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He hath commanded me to go to bed,
And bade me to dismiss you.
Emil. Dismiss me!

Des. I have heard it said so.-
these men!-


Des. It was his bidding; therefore, good Æmi-
Give me my nightly wearing, and adieu:
We must not now displease him.

Dost thou in conscience think,- el me, Emilia,
That there be women do abuse their husbands
In such gross kind?


Emil. There be some such, no question.

Emil. I would, you had never seen him!
Des. So would not I; my love doth so approve

Des. Would'st thou do such a deed for all the

Emil. Why, would not you?

Des. No, by this heavenly light!

That even his stubbornness, his checks, and frowns,-10
Pr'ythee, unpin me,-have grace and favour in
[the bed.
Emil. I have laid those sheets you bade me on
Des. All's one:-Good father! how foolish are
our minds!-


Emil. Nor I neither, by this heavenly light; might do 't as well i' the dark.

Des. Would'st thou do such a deed for all the world? [price Emil. The world is a huge thing: 'Tis a great For a small vice.


If I do die before thee, pr'ythee shroud me
In one of those same sheets.

Emil. Come, come, you talk.

Des. My mother had a maid, call'd-Barbara;
She was in love: and he, she lov'd, prov'd mad',
And did forsake her: she had a song of willow,
An old thing 'twas, but it express'd her fortune,
And she dy'd singing it: That song, to-night,
Will not go from my mind; I have much to do,
But to go hang my head all o' one side,
And sing it like poor Barbara. Pr'ythee, dispatch.
Emil. Shall I go fetch your night-gown?
Des. No, unpin me here.-

This Lodovico is a proper man.

Emil. A very handsome man.
Des. He speaks well.

Emil. I know a lady in Venice, would have
walk'd barefoot to Palestine, for a touch of his
nether lip.
Des. The poor soul sat singing by a sycamore
Sing all a green willow; [Singing.
Her hand on her bosom, her head on her knee,
Sing willow, willow, willow:
The fresh streams ran by her, and murmur'd her


Sing willow, &c.

[stones; Her salt tears fell from her, and soften'd the Lay by these:

Sing willow, &c.
Willow, willow, &c.
Pr'ythee, hye thee; he'll come anon.-

these men,

Sing all a green willow must be my garland.



Would store the world they play'd for.
But, I do think, it is their husbands' faults,
If wives do fall: Say, that they slack their duties,
And pour our treasures into foreign laps;
Or else break out in peevish jealousies, [us,
40 Throwing restraint upon us; or, say, they strike
Or scant our former having in despight!
Why, we have galls; and, though we have some

Yet have we some revenge. Let husbands know, 45 Their wives have sense like them; they see, and smell,

And have their palates both for sweet and sour,
As husbands have. What is it that they do,
When they change us for others? Is it sport?

Let nobody blame him, his scorn I approve,

Nay, that's not next. -Hark! who is it that 50I think it is; And doth affection breed it?



Des. In troth, I think thou would'st not.

Emil. In troth, I think I should; and undo 't, when I had done. Marry, I would not do such a 20thing for a joint ring; nor for measures of lawn ;

nor for gowns, petticoats, nor caps, nor any petty exhibition: but, for all the whole world,-Why, who would not make her husband a cuckold, to make him a monarch? I should venture purga25 tory for 't.

Des. Beshrew me, if I would do such a wrong for the whole world.

Emil. Why, the wrong is but a wrong i' the world; and, having the world for your labour, 'tis a wrong in your own world, and you might quickly make it right.


Des. I do not think, there is any such woman. Emil. Yes, a dozen; and as many to the vantage, as

Emil. It is the wind.

Des. I call'd my love, false love: but what said ke then?

Sing willow, &c.

[men. 55
If I court more women, you'll couch with more
So, get thee gone; good night.
-Mine eyes do

Doth that bode weeping?.

Emil. 'Tis neither here nor there.

I think it doth; Is 't frailty, that thus errs?
It is so too; And have not we affections?
Desires for sport? and frailty, as men have?
Then, let them use us well: else, let them know,
The ills we do, their ills instruct us to.


Des. Good night, good night: Heaven me such usage send, Not to pick bad from bad; but, by bad, mend! [Exeunt.


1i. e. wild, frantick, uncertain.-We still call a wild girl a mad-cap. * This song is printed in the first volume of Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. ' i. e. to boot, over and above. i. e. our former allowance of expence. Usage is an old word for custom.




A Street.

Enter Iago, and Roderigo.

will he come:

Jago. HERE, stand behind this bulk; straight| 5 Wear thy good rapier bare, and put it home; Quick, quick; fear nothing; I'll be at thy el


It makes us, or it mars us; think on that, And fix most firm thy resolution.

Rod. Be near at hand; I may miscarry in 't. Iago. Here at thy hand; be bold, and take thy sword.

Rod. I have no great devotion to the deed; And yet he hath given me satisfying reasons:'Tis but a man gone:-forth, my sword; he dies. [Stands apart. Iago. I have rubb'd this young quat almost to the sense,



Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be
[Exit Othello.
Enter Lodovico, and Gratiano, ať a distance.
Cas. What, ho! no watch? no passage?? mur-
der! murder!
Gra. 'Tis some mischance; the cry is very dire-
Cas. O help!

Lod. Hark!

Rod. O wretched villain!

Lod. Two or three groans; it is a heavy night: These may be counterfeits; let's think 't unsafe To come in to the cry, without more help.


Rod. Nobody come? then shall I bleed to death.
Enter Iago, with a light.

[Cassio, 20
And he grows angry. Now, whether he kill
Or Cassio him, or each do kill the other,
Every way makes my gain: Live Roderigo,
He calls me to a restitution large

Of gold, and jewels, that I bobb'd from him,
As gifts to Desdemona;

It must not be: if Cassio do remain,
He hath a daily beauty in his life,

That makes me ugly; and, besides, the Moor
May unfold me to him; there stand I in much 30

No, he must die :-But so, I hear him coming. Enter Cassio.

Rod. I know his gait, 'tis he;-Villain, thou dy'st.



Forth of my heart those charms, thine eyes, are blotted;

Enter Othello, above.

Oth. The voice of Cassio:-Iago keeps his word. Rod. O, villain that I am!

Oth. Hark! 'tis even so.

[He runs at Cassio, and wounds him. Cas. That thrust had been mine enemy indeed, But that my coat is better than thou think'st; I will make proof of thine.

[Fight. Cassio wounds Roderigo: Iago 40 cuts Cassio behind in the leg, and exit. Rod. O, I am slain !

Cas. I am maim'd for ever;-Help, ho! murder! murder!

Lod. Hark!

Gra. Here's one comes in his shirt, with light and weapons.

Iago. Who's there? whose noise is this, that

cries out murder? Lod. We do not know.

Jago. Did not you hear a cry?

Cas. Here, here; for heaven's sake, help me! Iago. What's the matter?

Gra. This is Othello's ancient, as I take it. Lod. The same, indeed; a very valiant fellow. Jago. What are you here, that cry so grievously? Cas. Iago? O, I'am spoil'd, undone by villains! Give me some help. [this? Iago. O me, lieutenant! what villains have done Cas. I think, that one of them is hereabout, And cannot make away.

Iago. O treacherous villains!

35 What are you there? come in, and give some help. [To Lod. and Gra.

Rod. O, help me here!
Cas. That's one of them.
Iago. O murderous slave! O villain!

[lago stabs him. Rod. O damn'd Iago! O inhuman dog!—O! 0,0!

Iago. Kill men i' the dark!-Where be these
bloody thieves?-

45 How silent is this town!-Ho! murder! murder!
What may you be? are you of good or evil?
Lod. As you shall prove us, praise us.

Cas. O, help, ho! light! a surgeon!
Oth. "Tis he;-O brave lago, honest and just, 50
That hast such noble sense of thy friend's wrong!
Thou teachest me,-Minion, your dear lies dead,
And your fate hies apace: Strumpet, I come:

lago. Signior Lodovico? Lod. He, sir.

[villains. lago. I cry you mercy; Here's Cassio hurt by

Gra. Cassio!

Iago. How is it, brother? Cas. My leg is cut in two.

This is a passage much controverted among the editors, who variously propose to read quab (a gudgeon), quail, gnat, and knot.-Dr. Johnson, however, adopts quat, which, he says, in the midland counties is a pimple, that, by rubbing, is made to smart, or is rubbed to sense.-Roderigo, he adds, is called a quat by the same mode of speech, as a low fellow is now termed, in low language, a scab.— To rub to the sense, is to rub to the quick. 2 i. e. No passengers? nobody going by?


Iago. Marry, heaven forbid!Light, gentlemen; I'll bind it with

my shirt.

Enter Bianca.

Bian. What is the matter, ho? who is 't that cry'd?

Iago. Who is 't that cry'd?

Bian. O my dear Cassio! my sweet Cassio!
O Cassio! Cassio! Cassio!
Iago. O notable strumpet!-
Cassio, may you
Who they should be, that have thus mangled you? 10
Cas. No.
[to seek you.
Gra. I am sorry to find you thus; I have been
Iago. Lend me a garter: So.-O, for a chair,
To bear him easily hence!

Bian. Alas, he faints:--O Cassio! Cassio! Cassio! 15
Iago. Gentlemen all, I do suspect this trash
To be a party in this injury.
Patience a while, good Cassio.-Come, come;
Lend me a light.-Know we this face, or no?
Alas! my friend, and my dear countryman,
Roderigo? no:-Yes, sure; O heaven! Roderigo.
Gra. What, of Venice?

Iago. Even he, sir; did you know him?
Gra. Know him? ay.


Iago. Signior Gratiano? I cry you gentle pardon; 25 These bloody accidents must excuse my manners, That so neglected you.

Iago. Cassio hath here been set on in the dark, 5 By Roderigo, and fellows that are 'scap'd; He's almost slain, and Roderigo dead.

Gra. I am glad to see you.

Iago. How do you, Cassio?-O, a chair, a chair!
Gra. Roderigo!

lago. He, he, 'tis he :-O, that's well said;-
the chair:-
[A chair brought in.
Some good man bear him carefully from hence;
I'll fetch the general's surgeon.--For you, mistress,
[To Bianca. 35
Save you your labour.- -He that lies slain here,
Was my dear friend; What malice was between
Cas. None in the world; nor do I know the



Iago. [To Bianca.] What, look you pale?-0, bear him out o' the air.[Cassio is borne off Stay you, good gentlemen.-Look you pale, misDo you perceive the gastness of her eye?— Nay, if you stare, we shall hear more anon:Behold her well; I pray you, look upon her; Do you see, gentlemen? nay, guiltiness will speak,| Though tongues were out of use.

Enter Æmilia.

Emil. 'Las, what's the matter? what's the matter, husband ?

Amil. Alas, good gentleman! alas, good Cassio!
Iago. This is the fruit of whoring.-Pr'ythee,


Go know of Cassio where he supp'd to-night :-
What, do you shake at that?

Bian. He supp'd at my house; but I therefore
shake not.

Iago. O, did he so? I charge you, go with me.
Emil. Fie, fie upon thee, strumpet!

Bian. I am no strumpet; but of life as honest,
As you that thus abuse me.

Amil. As I? foh! fie upon thee!

Iago. Kind gentlemen, let's go see poor Cassio

Come, mistress, you must tell us another tale.-
Emilia, run you to the citadel,
And tell my lord and lady what hath hap'd.-
Will you go on, I pray?—This is the night, [Aside.
That either makes me, or fordoes' me quite.




A Bed-chamber: Desdemona in bed, asleep. A light burning.

Enter Othello.

Oth. It is the cause, it is the cause, my soul,Let me not name it to you, you chaste stars!It is the cause.-Yet I'll not shed her blood; Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, And smooth as monumental alabaster. [Takes off his sword. Yet she must die, else she 'll betray more men 3. 40 Put out the light, and then-Put out the light*! If I quench thee, thou flaming minister, I can again thy former light restore, Should I repent me:-but once put out thy light, Thou cunning'st pattern of excelling nature, 45I know not where is that Promethean heat, That can thy light relumine.- -When I have pluck'd thy rose,

I cannot give it vital growth again,

It needs must wither:-I'll smell it on the tree.500 balmy breath, that dost almost persuade

To fordo, as has been before observed, is to undo, to ruin, to destroy. 2 Dr. Johnson assigns the following meaning to this soliloquy: "I am here (says Othello in his mind) overwhelmed with horror. What is the reason of this perturbation? Is it want of resolution to do justice? Is it the dread of shedding blood? No; it is not the action that shocks me, but it is the cause, it is the cause, my soul; let me not name it to you, ye chaste stars! it is the cause."-Mr. Steevens adds, that "Othello full of horror at the cruel action which he is about to perpetrate, seems at this instant to be seeking his justification, from representing to himself the cause, 1. e. the greatness of the provocation he had received." "This is the second attempt of Othello (continues Mr. Steevens) to justify what he has undertaken. First he says, It is the cause, i. e. his own cause; now he is willing to suppose himself the preventer of succeeding mischief to others." 4 Dr. Farmer observes, that "this has been considered as a very difficult line. Fielding makes Betterton and Booth dispute about it with the author himself in the other world. The punctuation recommended by Dr. Warburton (and which we have adopted), gives a spirit to it which I fear (adds he) was not intended. It seems to have been only a play upon words. To put the light out, was a phrase for to kill.”

3Z 2


Justice herself to break her sword!-Once more.
Be thus when thou art dead, and I will kill thee,
And love thee after:-Once more, and this the

So sweet was ne'er so fatal. I must weep,
But they are cruel tears: This sorrow's heavenly
It strikes, where it doth love.-She wakes-
Des. Who's there? Othello?

O perjur'd woman! thou dost stone my heart,
And mak'st me call, what I intend to do,—
A murder, which I thought a sacrifice 1 :-
I saw the handkerchief.


Oth. Ay, Desdemona,

Des. Will you come to bed, my lord?
Oth. Have you pray'd to-night, Desdemona?
Des. Ay, my lord.

Oth. If you bethink yourself of any crime,
Unreconcil'd as yet to heaven and grace,
Solicit for it straight.

[that 15

Des. Alas, my lord, what may you mean by
Oth. Well, do it, and be brief; I will walk by:
I would not kill thy unprepared spirit;
No,-Heaven forefend! I would not kill thy soul.
Des. Talk you of killing?

Oth. Ay, I do.

Des. Then, heaven

Have mercy on me!

Des. He found it then;

I never gave it him:-Send for him hither,
And let him confess a truth,


Oth. He hath confess'd.

Des. What, my lord?

Oth. That he hath-us'd thee,
Des. How? unlawfully?
Oth. Ay.

Des. He will not say so,
Oth. No, his mouth is stopp'd;
Honest Iago hath ta'en order for 't'.

Des. O, my fear interpets then,—What, is he
20 Oth. Had all his hairs been lives, my great
Had stomach for them all.

Des. Alas, he is betray'd, and I undone.
Oth. Out, strumpet! Weep'st thou for him to
my face?

Oth. Amen, with all my heart!

Des. If you say so, I hope you will not kill me. 25
Oth. Hum!

Oth. By heaven, I saw my handkerchief in his hand.

Des. And yet I fear you; for you are fatal then, When your eyes roll so: Why I should fear, Í know not,

Since guiltiness I know not; but yet, I feel, 130


Oth. Think on thy sins.

Des. They are loves I bear to you.
Oth. Ay, and for that thou dy'st.

Des. That death's unnatural, that kills for loving. 35
Alas, why gnaw you so your nether lip?
Some bloody passion shakes your very frame:
These are portents; but yet, I hope, I hope,
They do not point on me.

Oth, Peace, and be still!

Des. I will so: What's the matter?

Oth. That handkerchief, which I so lov'd, and
gave thee,
Thou gav'st to Cassio,

Des, No, by my life and soul;—
Send for the man, and ask him.
Oth. Sweet soul, take heed,

Take heed of perjury; thou art on thy death-bed.
Des. Ay, but not yet to die.
Oth. Yes, presently:

Therefore confess thee freely of thy sin;
For to deny each article with oath,
Cannot remove, nor choak, the strong conception
That I do groan withal. Thou art to die.
Des. O, heaven, have mercy on me!
Oth. I say, Amen.

Des. And have you mercy too!-I never did
Offend you in my life; never lov'd Cassio,
But with such general warranty of heaven
As I might love: I never gave him token.

Des. O, banish me, my lord, but kill me not.
Oth. Down, strumpet!


Des. Kill me to-morrow, let me live to-night.
Oth. Nay, if you strive,-
Des. But half an hour.

[blocks in formation]

I, that am cruel, am yet merciful;
40I would not have thee linger in thy pain.—
So, so.

Emil. What ho! my lord, my lord!
Oth. Who's there?

Amil. O, good my lord, I would speak a word
with you.

Oth. Yes; 'tis Æmilia:-by-and-by.-She's
"Tis like, she comes to speak of Cassio's death;
The noise was high.-Ha! no more moving?
Still as the grave.--Shall she come in? Were't good!
50I think, she stirs again :-No.-What's the best?
If she come in, she'll sure come to my wife:-
My wife! my wife! what wife? I have no wife;
O insupportable! O heavy hour!
Methinks, it should be now a huge eclipse
55 Of sun and moon; and that the affrighted globe
Should yawn at alteration.

Emil. I do beseech you I may speak with you, O, good my lord!

Oth. I had forgot thee: O, come in, Æmilia: 60/Soft, by-and-by:-Let me the curtains draw.→

The meaning is, (says Dr. Johnson, who adds, that this dreadful scene is not to be endured,) "Thou hast harden'd my heart, and makest me kill thee with the rage of a murderer, when I thought to hace sacrificed thee to justice with the calmness of a priest striking a victim." i, e, has taken measures,


[blocks in formation]

Emil. But now, my lord.

Oth. It is the very error of the moon;

She comes more near the earth than she was wont,
And makes men mad.


Emil. Cassio, my lord, hath kill'd a young Ve-10 Call'd-Roderigo.

Oth. Roderigo kill'd!

And Cassio kill'd!


Amil. Alas! what cry is that?
Oth. That! what?
Emil. Out, and alas! that was my lady's 20
Help! help, ho! help!-O lady, speak again i
Sweet Desdemona! O sweet mistress, speak!
Des. A guiltless death I die.
Emil. Ŏ, who hath done

Æmil. O, the more angel she,

And you the blacker devil!

An honest man he is, and hates the slime
That sticks on filthy deeds.

Emil. My husband?


Oth. What needs this iteration, woman? say, thy husband.


say, thy husband; Do'st understand the word? My friend, thy husband, honest, honest Iago. Emil. If he say so, may his pernicious soul

Emil. No, Cassio is not kill'd.


Oth. Not Cassio kill'd? Then murder's out of 15 Rot half a grain a day! he lies to the heart;
And sweet revenge grows harsh.
She was too fond of her most filthy bargain.

Des. O, falsely, falsely murder'd!

Oth. Ha!

Oth. She turn'd to folly, and she was a whore.
Emil. Thou dost belie her, and thou art a devil.
Oth. She was false as water 2.

This deed?

Des. No body; I myself; farewell: Commend me to my kind lord; O,farewell.[Dies. Oth. Why, how should she be murder'd? Emil. Alas, who knows?


Oth. You heard her say herself, it was not I.
Emil.She said so; I must needs report the truth.
Oth. She's, like a liar, gone to burning hell;
'Twas I that kill'd her.

Oth. Thy husband.

Emil. That she was false to wedlock?

Emil. My husband?

Oth. Ay, 'twas he that told me first;

Oth. Ay, with Cassio. Nay, had she been truc,
If heaven would make me such another world
Of one entire and perfect chrysolite,
I'd not have sold her for it.

My husband say, that she was false?
Oth. He, woman;

Emil. O mistress, villainy hath made mocks with love!

Amil. Do thy worst:

This deed of thine is no more worthy heaven,
Than thou wast worthy her.

Emil. Thou art rash as fire, to say


That she was false; O, she was heavenly true!
Oth. Cassio did tup her; ask thy husband else:
O, I were damn'd beneath all depth in hell,
But that I did proceed upon just grounds
To this extremity: Thy husband knew it all.
Emil. My husband?

O gull! O dolt!

25 As ignorant as dirt! thou hast done a deed,
I care not for thy sword; I'll make thee known,
Tho' I lost twenty lives:-Help! help, ho! help!
The Moor hath kill'd my mistress! Murder!

Oth. Peace, you were best.

Emil. Thou hast not half that power to do me harm,

As I have to be hurt.

Enter Montano, Gratiano, Iago, and others.
Mon. What is the matter?-How now, general?
Emil. O, are you come, Iago? you have done

That men must lay their murders on your neck.
Gra. What is the matter?


Amil. Disprove this, villain, if thou be'st a man: He says, thou told'st him that his wife was false; I know, thou did'st not, thou'rt not such a villain; Speak, for my heart is full.

Iago. I told him what I thought; and told no more Than what he found himself was apt and true. Emil. But did you ever tell him, she was false? Iago. I did.

Amil. You told a lie; an odious, damned lie; 45 Upon my soul, a lie; a wicked lie:

She false with Cassio!-Did you say, with Cassio?
Iago. With Cassio, mistress; Go to, charm your


Emil. I will not charm my tongue; I am bound to speak;


My mistress here lies murder'd in her bed.

1 Mr. Steevens is of opinion," that some theatrical direction has been omitted; and that when Othello says, Not dead? not yet quite dead? I, that am cruel, am yet merciful; I would not have thee linger in thy pain:-So, so he then stabs her, repeating the two last words, as he repeats the blow. After a repetition of wounds, Desdemona might speak again, with propriety, and yet very soon expire. The first resolution of Othello was to poison her; but from this measure he is dissuaded by the policy of lago. He is next determined to use the poniard; but, his tenderness awaking, he cannot bear to deform those beauties which he had so often approached with other sensations and for different purposes. Therefore, says he,-I'll not shed her blood, nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, and smooth as monumental alabaster: And this resolution we are to imagine he would have kept, but that he was averse to employing those means again, which had already appeared to be uncertain in their effect." 2 As water, that will support no weight, nor keep any impression. 4 She means to say, 'i. e. Apply some power,



Villainy has taken advantage to play upon the weakness of a violent passion.

I have in this cause power to endure more than thou hast power to inflict.
strong as a charm would be, to your tongue; for, nothing less can stop its volubility.

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