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Regions of Sorrow, doleful shades, where peace 65
And rest can never dwell, hope never comes
That comes to all ; but torture without end

urges, and a fiery deluge, fed
With ever-burning sulphur unconsum’d:
Such place eternal Justice had prepar'd

70 For those rebellious, here their pris’on ordain'd In utter darkness, and their portion set As far remov'd from God and light of Heav'n, As from the center thrice to th’utmost pole.

O how

72. In utter darkness,] Dr. Bent

74. As from the center thrice to ley reads outer here and in many 1b' utmost pole.) Thrice as far other places of this poem, because as it is from the center of the it is in Scripture to OXOTO TO earth (which is the center of the wTipov : But my di&tionaries tell me world according to Milton's system, that utter and outer are both the IX. 103. and X. 671.) to the pole fame word, differently spelld and of the world; for it is the pole of pronounc'd. Milton, in the argu- the universe, far beyond the pole ment of this book, says in a place of the earth, which' is here call'd of utter darkness, and no where the utmost pole. It is observable throughout the poem does the poet that Homer makes the seat of use outer.

Pearce. Hell as far beneath the deepest

pit of earth, as the Heaven is Spenser justifies the present read above the earth, ing by frequently using the word utter for outer, as in Faery Queen,

Τοσσον ενερθ' αϊδεω, οσον εραν, ες B. 2. Cant. 2. St. 34.

ato yoins, Iliad. VIII. 16. And inly grieve, as doth an hidden Virgil makes it twice as far, moth

Tum Tartarus ipse The inner garment fret, not th’ut. ter touch.

Bis patet

in præceps tantum ten

ditque sub umbras, And again, B. 4. Cant. 10. St. 11. Quantus ad æthereum cæli fufpe

&us Olympum. Æn. VI.577. Till to the bridge's utter gate I Thyer. And Milton thrice as far,



O how unlike the place from whence they fell! 75
There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelm'd
With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
He soon discerns, and welt'ring by his side
One next himself in pow'r, and next in crime,
Long after known in Palestine, and nam'd 80
Beelzebub. To whom th’Arch-Enemy,
And thence in Heav'n callid Satan, with bold words
Breaking the horrid silence thus began.

If thou beeft he ; but O how fall’n! how chang'd From him, who in the happy realms of light 85


As far remov'd from God and O how unlike the place from light of Heaven,

whence they fell ! As from the center obrice to th'utmost pole :

81. Beëlzebub.) The lord of fies, an idol worshipped at Ecron, a city

of the Philistines, 2 Kings 1. 2. He As if these three great poets had is called prince of the Devils, Mat. stretched their utmost genius, and XII. 24. therefore deservedly here vied with each other, who should made second to Satan himself. extend his idea of the depth of

Hume. Hell fartheft. But Milton's whole description of Hell as much ex

82. And thence in Heav'n call'd ceeds theirs, as in this fingle circumstance of the depth of it. And in Hebrew signifies an enemy: he

Satan,] For the word Satan how cool and unaffecting is the is the enemy by way of eminence, ταρταρον ηεροελα, the σιδηραιαιτε the chief enemy of God and Man. πυλαι και χαλκεον εδoς of Homer, and the lugentes campi, the ferrea lurris, and horrifono fridentes car 84. If thou beeft be ; &c.] The dine porta of Virgil, in compari- thoughts in the first speech and son with this description by Mil- description of Satan, who is one ton, concluding with that artful of the principal actors in this contrast,

poem, are wonderfully proper to

give us a full idea of him. His VOL. I.



Cloth'd with transcendent brightness didst outshine
Myriads though bright! If he whom mutual league,
United thoughts and counsels, equal hope
And hazard in the glorious enterprise,
Join'd with me once, now inisery hath join’d 90
In equal ru’in : into what pit thou seest
From what highth fall’n, so much the stronger prov'd



pride, envy and revenge, obstinacy

But O how fali'n! how despair and impenitence, are all of

chang'd them very artfully interwoven. In From him,] He imitates Isaiah short, his first speech is a compli- and Virgil at the same time. Ifa. cation of all those pasions, which XIV. 12. How art thou fall'n, &c. discover themselves feparately in and Virgil's Æn. II. 274. several other of his speeches in the poem.

Addison. Hei mihi qualis erat! quantum

Inutatus ab illo ! The change and confusion of these enemies of God is inoit artfully ex 85. Clotbid with transcendent pref'd in the abruptness of the be

brightness did out shine ginning of this fpcech: If thou art Myriads though bright !] Imitated he, that Beelzebub -- He stops, froni Homer, Odyff

: VI. 110. where and falls into a bitter reflection on Diana excels all her nymphs in their preient condition, compared beauty, though all of them be with that in which they lately beautiful. were. He attempts again to open his mind; cannot proceed on what he intends to fay, but returns to

Γεια σ' αγιγνωτη σελεται, καλαι δε

Bentley. those fad thoughts ; ilill doubting whether it is really his associate iu the revolt, as now in misery and

91. In equal ruin :) So it is in all ruin; by that time he had espa- Dr. Bentley's cmendation, which

thé editions. And equal ruin is tiated on this his heart was op- Dr. Pearce allows (and I believe press’d with it) he is assured to iv hom he speaks, and goes on to

cvery body null allow) to be just declare his proud unrelenting inind. and proper; it being very easy to


miltake one of thcie words for the other; and other instances per


He with his thunder: and till then who knew
The force of those dire arms ? yet not for those,
Nor what the potent victor in his rage

Can else inflict, do I repent or change,
Though chang’d in outward lustre, that fix'd mind,
And high disdain from sense of injur'd merit,


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haps may occur in the course of Can else inflit, do I repent or this work. Equal ruin hath join'd change, &c.] Milton in this now, as equal beper join'd before; and other partages, where he is: fomewhat like that in Ovid's Me- describing the fierce and unrelenttamorphosis, I. 351.

ing spirit of Satan, seems very

plainly to have copied after the O foror, O conjux, O fæmina fola picture that Æschylus gives of Profuperftes,

metheus. Thus Prometheus speakQuam commune mihi genus, et

ing of Jupiter. Prom. Vinct. 991. patruelis origo, Deinde torus junxit, nunc ipfa pe

ριπλεσθω μεν αιθαλασα ricula jungunt.


Λευκοπτερω δε νιφαδι, και βροντη In equal ruin cannot answer to in feath the glorious enterprise, because Mil Χθόνιοις κυκατω σανία, και ταρασton places a comma after enterprise, and in construction it fol

Γιαμψει γας εδέν των δε μ', ως: lows after hazard, and not after

και Φρασαι, juin'd.

Thyer. 93. He with his thunder : ] There is an uncommon beauty in this ex 98. And bigb disdain) This is pression. Satan disdains to utter the a favorite expression of Spenser's. naine of God, cho' he cannot but Thus in the Faery Queen, B. I. acknowledge his superiority. So Cant. 1. St. 19. again ver. 257

His gall did grate for grief and - all but less than he

bigh disdain. Whom thunder hath made greater.

This is the alta sdegno of the Ita94. — yet not for those,

lians, from whom no doubt he Nor what the potent vilor in his had it.

Thyer. rage

C 2

x 7. 2.

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105.- What

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That with the Mightiest rais'd me to contend,
And to the fierce contention brought along
Innumerable force of Spirits arm’d,
That durst dislike his reign, and me preferring,
His utmost pow'r with adverse pow'r oppos'd
In dubious battel on the plains of Heaven,
And shook his throne. What though the field be lost?
All is not lost; th' unconquerable will, 106
And study of revenge, immortal hate,
And courage never to submit or yield,
And what is elfe not to be overcome;
That glory never shall his wrath or might
Extort from me.

To bow and sue for grace
With suppliant knee, and deify his power,


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105. What though the field and if there be any thing else (bebe loft ?

fides the particulars mention'd) All is not loft ; &c.] This passage which is not to be overcome. is an excellent improvement upon

Pearce. Satan's speech to the infernal Spirits in Tasso, Cant. 4. St.


but seems to be express'd from Fairfax

110. That glory, &c.] That refers

to what went before; his unconquera his translation rather than from the original.

able will and ftudy of revenge, his

immortal hate and courage never to We lost the field, yet loft we not submit or yield, and cuhat befides our heart.

is not to be overcome; these Satar

esteems his glory, and that glory 109. And what is else not to be he says God never should extort

overcome ;] Here fhould be from him. And then begins a new no note of interrogation, but only fentence according to all the best a semi-colon. The words And what editions, To bow and sue for grace, is elje not to be overcome fignify Fofi &c.--that were low indeed, &c. that quid fit aliud quod Iruperari riquai, still referring to what went before ;


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