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nifesto, in which she accuses the to the reasons advanced ; and as Porte of not having executed the she continued to insist in her preten. conditions of the treaties of Bucha. sion, the Sublime Porte, with the rest and Akermann-of having sole view of preserving peace, and punished and ruined the Servians, in maintaining the relations of after having promised them'pardon friendship, did not hesitate to restore and amnesty--of having demanded the dismissed Waivodes, without fortresses in Asia, which were es. paying attention to the consesentially necessary to Russia—of quences of such a condescension, having, without regard to the two but with Russia declared herself provinces of Wallachia and Molda. fully satisfied, and under the via, punished with death the most ministry of Gahib Pacha, then distinguished men of Greece-with Reis Effendi, officially notified, having, while publicly declaring through the first interpreter, Counthat Russia is a natural enemy of sellor Fonton, that the differences the Mussulman nation, endeavoured and difficulties existing on that acto provoke to vengeance, and direct count, between the two courts, was against her, the bravery of all the completely removed, she immediMussulman people-of having sign. ately and unexpectedly made an at ed the treaty of Akermann with tack on the side of Chotieu and mental reservation, seized the car. Bender. According to the regular goes of Russian ships, and instigated course, the Sublime Porte demanded the Court of Persia to make war explanations from the Russian Amupon Russia ; and, finally, it is bassador, who tried to deceive, and made the subject of complaint, that formally disavowed what had taken the Pachas of the Porte were mak. place, adding that Russia was in a ing warlike preparations. It is state of peace and friendship with these and other charges of the same the Sublime Porte ; that if war had nature, that Russia has brought been intended, the ambassador must forward-a series of vain inculpa. necessarily have known it; and that tions, destitute of all real foundation. it could only be supposed that the It will be proper to make each Russian troops had some motive for the subject of a reply, founded on advancing. equity and justice, as well as on the When the fact was finally proved, real state of the facts.

the Sublime Porte was under the Though Russia has published that necessity of resisting : but baving these are the principal motives for a natural repugnance to war and the the declaration of war, it is, however, shedding of blood, she imposed on generally known, that the herself a sacrifice, and signed the which terminated with the treaty of treaty of Bucharest. Russia did Bucharest was commenced by her. not respect the treaty. Among self. In fact, before that war she other infractions, instead of evacua. had, on just and equitable grounds, ting the Asiatic frontier, according dismissed the Waivodes of Walla. to the basis and the tenor of the chia and Moldavia, and Russia then treaty, she unjustly annulled that pretended that the dismissals were article, and regarded with indiffercontrary to treaties; and though the ence all the well founded remon. Sublime Port represented in an strances of the Sublime Porte. amicable manner things under the Finally, the Russian plenipotentia. real aspoct, Russia refused to listen ries at Ackermann, having altered


and misinterpreted the pure sense so strikingly to what degree she of the treaty, and being no longer respects treaties and principles of able to answer the convincing equity, how can she attribute to the arguments of the Turkish pleni. Sublime Porte their violation ? and potentiaries, declared that a long how can such an imputation ever be space of time having elapsed since admitted ? the article in question had been The Imperial amnesty promised executed, the fortress claimed could to the Servians for the part they not be given up. To such language took in the war with Russia was the Turkish plenipotentiaries mightfully granted after the peace ; and well have replied, that if the non- as a consequence of the national execution in due time and place, of clemency of his Serene Highness, articles officially stipulated, war. particular concessions assured to ranted a total renunciation, the them their welfare and their re. other articles, the more or less pose.

The same nation afterwards prompt fulfilment of which was disregarded the authority of the demanded of the Sublime Porte, Sublime Porte, and dared to revolt might also remain in statu quo. But separately and by itself. As the their instructions did not authorize Servians are the subjects of the them to hold a language so foreign Sublime Porte, and as the Ottoman to the treaties, and so contrary to government is entitled to treat them the law of nations. And their mis. according to their character, either sion restricting them to the consoli. by punishing or pardoning, the dation of the bonds of peace, they merited chastisement was inflicted, acceded. Nevertheless, the Rus. and happiness was restored to the sian declaration represents this de. country, without the sligtest injury mand of evacuation as having had to Russia, or infringement of the no foundation in fact ; and by treaty of Bucharest. This affair pretending that we had already of Servia, as well as other like points renounced it, evidently deviates distinct from treaties, and even from the path of truth.

some events of smaller importance, It was agreed that the Russian which ought to be classed under tariff should be renewed every two natural accidents, always served as years, and the other friendly powers motives of complaints on the part have renewed their tariffs according of Russia, and also never renounced to agreement. The tariff of Rus. her embarrassing proceedings.sia, however, has undergone no However, the Sublime Porte con. changes for 27 years. Since the tinued to regard her as a public expiration of the term, the renewal friend, to pay attention to all affairs has oft times been proposed to the which could have possibly any Russian Envoys and Charge d'Af. analogy with the treaties concluded faires at Constantinople, but the between the two states, and to application was always made in observe scrupulously the rules of vain; Russia refused to do justice good understanding. to the well-founded demands of the Some time before the Greek Sublime Porte. The conduct of insurrection, the Russian Envoy, Russia, as well in words as in ac. Baron Strogonoff, pretending that tions, in these two affairs of the the Sublime Porte had not executed evacuation and the tariff, showing certain stipulations, insisted in a demand for conferences relative to Every power being authorized to the treaty of Bucharest. Positive arrest and punish malefactors within answers and conclusive coversa. iis own territories, and to manage all tions made known to him at different internal affairs tending to the main. times, that as the articles had tenance of good order, as soon as already been executed, or were the flame of rebellion was lit up on being effectively and entirely car. every side, the Sublime Porte rerying into execution by the Sublime sorted to suitable measures, sent Porte, while, on the contrary, Rus. troops againsi the rebels to restore sia had yet to prove her amicable tranquillity, crush rebellion and fidelity by fulfilling stipulations, the purge the country, and laboured to accomplishment of which had been restore the privileges of the provin. deferred on her part, there was of ces, being far from wishing to an. course no occasion for the required nihilate them by the destruction of conferences. However, as he per. the malefactors. It is evident, sisted in exceeding the orders of that no person whatever had any his court, the opening of the con- right to object to those and other ferences was at last conceded, but measures which the Sublime Porte on the express condition of not

was obliged to adopt, and which in introducing such objects as might such a conjuncture could not be extend the meaning of treaties, or delayed. Nevertheless, the Rus. change the tenor of conventions. sian Envoy invented divers objec. In the course of the conferences the tions, and originated several unreaRussian Minister did not fail to raise sonable differences, by discourses more than one unreasonable discus. and proceedings little becoming sion. However, the articles of the the agent of a powerful friend, in above-mentioned treaty were in the the midst of affairs so important course of being examined, one by which occupied the attention of the one, when the Greek insurrection Sublime Porte. broke out, and it is notorious that Some time after, Ypsilante, bethe obstacles occasioned by that ing routed, returned to Russia, and event were calculated to retard the the Hospodar of Moldavia, Michael labour in question.

Sutzo, having also taken refuge The fugitive Ypsilante then is. there with all his partizans, the sued from Russia to invade publicly Sublime Porte demanded, in the and unexpectedly Moldavia, at the terms of treaties, that these persons head of a troop of rebels. He spread should be delivered up, or punished trouble and disorder through the two where they were. Though between principalities. Animated by the allied powers, there can be no greatchimerical desire of establishing a er humanity than fidelity to treaties, pretended government for Greece, Russia merely gave a vague answer, he excited to revolt the whole of the inconsistent with all diplomatic Greek people, who are tributary rules, saying that humanity opposed subjects of the Ottoman empire from their delivery. She thus violated father to son, misled them by his and annihilated existing treaties accursed proclamations circulated and rights, to protect, and perhaps every where, and instigated them pay particular attention to these into disown the authority of the Sub. dividuals. lime Porte,

The remains of the rebels were

still in the two principalities, and former footing. Lord Strangford, the refugees were protected by the English ambassador, on his re. Russia. The flame of the insurrec. turn from the congress of Verona, tion was increasing daily, when having in the course of his conversa. Russia demanded the evacuation tions on the existing circumstances, of the two principalities by the first observed the moderate conduct Ottoman troops, the nomination of of the Porte to be free from all ob. the Hospodars, and the modifica. jection, declared officially and pub. tion of indispensable measures, in licly, at different times, and in full which circumstances permitted no conference, that if the Sublime Porte change to be made. At the period would also consent to reduce the when the principal persons among number of the beshline.ferat who the Greeks, and the insane leaders were under the command of Bash of the insurrection, received the Beshli Aga of the principalities, chastisement due to their proved there would then remain no object crimes, very improper pretensions of dispute or difference between were put forward in their favour by the Sublime Porte and Russia, and Russia. Not the slightest wish was the good harmony of the two courts shown to yield an equitable ear to would rest on solid basis. Putting the just answers and amicable de. faith in this notification, and wish. clarations which the Sublime Porte ing to remove every cause of dis. opposed to these pretensions, both cord ; the Sublime Porte acquiesced verbally and by writing. Finally, in this proposition also; the number the Russian envoy left Constanti. of the beshline-ferat was reduced. nople in a manner contrary to the M. Minziacki, then the Russian duties of an ambassador.--The chargé d'affairs, expressed the great Grand Vizer immediately wrote to

satisfaction of his court at this re. the Russian prime minister, and duction. explained the whole truth to him. Shortly after the question of the He

represented in detail, that the rank of the Bash Beshli Aga began system adopted and adhered to at to be discussed. Russia intimated all times by the Sublime Porte, con. officially that she wished them to sisted in the pure intention of be changed, and superseded by in. literally executing the treaties con- dividuals without rank. This fa. cluded with friendly powers, more vour was also granted, solely to particularly with Russia, her friend please Russia. Immediately after and neighbour, and in constantly at. M. Minziacki presented an official tending to the means of maintaining note in the name of his court, good understanding and securing demanding that plenipotentiaries tranquillity. Contrary to our hope, should be sent to the frontiers, to the answer which we received was explain the treaty of Bucharest. remote from the path of justice and The plenipotentiaries whom the truth.

Sublime Porte sent to the frontier, As soon as the two principalities with the view of terminating the were purged of the rebels which conferences, began for the same had defiled them, the Hospodars object with Baron Strogonoff, and were appointed, the ancient privi. in the hope that this time at least, leges completely restored, and these all discussion being terminated be. two provinces re-established on their tween the two empires, the desired


peace would be obtained. Having to meddle with it was a sincere been afterwards artfully drawn by mark of regard towards the SubRussia, as far as Ackermann, they lime Porte; this declaration, there. began by laying down the princi. fore, appeared to be a pledge of ples of not departing from the cir- peace and friendship between the cle of treaties, and not altering or two empires for the present and the changing the sense of the stipula. future, the closing of the conferen. tions, in the same manner as had ces was implicitly based on the been previously agreed upon with said declaration, and the treaty the same envoy. The two parties was really concluded without much agreed to this basis, and the con. attention to each particular article. ferences

opened. After M. de Ribeaupierre, envoy from some meetings, the Russian pleni. Russia, on arriving at Constantino. potentiaries presented, contrary to ple, received all the accustomed the agreement, a detached docu. honour--all the marks of respect ment, under the title of “Ultima: due to his person. The greater tum,” demanding that the same part of the articles of the above should be accepted and approved, treaty had already been carried in. such as it was. In vain the Turk- to execution, and the means of ish negotiators endeavoured to ob. equally executing the others were tain the abandonment of this pro. under consideration, when the position, by representing how con. Greek affair, the discussions con. trary it was to diplomatic forms, cerning which had continued so and to the basis of the conferen. long, and resounded in all ears, ces. “Our mission,” replied the came again into question; an affair Russians, “has for its sole object on which the Sublime Porte had to procure the acceptance of this already a thousand times given document.” And here the confe. categorical and official replies; an rences closed.

affair, moreover, in which Russia Finally, as the Russian plenipo. had formally promised not to intertentiaries had, in the course of the fere. A treaiy then appeared, unconference, admitted the Greek justly concluded against the Subquestion to be an internal affair be. lime Purte, and without its know. longing to the Sublime Porte, and ledge. Notwithstanding the preas they had officially declared in sence of M. de Ribeaupierre, who the name of their court, that Rus. when at Ackermann, as second ple. sia would not mix herself in any nipotentiary of his court, was one way therewith, and that they would of those who officially announced completely tranquillise the Sublime that Russia would not interfere Porte on this point, seeing that with the Greek question-notwith. this declaration was entered in standing the existence of the prothe protocols kept according to tocols, the declaration was openly custom by both parties, seeing denied. This new proposition, so moreover, that according to the violent that it was impossible for reasons, legislative, political, and the Sublime Porte to accept it, national, which prevent the Sub. either consistently with law or lime Porte from admitting any fo. policy, was put forward, and a reign interferences on the Greek hearty refusal given to the request question, the promise of Russia not to lend a favourable ear to the

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