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or one or two of them, shall super. cations specified in the second pa. intend the publication of the jour. ragraph of article 5, shall also be nal.

the responsible agent of the jourEach of the responsible agents, nal. shall have the qualifications re- Otherwise, he shall be bound to quired by the 980th article of the appoint a responsible agent, in con. civil code, and shall be the pro. formity with article 5. prietor of at least one share of the The journals not liable to fur. concern, and own in his own right nish security, shall be bound to at least one fourth of the security. make the previous declaration pre.

6th. No journal or periodical scribed by number 1, 2, and 5 of publication compelled to give se. the first paragraph of this article. curity by the regulations of this Art. 7th. These declarations law, shall be published without pre. shall be accompanied by a deposite viously making a declaration con. of the surety bonds : they shall be taining

signed by each of the proprietors 1st. The title of the journal or of the journal, or by the source of periodical, and the stated times of power of each of them. They its appearance.

shall be received in Paris, at the 2d. The names of all the pro. direction of the library, and in the prietors besides the editors, their departments at the secretary gene. places of residence, their share in ral of prefecture. the concern.

Art. 8. Each number of the pe. 3d. The names and places of re. riodical shall be signed en minute sidence of the responsible agents. by the proprietor if he be sole; by

4th. An affirmation that the pro- one of the responsible agents, if it prietors and agents have be published by an association in plied with the conditions prescribed the collective or partnership name;

and by one of the representatives, 5th. The place of the printing if it be published by an anonymous office where the journal is usually association. printed.

The original signed, shall be de. Whenever any change takes posited at the office of the royal place, either in the title of the jour. procureur in the place of publica. nal, or in the conditions of their tion, or with the mayor, in cities, publication, or among the proprie. where there is no tribunal de pretors, or the responsible agents, a miere instance, under penalty of delaration of it shall be made be. 500 francs upon the agents.

Refore the competent authority, within ceipts shall be given therefor at 15 days after the change, by the the offices of deposite. responsible agents. Any neglect The signature shall be printed of this regulation, shall be punished at the bottom of all the copies, under by a fine of 500 francs.

a penalty of 500 francs upon the The same regulation shall apply printer, without any power of reif the journal shall be printed in any lief. other printing office than the one The signers of each sheet originally designated. If the pub. shall be responsible for its conlication shall be undertaken solely tents, and liable to all the penalties by one individual, the proprietor, imposed by law, on account of libel. provided he possesses the qualifi. lous paragraphs published, without


by law.

prejudice to the prosecution of the Art. 11. If the declaration pre. authors of the libellous articles, as scribed by article 6th is decided to accomplices. Consequently pro- be false and fraudulent in any par. secutions may be had, as well ticular, the journal shall be discon. against the signers of the im. tinued. The authors of the de. pressions, as against the authors of claration shall be punished by a the libels, if the authors are known fine, of which the minimum shall be or prosecuted.

equal to one tenth, and the maxi. Āri. 9. The proprietors of ex. mum equal to one half of the secu. isting journals are granted, provi. rity. ded they do not violate the provi. Art. 12. Where the journal is sions of article first, the space of established and published by a sole six months trom the promulgation proprietor, if the proprietor should of this law, to appoint one, two or die, his widow or heirs shall be three responsible agents, possess. permitied, within three months, to ing the qualifications required by appoint a responsible agent. This the preceding articles, and also agent must be the owner of real to make the declaration prescribed estate, free from incumbrances, by article 6th.

and paying 500 francs direct taxes, If the responsible agents do not if the journal be published in the possess in their own right the departments of the Seine, of the fourth of the security, they shall be Seine and Oise, and of the Seine permitted to prove, that, besides and Marne, and 150 franks in the their share in the undertaking, they other departments. are true and legal proprietors of The agent appointed by the real estate, paying, at least, 500 widow or heirs, must possess the francs direct taxes, if the journal is qualifications prescribed in art. 980 published in the departments of of the civil code. Within 10 days the Seine, of the Seine and Oise, after the decease, the widow or and of the Seine and Moine, and heirs shall appoint an editor, who 150 francs in the other depart. shall be responsible for the journal ments. The real esiate must be until the agent shall be accepted. free from all incuinbrances.

The security of the deceased This fact must be expressly proprietor shall be liable until the mentioned in the declaration. completion of the business.

Art. 10. In case of any dispute Art. 13. The pecuniary penal. as to the regularity or sincerity of ties, decreed against the responsithe declaration prescribed by arti. ble signers, or against the authors cle, sixth and the securities, it of libellous paragraphs, shall be le. shall be decided by the tribunals, vied (prélévées) 1st. upon that part at the instance of the prefect, sum of the security, belonging to the marily, and without expense ; the responsible signers : 2d. upon the party or his counsel, and the pub. residue of the security, where that lic minister, having been heard. shall be insufficient, without preju.

If the journal has not yet ap. dice, for the surplus, after the rules peared, the publication shall be prescribed by articles 3 and 4 of suspended until the judgment, the law of June 9th, 1819. which shall be executed without Art. 14. Penalties other than appeal.

those imposed by this law, which shall have been incurred for the ings, where the doors are ordered crime of libelling through a journal to be closed, they shall not, under or periodical publication, shall not the same penalty, publish any thing be less than double the minimum but the passing of the sentence. imposed by the laws relative to re. Art. 17. When, in pursuance of pressing the offences of the press. the last paragraph of the 23d arti

Art. 15. In case of a repetition cle of the law of May 17th, 1819, of the offence by the same agent, the tribunals shall, on account of and in the case provided for, by defamatory evidence foreign to the article 58 of penal code, besides cause reserved, either a public the provisions of the 10th article prosecution or a civil action be. of the law of June 9th, 1819, the tween parties, the journals shall tribunals may, according to the not, under a similar penalty, publish gravity of the offence, decree the the evidence, nor extracts from the suspension of the journal, for a pe. records containing it. riod not exceeding two months, and Art. 18. The law of March 17th, not less than 10 days. During this 1822, concerning the police of time, the security shall remain in journals and periodical publicadeposite a la caisse des consigna. tions, is repealed. tions, and shall not alter its charac. This law, having been discussed, ter.

deliberated, and adopted by the Art. 16. In all proceedings re. chamber of peers, and by that of lative to defamation, if the tribunals the deputies, and sanctioned by us decree according to the provisions this day, shall be carried into effect of article 64 of the charter, that the as a law of the state. discussion shall take place with Given in our Chateau de St. closed doors; the journals shall Cloud, the 18th day of July, in the not, under the penalty of 2000 francs, publish the facts of the de.

CHARLES. famation, nor give extracts of the By the king. Keeper of the records, or any writings which con. Seals, Minister Secretary of State tain them.

of the department of justice. In all civil or criminal proceed.


year of

grace 1828.




government upon this subject with his majesty the emperor of all the

Russias; and his Imperial majesty, His Britannic Majesty having on the other hand, being equally been requested by the Greeks to animated by the desire of putting an interpose his good offices, in order end to the contest of which Greece to obtain their reconciliation with and the Archipelago are the theatre, the Ottoman Porte-having, in con- by an arrangement which shall be sequence, offered his mediation to consistent with the principles of that power, and being desirous of religion, justice, and humanity, the concerting the measures of his undersigned have agreed :

1. That the arrangement to be vernments of his Britannic Majesty proposed to the Porte, if that Go. and his Imperial Majesty. vernment should accept the prof. 3. If the mediation offered by his fered mediation, should have for its Britannic Majesty should not have object to place the Greeks towards been accepted by the Porte, and the Ottoman Porte in the relation whatever may be the nature of the hereafter mentioned.

relations between his Imperial MaGreece should be a dependency jesty and the Turkish government, of that empire, and the Greeks his Britannic Majesty and his Im. should pay to the Porte an annual perial Majesty will still consider the tribute, the amount of which should terms of the arrangement specified be permanently fixed by common in No. 1. of this Protocol, as the consent. They should be exclu. basis of any reconciliation to be ef. sively governed by authorities, to fected by their intervention, whe. be chosen and named by them. ther in concert or separately, be. selves, but in the nomination of tween the Porte and the Greeks ; which authorities the Porte should and they will avail themselves have a certain influence.

of every favourable opportunity to In this state, the Greeks should exert their influence with both par. enjoy a complete liberty of con. ties, in order to effect their recon. science, entire freedom of com. ciliation on the above-mentioned merce, and should, exclusively, con. basis. duct their own internal government.

4. That his Britannic Majesty In order to effect a complete se. and his Imperial Majesty should paration between individuals of the reserve to themselves to adopt, two nations, and to prevent the hereafter, the measures necessary collisions which must be the neces. for the settlement of the details of sary consequences of a contest of the arrangement in question, as such duration, the Greeks should well as the limits of the territory purchase the property of the Turks, and the names of the islands of the whether situated on the continent Archipelago to which it shall be of Greece, or in the islands. applicable, and it shall be proposed

2. In case the principle of a media. to the Porte to comprise under the tion between the Turks and Greeks domination of Greece. should have been admitted, in con. 5. That, moreover, his Britannic sequence of the steps taken with Majesty and his Imperial Majesty that view by his Britannic Majesty's will not seek, in this arrangement, Ambassador at Constantinople, his any increase of territory, nor any Imperial Majesty would exert, in exclusive influence, nor advantage every case, his influence to forward in commerce for their subjects, the object of that mediation. The which shall not be equally attainable mode in which, and the time at by all other nations. which, his Imperial Majesty should 6. That his Britannic Majesty take part in the ulterior negotiations and his Imperial Majesty, being with the Ottoman Porte, which may desirous that their Allies should be the consequence of that media. become parties to the definitive ar. tion, should be determined hereafter rangement of which this Protocol by the common consent of the go. contains the outline, will communi.


cate this instrument, confidentially, tively abstaining from every kind to the Courts of Vienna, Paris, and of interference in each other's inBerlin, and will propose to them ternal and private affairs, it is, on that they should, in concert with the the other hand, not less evident Emperor of Russia, guaranty the that the essential object of treaties treaty by which the reconciliation between empires is to guard against of the Turks and Greeks shall be the infringement of a system of oreffecied, as his Britannic Majesty der so adınirable, and thus to estabcannot guaranty such a treaty. lish the security of people and

St. Petersburgh, April 4, (March kingdoms. In this way each inde23,) 1826.

WELLINGTON. pendent power, besides the obliga. (Signed) NESSELRODE. tions which its treaties and foreign LIEVEN.

relations impose, possesses also in

stitutions and relations which con. JANIFESTO OF THE OTTOMAN PORTE, cern only itself and its internal

state, and which are the offspring

of its legislation and form of governThe following document was de. ment. It belongs, then, to itselt livered on the 9th and 10th of June, alone to judge of what befits itselt, 1827, by the Reis Effendi to the and to busy itself therewith exDragomans of the French, English, clusively. Moreover, it is matter Russian, Austrian, and Prussian of public notoriety, that all the missions, in the order in which they affairs of the Sublime Ottoman repaired to the Porte.

Porte are founded on its sacred

legislation, and that all its regula. To every man endowed with in. tions, national and political, are telligence and penetration, it is clear strictly connected with the precepts and evident that conformably to the of religion. decrees of Divine Providence, the Now the Greeks, who form part flourishing condition of this world of the nations inhabiting the coun. is owing to the union of the human tries conquered ages ago by the species in the social state ; and Ottoman arms, and who, from that, as on account of their diversity generation to generation, have been of manners and character, this tributary subjects of the Sublime union could only be accomplished Porte, have, like the other nations by the subjection of different nations, that since the origin of Islamism reAlmighty wisdom, in dividing the mained faithfully in submission, aluniverse into different countries, ways enjoyed perfect repose and has assigned to each a Sovereign, tranquillity under the ægis of our into whose hands the reins of legislation. It is notorious that these absolute authority over the nations Greeks have been treated like Mus. subject to his dominion are placed; sulmans in every respect, and as to and that it is the wise manner the every thing which regards their Creator has established and regu. property, the maintenance of their lated the order of the universe. personal security, and the defence

If, on the one hand, the consist of their honour ; that they have ency and duration of such a state been, particularly under the glorious of things principally depend on reign of the present sovereign, load. monarchs and sovereigns respec. ed with benefits far exceeding those

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