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legal excuses and real obstacles Besides that nothing can prove which the Sublime Porte had, with the reproach which Russia ad. good faith, at different times al- dresses to us of having concluded leged on this subject.

the treaty of Ackermann with a Finally, the fatal event at Nava. mental reservation—the proclama. rin-an event unheard of and un. tion which the Sublime Porte, for exampled in the history of na. certain reasons, circulated in its tions-still made no change in the states, being an internal transacamicable relations of the Sublime tion, of which the Sublime Porte Porte ; but, not content with the alone knows the motive, it is evi. concessions which the Sublime dent that the language held by a Porte might, from regard solely to government to its own subjects the three powers, and without any cannot be a ground for another go. farther addition, grant to the coun. vernment picking a quarrel with it. try still in rebellion, the Russian Nevertheless, immediately after envoy departed from Constantino. the departure of the envoy, the ple without motive or reason. Grand Vizier, in an official letter

Were the Sublime Porte to de. to the Prime Minister of Russia, tail her numerous complaints, and clearly expressed that, faithful to insist upon her just rights, each of the good intentions so long mani. the points above stated would be. fested, the Sublime Porte was al. come in itself a special declara. ways desirous of maintaining peace. tion. But the circumstances Now, if Russia had equally de. which preceded and followed the sired, as she pretended in her de. Greek insurrection, having clearly claration, sincerely to maintain demonstrated what was its origin peace between the two states, as and the natural progress of events

all discussions between powers having only tended to confirm the ought to be based on the text of opinion previously formed, the treaties, or on official documents, Sublime Porte, without wishing to the official letter of the Grand impute the origin of the revolution Vizier well deserved to be acceptto any quarter, continued to testify ed and taken into consideration ac. towards Russia all the respect and cording to diplomatic practice, and all the friendship which treaties in the hypothesis of this procla. and vicinage required; she en- mation having given some suspi. deavoured to maintain the most fa. cion to Russia, the course of com. vourable relations ; but of this no munication not being obstructed account was taken. Besides, in- between the two courts, Russia asmuch as the Sublime Porte, from might have applied amicably to the the desire of preserving peace, dis. Sublime Porte to ascertain the played a mildness and condescen- truth, and to clear up her doubts. sion, in so much did Russia op. Far from following this course, pose to her reserve and hostile perhaps even without taking into proceedings. It was natural that consideration the correct informa. such a conduct should excite in tion transmitted on the subject by the minds of Mussulmans the idea the representatives of other friendly of innate enmity, and awaken powers who were still here, she among them all the ardour of Islam. hastened to class that proclamation ism.

among the number of her com


plaints and pretexts. Then is pure calumny. Never did the Sub. not the party which has declared lime Porte think it consistent with war evidently that which must have its dignity to instigate one nation concluded the treaty of Ackermann against another. Far from exciting with a mental reservation? The Persia, the Sublime Porte observed facts carry their proof along with the strictest neutrality, neither mix. them, and relieve us from the ing itself up with the origin or the is. necessity of further demonstra. sue of the war or the peace between tion.

the two empires. If some neigh. We come now to the seizure of bouring pachas made preparations, the cargoes

of Russian vessels. they were only measures of pre'Tiwigh the corn which the Otto. caution usual to every state bormon provinces furnished is, thanks dering upon two other nations at be to God, sufficient for the con

It thus clearly appears that sumption of the capital, neverthe. the endeavour of Russia to ascribe less the blockade, established con. these preparations to hostile intentrary to peace and good under. tions towards herself, has as little standing for the purpose of pre. foundation as the rest. yenting the Mussulman troops in Russia has constantly made use the Morea from receiving provi. of the protection, and of the intesions, we had determined to trans. rests which she felt or possessed, port from certain parts of Romelia in favour of the unfortunate inhabi. to that peninsula the grain destined tants of Wallachia and Moldavia, to the capital, it became necessary to excite all sorts of dissentions to supply the deficit thereby crea- against the Sublime Porte. Would ted here in a way heretofore prac. any one wish to convince himself tised, and which equally affected that her true object was not to prothe merchants of other friendly na- tect them, but to pick a quarrel tions. The corn of the Russian with us, let him consider the evils merchants was purchased at the which have been inflicted upon current market price for the sub. them by the invasion of Ypsilante, sistence of Constantinople, and the and by the unjust inroad of the amount paid to the owners. This Russian army in contempt of trea. measure, arising solely from the ties. Such are the inhabitants blockade, cannot be made a just whom Russia pretends to protect : cause of complaint against the Sub. It is to Russia to whom they owe lime Porte. Besides, the im. their ruin. It was very easy for mense losses which the Sublime the Sublime Porte to cause her vicPorte has experienced in con. torious troops to enter the two prinsequence of the Greek revolution, cipalities after she knew that Rus. as well as the damage caused at sia was making preparations to in. Navarin, give it a full right to com. vade them; but never having at plain, wbile others had no right to any time permitted, contrary to the speak of their losses, their com. divine law, the least vexation to. merce enjoying greater advantages wards her subjects, and being anx. than before.

ious to secure the welfare and tran. As to the reproach of having ex. quillity of the provinces under the cited Persia against Russia, it is a shade of the imperial throne, she

abstained in order to spare the mis- them, the permanent commission fortunes of the inhabitants.

of the national assembly has the In a word, the Sublime Porte honour to submit some views on makes the present declaration that that subject, which it believes to none may have any thing to say be better founded as they result against her; that it may be weigh. from actual observation and local ed in the balance of equity and knowledge. truti, how much injustice there was In considering the question of on the part of Russia in resisting

the frontiers of Greece, one is the important demands and grave struck with the necessity of not complaints of the Sublime Porte, limiting them too much. A state, which are as clear as the sun; in in. rising on the border of a vast em. venting all kinds of objections ; in pire, its natural enemy, without interpreting in a thousand different sufficient territory presents an ways the system followed by the easy prey, creating by its very Ottoman government; and in de. weakness the disposition to invade claring war without motive or ne. it on the first opportunity. If, in cessity; in fine, that, exempt from the desire of bringing about a every kind of regret respecting the peace, this view of the subject is means of resistance which the disregarded, the seeds of speedy Mussulman nation will employ, re. destruction will be sown in the lying upon the divine assistance, work itself. and acting in conformity with the This inconvenience becomes holy law, she may be able to clear still more serious, if the new state her conscience of an event which at its birth is burdened with a pub. will occasion now and hencefor. lic debt and a yearly tribute, with. ward trouble to so many beings, out sufficient extent of territory to and perhaps may shake the tran. furnish the necessary revenues to quillity of the whole world. discharge these obligations. This

will at the same time call into ex.

istence and pronounce a decree of Declaration addressed by the govern. in a situation to fail in its sacred en

death upon the state, by placing it ment of Greece to the powers signing the treaty of July 6th, gagements engagements to which 1827, in relation to the bounda. But since the allied powers have

it owes its creation and territory. ries of Greece.

thought it worthy of their solici. Egina, Dec. 30th, 1827. tude to undertake the pacification The treaty of July 6th, conclu- of Greece, reposing upon their ded between France, Great Britain good will, we confide these ques. and Russia, with the view of put. tions wholly to their wisdom, trust. ting an end to the effusion of blood ing that the work will be as solid in the east, does not fix the fron- as worthy of their high reputation, tier line between the belligerent and confine ourselves to lay before parties. The serious difficulties them same observations upon the presented by this question in more localities. It is certain, that the than one aspect, without doubt oc. best frontiers will be those, which casioned this omission. Hoping form the shortest possible line of to be able to remove a portion of demarkation and which may be at

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the peace

the same time easily guarded. two seas, and the rivers running The more obstacles that they offer from its mountains to one or the to an invasion on either part, the other of these seas, do not traverse more certain and durable will be a sufficient tract to enlarge them

before they discharge themselves The line of mountains in the at their mouths. They are consesouth of Thessaly and those of quently too small to serve for fron. Phocia or of Baotia do not present tier lines. these advantages. The famous The true line of demarkation passes of Thermopylæ, since the which nature seems to have form. recession of the waters of the ed expressly to separate for ever gulf bounding it, only form an or. the north of Greece from the ad. dinary passage. Besides, they joining countries, and which has may be passed on the flank in constantly triumphed over political many places, and especially by the and military events in all ages, is very large road of Assaniana, not traced on one side by the northern distant from Neopatra. The ex- mountains of Thessaly, and on the pedition of Brennus, who with the other by the course of the river Gauls, passed and repassed these Aous or Vojussa, and the moun. mountains at pleasure, proves this; tains that crown it. The first part and all the conquerers who have of this line begins in the environs come among us, as the Romans, of Hatrin, to pass by Savia, at Gre. the crusaders, and the Turks, have nuera, following, at the same time, not met with any serious resist. the course of the Haleacmon, at ance.

the highest elevation of Pindus; The frontiers which are

the other would commence at the templated on the west of Greece district of Canitza, to descend to upon the same line in Acarnaia or Vehemera. This second part is Lower Epirus do not afford any called by some geographers the greater security. In the Peloponne. defiles of Pyrrhus. It was these sian war, the belligerent armies tra. defiles that the Roman general versed them without difficulty. The Flaminius, after having reduced Romans, in the Macedonian, and Macedonia, vainly attempted to afterwards in the Etolian war, did pass, and after long and useless the same; and we also find that efforts, was forced to write to the Albanians did in the middle Rome, that the inhabitants of Upages. The events in the present per Epirus were a savage and bar. war but too well prove the samo barous people, who little deserved facts.

the protection of the senate ; and Another inconvenience not less it was necessary to draw a milita. serious is, that a line of demarka. ry cordon on their frontiers, to tion cannot be traced in this part check their invasions on neigh. of Greece, without many windings, bouring countries. We have just which considerably elongate the said that it is nature herself who frontier line. A strong line is

seems to have separated, by these vainly sought in the courses of frontiers, Greece from the neigh. rivers, unless they are bordered bouring countries. In fact, Lower by mountains. Greece is a narrow Epirus, or Epirus, consisting of strip of land projecting between Thesprotia, Molossida, is still go


verned by the population of that guage and ideas.

It appears nation, and the towns of Prevesa, clearly that this line of frontier, Asta, Janina, Paramythea, recal or rather this separation, formed, the acts of Nicopopolus, Angos, in ancient times, the true limit of Amphilocheum, Battenotum, &c. Greece, properly so called, as it However great the tendency of the forms at the present day that of Greeks in their prosperity to ex- New Greece. It avoids, at the tend their colonies, which they same time, by its regular direction, pushed into Italy, Gibraltar, and the zigzags, if they sought not to the coasts of the Euxine, they follow it, and which, among other were never able to establish them. inconveniences, would have that selves beyond the banks of the of too greatly extending its limits. Atus or Vojussa. On the other It may be objected, that it em. hand, numerous eruptions made braces some small points whero in the middle ages, by various con- the population has remained the quering nations, and especially by tranquil spectators of events; but the slaves, and by the Albanians there are other localities, such as in Epirus, did not succeed in des. Naourta, the Peninsulas, Capadtroying the Greek race, its lan- dra, Modena, Choria, &c. which guage, and that spirit which is have taken an active part in the natural to it; that race, on the war, and are not comprehended in contrary, remained essentially pre. it. The necessity of this arrondominating, so powerfully did its dissement justifies, and even de. local connexions prevail over the mands, these beneficial measures. effects of time and the force of The plea of necessity would find events. As much may be said for even here its application in the in. the natural frontier, which sepa- terest of the belligerent parties, rates Macedonia from Thessaly. and the powers who would be their The first of those provinces is guarantees ; for unhappy facilities peopled, in a great measure, by for violating the frontiers of the Mirous or Bulgarians, who have neighbouring states would drag, been established there for many sooner or later, one of the parties centuries, while we do not find into a war, in which the guarantees those heterogeneous elements in would be compelled to offer a new Thessaly, which has been enabled, intervention, which could not be from its geographical position, to other than onerous to them in more preserve itself more entire through than one respect. The commis. successive ages.

It will not be sion demands nothing further, but useless to remark, en passant, that proposes that which it believes to even the Turks, according to their be founded on justice, and for the national prejudices, considered all interests of the general safety. the countries, on this side of the The tribute which the three allied Nardar, as less Mussulman, and powers have in their wisdom stipu. attached less value to them, than lated shall be paid, and which the the other parts or states which Greeks have consented to pay, form the Ottoman empire. In fact would only be a species of indemthe Albanians, and other Mahom. nity for the concessions which the medans there established, present Porte would make to them. a strange difference in their lan

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