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CONSTITUTIONAL CHARTER OF take the oaths. 4. Foreigners GREECE.
who come to Greece and are there [Adopted at Napoli, May, 1827.]
naturalized. In the name of the Holy and In.
7. All Hellenians are equal in divisible Trinity.
the eye of the law. The Greek nation, met for a
8. Every Hellenian shall be eli. third time in a national assembly, gible, according to his personal ta. proclaims by its legitimate repre. lents, to public employments, both sentatives, before God and man, its political and military. political existence and indepen. habit Greece for a time, or for
9. Foreigners who come to indence, and establishes the follow. ing fundamental principles to serve
ever, are equal to the Hellenians
before the civil law. as a constitution :
10. The taxes shall be levied Chap. 1.-Of Religion.
from the inhabitants of the state, Art. 1. In Greece every man shall profess freely his own religion, the fortunes of individuals; but no
with justice, and in proportion to and obtain for his worship the
tax can be levied without a law same protection, but the orthodox being promulgated, and no law for religion of the Greek church is the levying taxes can be published for religion of the state.
more than one year. CHAP. 2.-Of the State.
11. The law guaranties the 2. Greece is one and indivisible.
personal liberty of every indivi. 3. It consists of eparchates, (pro- dual; no person can be arrested vinces.)
or imprisoned, but according to 4. All those provinces shall be law. esteemed eparchates of Greece The life, the honour, and the which have taken, or shall take up property of all those who are arms against_the despotic govern. within the bounds of the state, are ment of the Turks.
under the protection of the laws. CHAP. 3.-Of the Public Law of 13. No order to seek for, or ar. the Hellenians.
rest persons, or property, can be 5. The sovereign power resides given, unless it be founded on in the nation ; all power emanates sufficient proof, and unless the from it, and only exists for it. place of search be pointed out, as
6. Hellenians are-1. All the well as the persons and things native Greeks who believe in Je. which are to be arrested. sus Christ. 2. Those who, op
14. In all judicial proceedings, pressed by the Ottoman yoke, and, every one has a right to demand the believing in Jesus Christ, are come,
cause and the nature of the accuor shall come, to Greece, to take sation made against him ; to reply up arms, or dwell there. 3. Those to his accusers, and their wit. who are born abroad, of a Greek nesses, and to bring forward wit. father, or those native and others, nesses in his defence; to have and their descendants, naturalized counsel, and to require a speedy before the publication of the pre- decision from the court. sent constitution, and born abroad, 15. No person shall be esteem. who shall come to Greece and ed guilty till he is condemned.
16. No person is to be tried thoughts and opinions, without twice for the same offence, nor being subjected to any censorship, condemned and deprived of his but always within the following property without a previous trial. limits : A definitive judgment cannot be 1. Not to attack the Christian appealed from
religion. 17. The government may re. 2. Not to violate decency. quire private property to be given 3. To avoid insults and personal up for the public good, when suffi. calumny. ciently demonstrated, but previous 27. The Greek government be. indemniiy must be granted. stows no title of nobility, and no
18. Torture and confiscation Hellenian can, without the consent are abolished.
of his own government, receive a 19. The law cannot be made service, gift, recompense, employ. retroactive.
ment, or title of any description 20. The Hellenians have a whatever, from any monarch,
, right to form establishments of prince, or foreign state. every description, for science, for 28. The epithets of illustrious, philanthropy, for industry and excellency, &c. shall not be given arts, and to select professors for to any Hellenian within the limits their instruction.
of the state ; only the governor 21. In Greece it is not permit- shall bear the name of excellency, ted to buy and sell a man; every
which shall cease with his funcslave of every nation and of every tions. religion, as soon as he places his 29. No native, nor person natu. foot on the Greek soil, his master ralized and inhabiting Greece, and can no longer pursue him.
enjoying the rights of a citizen, 22. No person can decline sub. can have recourse to foreign pro. mitting to his competent judge, nor tection ; in case he does, he ceases be prevented from having recourse to be a citzen of Greece. to him. 23. No person can be detained
CHAP. 4.---Of Naturalization. in prison more than 24 hours with. 30. The government shall natuout the cause of his arrest being ralize foreigners, who bring certi. made known to him ; nor more ficates from Greek functionaries, than three days without the pro. attesting : 1. That they have pass. ceedings against him beginning. ed three whole years in the coun.
24. The clergy, according to try; 2. That during this time they the rules of the Greek church, have not been visited by any in. can take no part in any public em. famous punishment; 3. That they ployment: the presbyters (minor have acquired within the state priests) alone have the righ' of landed property of the value of at election.
least 100 dollars. 25. Every one may write to the 31. Great actions and notorious senate, and state his opinion on services, during the need of the any public object.
country, are sufficient claims to 26. The Hellenians have the naturalization. right to write and publish, freely, 32. The government may also by the press, or otherwise, their naturalize those foreigners who founded in Greece'remarkable estab. the representatives of the provili. lishments, tending to the progress
ces of Greece. of the sciences, of arts, of com.
44. Each of the representatives, merce, and of industry. It may upon taking his seat in the senate, also abridge the time necessary shall take the oath required by law. for naturalization.
45. The representatives shall 33. Those foreigners who have be elected by the people, accord. served, or who shall serve in a milita. ing to the law of election. ry capacity in Greece two years, and 46. The senate, as a body, is who have the necessary certificates declared inviolable. of service, are by that made Hel. 47. The senate shall have a pre. lepic citizens.
sident, a vice-president, 1st and 34. A man when naturalized 2d secretaries, with the necessary immediately enjoys all the rights vice-secretaries. of a citizen, but the right of repre
48. The president and the vicesentation shall be regulated by the president shall be elected by the law of elections which the senate senate, a plurality of votes govern. will publish.
ing. The president may be elect. 35. Every person naturalized ed from persons not belonging to shall take the Greek oath.
the Senate, but the vice-president Cuap. 5.—Of the Organization of
must be taken from among their the Government.
49. The two first secretaries 36. The sovereign power of the shall be elected from without the nation is divided into three powers body, by a plurality of votes of the
- the legislative, the executive, members. and the judicial.
50 The president shall preside 37. The legislative power makes in the daily sittings; he shall fix laws.
the day and hour of opening; he 38. The executive power sanc.
shall prorogue the senate, and in tions them, agreeably to article 74
cases of necessity, shall convoke and carries them into execution.
them in extraordinary sessions. 39. The judicial power applies
51. Upon the request of twenty them. 40. The legislative power be. shall open the session.
senators present, the president longs in particular to the body of 52. When the president is ab. representatives of the people, who
sent, the vice-president shall perwill take the name of senate, form his duties, and in case of the (boule.)
absence of both, the eldest repre. 41. The executive power be. sentative shall fill provisionally the longs to one alone, who will take place of president. the name of governor, and who has
53. In case of either of them dying under his orders different secre.
or becoming infirm, the other shall taries. 42. The judicial power belongs
fill his place, according to article 48.
54. The term of office of the to the tribunals.
president and vice-president shall CHAP.-Of the Senate. 43. The senate is composed of
55. Two thirds of the whole
be one year.
number of the senators shall com
to account for what they may pose a quorum.
say in the senate. 56. No member shall leave the 68. The sittings of the senate senate without the written and shall be public, except when formal permission of the senate. there is a necessity of declaring
57. The senators are elected them secret, which shall be done by for three years, and the body shall a majority of the members. be renewed by annual elections of 69. The members of the senate one third each year. The 1st and shall form themselves into perma. 2d years the vacancies shall be de. nent committees for the public sertermined by lot.
vice, and their duties shall be
pre. 58. No member shall be elected scribed by the senate. twice in succession.
70. Any senator may, through 59. The senate shall commence the president, propose in writing its sessions the 1st of October of the projet of a law to the senate.
71. The decrees and other offi. 60. The sessions shall continue cial documents from the senate from 4 to 5 months.
shall be signed by the president, 61. A plurality of voices shall countersigned by the first seereta. govern, and in case of an equality ry, and sealed with the seal of the of votes, the president shall decide. senate.
62. When the president is not a 72. The first secretary shall re. representative, he has no vote, cord the decrees and acts of the except in case of a division ; but senate, and correctly keep its ar. when he is a representative, he chives and the minutes of its sitshall vote in that character, and in tings. case of a division shall also have a 73. When the first secretary is casting vote.
absent, the second secretary shall 63. No representative shall be perform his duties. permitted to hold any other pub. 74. Every decree shall be prelic office, nor to take any part di- sented to the president; if he aprectly or indirectly in the receipt prove it, he shall sanction it within of the public revenue, under pain 15 days thereafter, and promulgate of losing his seat.
law ; but if he do not ap64. The senators shall receive prove it, he shall return it within from the public treasury their full 15 days to the senate, with his pay when they attend the sittings amendments and remarks, which of the senate, and half pay when shall be recorded by the senate, absent.
and referred to a competent com65. No senator shall be arrested mittee to deliberate upon them, during the session, nor for 4 months and to report them for revision. before, nor 4 months after the ses. If the senate does not approve of sion ; but they may during the va. the amendments, the decree shall cation be subjected to a judgment. be again sent to the president, who
66. If they shall be condemned shall return it to the senate within to a capital punishment, the judg. 15 days, provided he still objects ment shall be executory.
to it, with the reasons of his ob. 67. Senators shall not be called jections; and if the senate by a plu.
rality of votes adheres to the de. be regularly given of the sales, by cree, it shall be again sent to the the executive power in each propresident, who shall immediately vince. sanction and promulgate it as a law 83. It shall guard the public of the state.
treasury, and as often as is neces. 75. If towards the end of the sary shall demand the accounts of session, a decree in discussion be. the secretary of finance, always tween the president and the senate granting sufficient iime to register is not completed, the senate, at the
them. next session, shall take into ac. 84. Any representative may re. count the steps taken at the pre- quire from the secretaries the ne. ceding session.
cessary information upon matters 70. If a projet of a law, pro
before the senate. posed by the president to the se. 85. The senate shall regulate nate, is considered by that body, and the currency, and fix the weight, sent to him three times without the quality, the form and name of being accepted, he shall lose the the coins. right.
86. It shall watch over and fos. 77. Upon the opening of the ter public education, the freedom session, an estimate of the public of the press, agriculture, commerce, expenses, submitted by the go.. the sciences, and arts, and indus. vernment, having been discussed, try. It shall secure by law to in. appropriations for the necessary ventors, and authors, the exclusive expenses of the government shail right for a limited period to the be made by the senate.
profits of their productions. 78. A statement in detail of the 87. It shall make laws relative to expenses and revenues of the pre- captures. ccding year, and of the public debt, 88. It shall make laws against shall be made annually to the se. piracy. nate, which the secretary of finance 89. It shall regulate the mode shall record and cause to be puw. of recruiting the army by enrollished.
ment. 79. It shall take care of the 90. It shall provide for construct. sinking fund and of the regular ing and purchasing national vessels. payment of the interest of the pub. 91. It shall take charge of the lic debt.
national property. 80. It shall regulate, by law, the 92. It shall provide for the farm. direct and indirect taxes, and the ing of the national domains, and other contributions which are to be the indirect taxes. levied throughout the state by vir. 93. It shall establish one kind of tue of article 10.
weights and measures throughout 81. It shall pass a law to make the state. a loan upon the guaranty of the na
94. It shall fix the compensa. tion, or upon a mortgage of the tion of the president, secretaries and national property.
judges. 82. It shall authorize the aliena. 95. It shall declare the bounda. tion of the public property. This ries of the provinces, and the kind of shall be sold as soon as possible in administration best adapted to the all the provinces, and notice shall interests of the inhabitans.