations with period when the rights of neutral them; and the dissentions and re. commerce were disregarded, was volutionary changes in the repubthat of Denmark. They were, lics of Colombia and of Peru, have soon after the events occurred, the been seen with cordial regret by subject of a special mission from us, who would gladly contribute to the United States, at the close of the happiness of both. It is with which the assurance was given, by great satisfaction, however, that his Danish majesty, that, at a pe. we have witnessed the recent con. riod of more tranquillity, and of clusion of a peace between the less distress, they would be consi. governments of Buenos Ayres and



Brazil; and it is equally gratifying leave in the treasury, on the first to observe that indemnity has been of January next, the sum of five obtained for some of the injuries millions one hundred and twenty. which our fellow citizens had sus. five thousand six hundred and tained in the latter of those coun. thirty-eight dollars, fourteen cents. tries. The rest are in a train of ne. The receipts of the present year gotiation, which we hope may ter. have amounted to near two mil

. minate to mutual satisfaction, and lions more than was anticipated ‘at that it may be succeeded by a treaty the commencement of the last ses. of commerce and navigation, upon sion of Congress. liberal principles, propitious to a The amount of duties secured great and growing commerce, al. on importations from the first of ready important to the interests of January to the 30th of September, our country.

was about twenty-two millions nine The condition and prospects of hundred and ninety-seven thou. the revenue are more favourable sand, and that of the estimated than our most sanguine expecta. accruing revenue is five millions ; tions had anticipated. The balance leaving an aggregate for the year in the treasury, on the first of Ja. of near twenty-eight millions. This nuary last, exclusive of the moneys is one million more than the esti. received under the convention of mate made last December for the 13th November, 1826, with Great ccruing revenue of the present Britain, was five millions eight year, which, with allowances for hundred and sixty-one thousand drawbacks and contingent defi. nine hundred and seventy-two dol. ciencies, was expected to produce lars and eighty-three cents. The an actual revenue of twenty-two receipts into the treasury from the millions three hundred thousand first of January to the 30th of Sep- dollars. Had these only been re. tember last, so far as they have alized, the expenditures of the year been ascertained to form the basis would have been also proportion. of an estimate, amount to eighteen ally reduced. For of these twentymillions six hundred and thirty- four millions received, upwards of three thousand nine hundred and nine millions have been applied to eighty dollars and twenty-seven the extinction of public debt bear. cents, which, with the receipts of ing an interest of six per cont. a the present quarter, estimated at year, and of course reducing the five millions four hundred and burden of interest annually paya. sixty-one thousand two hundred ble in future, by the amount of and eighty-three dollars and forty more than half a million. The cents, form an aggregate of re payments on account of interest ceipts during the year of twenty. during the current year, exceed four millions and ninety-four thou. three millions of dollars ; presentsand eight hundred and sixty-three ing an aggregate of more than dollars and sixty-seven cents. The twelve millions applied during the expenditures of the year may pro- year to the discharge of the public bably amount to twenty-five mil. debt, the whole of which remain. lions six hundred and thirty-seven ing due on the first of January thousand five hundred and eleven next, will amount only to eight dollars and sixty-three cents; and millions three hundred and sixty.

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