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torily called for. The evident to the shedding of blood. Confi. wish to avoid extreme measures dential overtures, which unfolded guarded his conduct.

to it all the plan of the three As his imperial majesty promised courts, informed it at the same himself, from the union of the time that in case of refusal, the great courts, a more easy and united fleets of these three courts *peedy termination of the war would be obliged to pui an end to which desolates the east, he re. a contest which was no longer nounced on the one hand, the em. compatible with the security of the ployment of every partial influ. seas, the necessities of commerce, ence, and banished every idea of and the civilization of the rest of exclusive measures in this impor.

Europe. tant cause ; on the other hand he The Porte did not take the least endeavoured by direct negotiations notice of these hints. A com. with the divan, to remove a far- mander of the Ottoman troops had ther impediment to the reconcilia. scarcely concluded a provisional artion of the Turks and the Greeks. mistice, when he broke the word he Under such auspices the conferen. had given, and led at length to the ces at Ackerman were opened. employment of force. The battle The result of them was the con. of Navarin ensued. This necessaclusion of an additional conven. ry result of evident breach of faith tion to the treaty of Bucharest, the and open attacks, this battle itself terms of which bear the stamp of gave Russia and her allies another that deliberate moderation, which, opportunity to express to the divan subjecting every demand to the its wishes for the maintenance of immutable principles of striet jus. the general peace, and to urge it tice, calculates neither the advan. to consolidate this peace, to extend tages of situation, nor the superio- it to the whole of the Levant, and rity of strength, nor the facility of to establish it on the conditions

The sending of a per. which the Ottoman empire should manent mission to Constantinople add to the reciprocal guaranties soon followed this convention, on attending them, and which, by reawhich the Porte could not suffi. sonable concessions, would secure ciently congratulate itself, and the it the benefits of perfect security. treaty of July 6th, 1827, soon This is the system—these the confirmed in the face of the world, acts-to which the Porte replied by the disinterested principles pro. its manifesto of the 20th Decem. claimed by the protocol of April 4. ber, and by measures, which are

While this convention duly re. only so many breaches of the trea. cognised the rights and the wishes ties with Russia ; so many violaof an unhappy people, it was to tions of its rights ; so many violent conciliate them by an equitable attacks on its commercial prosperi. combination with the integrity, ty; so many proofs of desire to the repose, and the true interests bring upon it embarrassment and of the Ottoman empire. The enemies. most amicable means were tried Russia, now placed in a situation to induce the Porte to accept this in which its honour and its interbeneficent convention,-urgent en. ests will not suffer it any longer to treaties called on it to put an end remain, declares war against the


Ottoman Porte, not without regret, lations of that act. It did not, and after having, however, for sixteen could not, condemn Russia to years neglected nothing to spare sacrifice its earlier important rights, it the evils which will accompany to endure decided affronts, and to it. The causes of this war suffi." demand no indemnity for the most ciently indicate the objects of it. sensible injuries. But the duties Brought on by Turkey, it will im- which it imposes upon it, and the pose upon it the burden of making principles on which it is founded, good all the expenses caused by it, will be fulfilled with sedulous fide. and the losses sustained by the lity and strictly observed. The subjects of his imperial majesty; allies will find Russia always ready undertaken for the purpose of en. to act in concert with them in forcing the treaties which the the execution of the treaty of Porte considers as no longer ex. London, always zealous to co-ope.. isting, it will aim at securing their rate in a work which is recom. observance and efficacy; induced mended to its care by religion, and by the imperative necessity of se. all the feelings which do honour curing, for the future, inviolable to humanity, always inclined to liberty to the commerce of the make use of its situation only for Black Sea, and the navigation of the speedy fulfilment of the stipu. the Bosphorus, it will be directed lations of the treaty of the 6th of to this object, which is equally ad. July, but not to make any change vantageous to all the European in its nature and effects. states.

The emperor will not lay down While Russia has recourse to his arms till he has obtained the arms, it thinks that far from having results stated in this declaration, indulged in hatred to the Ottoman and he expects them from the be. power, or from having contem. nedictions of Him to whom justice plated its overthrow, according to and a pure conscience have never the accusation of the divan, it has yet appealed in vain. given a convincing proof that if it Given at St. Petersburgh, the had designed to combat it to the 14th (26) April, 1828. utmost, or to overturn it, it would have seized all the opportunities Letter from the Grand Vizier to for war which its relations with Count Nesselrode, dated Decem. the Porte have incessantly pre

ber 11, 1827. sented.

Our very illustrious and kind Russia, nevertheless, is very far friend, -While we express from entertaining ambitious plans; wishes for the preservation of your enough of countries and nations health and the continuance of already obey its laws; cares your friendly sentiments, we re. enough are already united, with mark that in consequence of the the extent of its dominions. convention of Akerman, happily

Lastly, Russia, though at war concluded between the Sublime with the Porte for reasons which Porte and the Russian court, by are independent of the convention which the relations of reciprocal of the 6th July, has not departed, friendship are still greater confirm. and will not depart from the stipu. ed, the illustrious Ribeaupierre,


who had arrived as extraordiary On this consideration, the said ambassador and minister plenipo. minister was at length informed tentiary of the imperial court, has that if he were authorized by his in the usual form delivered the court to leave Constantinople in letters of his majesty to the sultan, this manner, he had to deliver to and his credentials to the grand vi. the Sublime 'Porte, only a note, zier, and was received on this occa- containing the motive assigned sion with all the distinctions and him, and serving as a proof that honours due to the friendly and by this formality the rights of both pacific intentions of both parties. parties might be regarded; but he Together with the fulfilment of refused this also, so that the nature these formalities, care was taken of his proposal was not free from to direct, in a suitable manner, all doubt. The Porte then saw itself affairs relative to the discussion of obliged to take a middle course the treaties concluded, and to regu. between giving permission and late various other matters. Mean refusing it. The ambassador has time certain injurious proposals, in this manner left Constantinople contrary to the treaties, were pressed of himself, and the present friendly upon the Sublime Porte, with respect letter has been composed and sent to which the Russian government to acquaint your excellency with has made known in repeated com. this circumstance. When

you munications and conferences, its shall learn on receipt of it, that the frank and sincere answers, founded Sublime Porte has at all times no on truth and justice. Lastly, it has other desire or wish than to pre. repeatedly requested and urged serve peace and understanding, the said minister to

and that the event in question has to the imperial court the motives been brought about entirely by the of urgent necessity, and the real acts of the said niinister, we hope causes of excuse which guided it, that you wilt endeavour, on every and to wait for the equitable an. occasion, to fulfil the duties of swer that would be returned; but friendship. that minister, contrary to all expec. tation, without regard to the right Letter from the Vice-Chancellor of governments and the duty of a

Count Nesselrode, to the Grand representative, has refused to pay

Vizier, in reply. reasonable attention to the motives alleged by the Sublime Porte, and Very illustrious grand vizier : while he prepared to leave Con. I have received the letter which stantinople, asked permission so to your excellency did me the honour do, without a motive. Yet it is to write to me on the 12th of De. certain that as the coming to the cember, 1827, and laid it before residence of the representatives of the emperor.

Had not my august friendly powers has no object, but master thought fit to delay the an. the maintenance and execution of swer to it, and to leave the Sub. the existing treaties, it is acting lime Porte time to change its de. contrary to the law of nations to plorable resolutions, I should have desire to leave the place of resi. received orders to reply to your dence, entering into such discus. excellency on the very day that I sion, unconnected with the treaties. received your letter. That the


Ottoman ministry was greatly mis. agree to wait, in the present case, taken, if it believed that the con. for instructions, which he must duct of the Russian ambassador at consider as wholly superfluous. Constantinople was not entirely in the situation in which the Porte approved by his imperial majesty. itself placed him, he had no alter.

The Sublime Porte could not be native left but to maintain the dig. ignorant that M. de Ribeaupierre nity of his court by leaving Con. had not ceased to act on the affairs stantinople, at the same time giving of Greece, according to the ex- to the Sublime Porte a salutary press commands of his sovereign, hint, and leaving it time, by the as it had before it the obligations removal of pernicious and passion. which must guide, in this respect, ate counsels, to reflect on the dan. all the measures of the three gers that surrounded it. The em. courts; an the Russian ambassa. peror

grief that the dor hal officially declared that he Porte, instead of duly appreciating was the organ of all the views and this truly friendly policy, replies to wishes of the emperor ; as little it by actions which make its trea. could the Porte deceive itself with ties with Russia null and void--that regard to the real motives of the it has violated the principal condi. proposals made to it for the pacifi. tions, impeded the trade of the cation of Greece, as it was proved Black Sea, and at the same time, to it, that according to those ten- attacked his subjects; and, lastdering the peace, which was indis. ly, has announced to all Mussul. pensable for the security of com- men its resolution to return evil merce, and the repose of Europe, for good, war for peace—and never would be established in those to fulfil solemn conventions. Af. countries upon foundations which, ter so many hostile measures com. far from affecting the integrity of bined, notwithstanding the reprethe Ottoman empire, and merely sentations and the endeavours of altering the form of its old rights, the courts allied and in amiry with would have afforded it great politi. Russia, your excellency will not cal advantages, means for pronio. be surprised to learn that I am or. ting its internal prosperity, and dered to reply to your letter of the pecuniary indemnities, for they 12th of December by the annexed are by no means burthensome con. declaration, which will be imme. cessions which it would make. diately followed by the march of After the Russian ambassador had the Russian troops, which the em. fully developed these important peror orders to enter the dominions considerations in all his conferences of the sultan, to obtain satisfaction with the Turkish ministry, and as for his just complaints. all his official and confidential notes The more sincere the sorrow of he was not bound to allege them my august master at the necessity again in another official note, which of being obliged to have recourse was required of him without cause, to force, the more agreeable would and without object. He was be. it be to him to shorten its duration, sides acquainted with the resolu- and if plenipotentiaries from the .tions and sentiments of the empe. sultan present themselves at the ror, and the constant refusals of the head-quarters of the commander. Porte, He could not, therefore, in-chief of the Russian army, they

sees with


will meet with the best reception : ciple, that the solid existence and that is to say, if the Porte sends maintenance of this order of things them with the sincere intention of essentially depends upon an equal renewing and restoring the conyen. and reciprocal obgervation of the tions that subsisted between the obligations established between two empires, to accede to the sovereigns, which ought, therefore, terms of the treaty agreed upon to be respected in common, and on the 6th July, 1827, between scrupulously executed. Russia, England and France, to God, all powerful, be praised for provide for ever against the recur- this, that the Sublime Porte has, rence of such acts as those which since the commencement of her have given the emperor just political existence, observed those grounds for war, and to make good salutary principles more than any the losses caused by the measures other

power; as the confidence of the Ottoman government, as

of the Porte is founded on the prewell as the expenses of the war, cepts of the pure and sacred law, which will be increased in propor- and of the religion which Mussul. tion to the duration of the hostili. mans observe in peace as well as ties. The emperor will not, in- in war, and having never consulted deed, be able to stop the progress any thing but the law, even in the of the military operations during slightest circumstances, she has the negotiations to be opened for never deviated from the maxims of this purpose ; but he feels convin. equity and justice, and as is general. ced that, with his moderate views, ly known, has never been placed in they will speedily lead to the con- the situation of compromising her clusion of a durable peace, which dignity, by infringing without any is the object of his most ardent legitimate motive,treaties concluded wishes. I have the honour to be, with friendly powers. &c. &c.

It is equally well known to the Signod. Count NESSELRODE. whole world and incontestible, that St. Petersburgh, 14th (26th) of with regard to the treaties, conven. April, 1828.

tions, and stipulations, for peace

and friendship, concluded inder ANSWER OF THE PORTE TO THE RUS. diplomatic forms with Russia, as a

neighbouring power, the Porte has Men of sound judgment and up. constantly exercised the greatest right minds know, and reflection care in respecting the duties and united with experience clearly rights of good neighbourhood, and proves, that the principal means of in availing herself of all proper preserving order in the world, and means for consolidating the bonds the repose of nations, consists in of friendship between the two na. the good understanding between tions. sovereigns, to whom the Supreme The Court of Russia has, however, Master in the plenitude of his mercy, without any motive, disturbed the has intrusted, as servants of God, existing peace-has declared war, with absolute and unlimited power, and invaded the territory of the the reigns of government and the Sublime Porte. Russia alleges administration of the affairs of their that the Sublime Porte has caused subjects. It results from this prin. this war, and has published a ma,


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