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It is very common at this day to speak of our tions on emancipation : Maryland adopted botk revolutionary struggle as commenced and hur- of these in 1783. North-Carolina, in 1786, deried forward by a union of Free and Slave clared the introduction of slaves into that State colonies; but such is not the fact. However" of evil consequence, and highly impolitic,” slender and dubious its legal basis, Slavery ex- and imposed a duty of £5 per head thereon. isted in each and all of the colonies that united New-York and New-Jersey followed the example to declare and maintain their independence. of Virginia and Maryland, including the domes. Slaves were proportionately more numerous in tic in the same interdict with the foreign slave. certain portions of the South ; but they were trade. Neither of these States, however, deheld with impunity throughout the North, ad. clared a general emancipation until many years vertised like dogs or borses, and sold at auction, thereafter, and Slavery did not wholly cease in or otherwise, as chattels. Vermont, then a ter- New-York until about 1830, nor in New Jersey ritory in dispute between New-Hampshire and till a much later date. The distinction of Free New-York, and with very few civilized inhabi. and Slave States, with the kindred assumption tants, mainly on its Southern and Eastern bor- of a natural antagonism between the North and ders, is probably the only portion of the revolu- South, was utterly unknown to the men of the tionary confederation never polluted by the Revolution. tread of a slave.
Before the Declaration of Independence, but The spirit of liberty, aroused or intensified during the intense ferment which preceded it, by the protracted struggle of the colonists and distracted public attention from everything against usurped and abused power in the else, Lord Mansfield had rendered his judgment mother country, soon found itself engaged in from the King's Bench, which expelled Slavery natural antagonism against the current form of from England, and ought to have destroyed it domestic despotism. “How shall we complain in the colonies as well. The plaintiff in this of arbitrary or unlimited power exerted over us, famous case was James Somerset, a native of while we exert a still more despotic and inex- Africa, carried to Virginia as a slave, takeu cusable power over a dependent and benighted thence by his master to England, and there inrace ?” was very fairly asked. Several suits cited to resist the claim of his master to his were brought in Massachusetts—where the fires services, and assert his right to liberty. In the of liberty burnt earliest and brightest—to test first recorded case, involving the legality of the legal right of slave-holding; and the lead. modern Slavery in England, it was held (1677) ing Whigs gave their money and their legal that negroes, “ being usually bought and sold services to support these actions, which were among merchants as merchandise, and also generally, on one ground or another, success- being infidels, there might be a property in them ful. Efforts for an express law of emancipation, sufficient to maintain trover.” But this was however, failed even in Massachusetts; the overruled by Chief Justice Holt from the King's Legislature, doubtless, apprehending that such Bench (1697,) ruling that “so soon as a negro a measure, by alienating the slave-holders, would lands in England, he is free;" and again, (1702) increase the number and power of the Tories; that “there is no such thing as a slave by the but in 1777, a privateer having brought a lot of law of England.” This judyment proving excaptured slaves into Jamaica, and advertised ceedingly troublesome to planters and mer. them for sale, the General Court, as the Legis- chants from slave-holding colonies visiting the lative Assembly was called, interfered and had mother country with their servants, the merchan:s them set at liberty. The first Continental Con- concerned in the Amerịcan trade, in 1729, progress which resolved to resist the usurpations cured from Yorke and Talbot, the Attorney and oppressions of Great Britain by force, had General and Solicitor General of the Crown, a already declared that our struggle would be written opinion that negroes, legally enslaved " for the rights of human nature,” which the elsewhere, might be held as slaves in England, Congress of 1776, under the lead of Thomas and that even baptism was no bar to the masJefferson, expanded into the noble affirmation ter's claim. This opinion was, in 1749, held to of the right of “all men to life, liberty, and the be sound law by Yorke (now Lord Hardwicke,) pursuit of happiness,” contained in the immor- sitting as judge, on the ground that, if the contal preamble to the Declaration of Independence. trary ruling of Lord Holt were upheld, it would A like averment that “all men are born free abolish Slavery in Jamaica or Virginia as well and equal," was in 1780 inserted in the Massa- as in England; British law being paramount in chusetts Bill of Rights; and the Supreme each. Thus the law stood until Lord Mansfield, Court of that State, in 1783, on an indictment in Somerset's case, reversed it with evident reof a master for assault and battery, held this luctance, and after having vainly endeavored to declaration a bar to slave-holding henceforth in briny about an accommodation between the the State.
parties. When delay would serve no longer, A similar clause in the second Constitution of and a judgment nust be rendered, Mansfield New-Hampshire was held by the courts of that declared it in these memorable words: State to secure Freedom to every child, born
“We cannot direct the law: the law must direct as. therein after its adoption. Pennsylvania, in
The state of Slavery is of such a nature that it is 1780, passed an act prohibiting the further in- incapable of being introduced on any reasons, moral or troduction of slaves, and securing Freedom to political
, but only by positive law, which preserves its all persons born in that State thereafter. Con whence it was created, is erased froin the memory. It 19
force long after the reasons, occasion, and time itself necticut and Rhode Island passed similar acts so odious that nothing can be sufficient to support it but in 1784. Virginia, in 1778, on motion of Mr. positive law. Whatever inconveniences, therefore, may Jefferson, prohibited the further importation of allowed or approved by the law of England, and thie.e
follow from the decision, I cannot say that this case is slaves; and in 1782, removed all legal restric-fore the black must be discharged.”
The natural, if not necessary, effect of this The report of the committee was in the decision on Slavery in these colonies had their following words: connection with the mother country been continued, is sufficiently obvious.
TIE JEFFERSONIAN ORDINANCE, 1784.
Resolved, that the territory ceded, or to be ceded SLAVERY UNDER THE CONFEDERATION.
by individul States to the United States, whensoever
the same shall have been purchased of the Indian The disposition or management of unpeopled inbabitants and offered for sale by the United States, territories, pertaining to the thirteen recent shall be formed into additional States, bounded in the colonies now, confederated as independent following manner, as nearly as such cessions will adroit :
that is to say, northwardly and southwardly by parallels States, early became a subject of solicitude of latitude, so that each State shall comprehend from and of bickering among those States, and in south to north, two degrees of latitude, beginning to Congress. By the terms of their charters, count from the completion of thirty-one degrees no:th of some of the colonies had an indefinite extension but any territory northwardly of the forty-seventh degree
the equator ; [the then southern boundary of the U. S.] westwardly, and were only limited by the power shall make part of the State next below. of the grantor. Many of these charters con wardly and westwardly they shall be bounded, those on ficted with each other—the same territory dian of the lowest point of the rapids of the Ohio on the
the Mississippi, by that river on one side, and the meri. being included within the limits of two or more other; and those adjoining on the east, by the same totally distinct colonies. As the expenses of meridian on their western side, and on their eastern by the Revolutionary struggle began to bear Great Kanawha. And the territory eastward of this last
the meridian of the western cape of the mouth of the heavily on the resources of the States, it was meridian, between the Ohio, Lake Erie, and Pennsyl. keenly felt by some that their share in the vania, shall be one State. advantages of the expected triumph would be chased and offered for sale shall, either on their own
That the settlers within the territory so to be purless than that of others. Massachusetts, Competition or on the order of Congress, receive authority necticut, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, from them, with appointments of time and place, for and Georgia, laid claim to spacious dominious their free males of full age to meet together for the puroutside of their proper boundaries; while New the constitution and laws of any one of these states, so
pose of establishing a temporary government, to adopt Hampshire (save in Vermont), Rhode Island, that such laws nevertheless shall be subject to altera. New-Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and South tion by their ordinary Legislature, and to erect, subject
to a like alteration, counties or townships for the elecCarolina, possessed no such boasted resources tion of members for their Legislature. to meet the war-debts constantly augnienting. That such temporary government shall only continue in They urged, therefore, with obvious justice, force in any State until it shall have acquired twenty thou. that these unequal advantages ought to be Congress, they shall receive from them authority, with
sand free inhabitants, when, giving due proof thereof to surrendered, and all the lands included within appointments of time and place, to call a convention of the territorial limits of the Union, but outside representatives to establish a permanent constitution of the proper and natural boundaries of the and government for themselves : Provided, That both
the temporary and permanent governments be estub. several States, respectively, should be ceded to, lished on these principles as their basis : and held by, Congress, in trust for the common 1. That they shall forever remain a part of the benefit of all the States, and their proceeds em
United States of America.
2. That in their persons, property, and territory, ployed in satisfaction of the debts and liabilities they shall be subject to the Government of the United of the Confederation. This reasonable requisi- States in Congress assembled, and to the Articles of tion was ultimately, but with some reservations, Confederation in all those cases in which the original
States shall be so subject. responded to.
3. That they shall be subject to pay a part of the The IXth Continental Congress, under the Ar- Federal debts, contracted or to be contracted, to be ticles of Confederation, assembled at Philadel. apportioned on them by Congress, according to the same phia, Nov. 3, 1783, but adjourned next day to thereof shall be made on the other States.
common rule and measure by which apportionments Annapolis, Md. The House was soon left without 4. That their respective governments shall be in a quorum, and so continued most of the time- republican forms, and shall admit no person to be a of course, doing no business-till the 1st of citizen who holds a hereditary title.
5. That after the year 1800 of the Christian era, March, 1784, when the delegates from Virginia, there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary serviin pursuance of instructions from the Legisla- tude in any of the suid States, otherwise than in ture of that State, signed the conditional deed punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have
been duly convicted to have been personally guilty. of cession to the Confederation of her claims to That whenever any of the said States shall have, of territory northwest of the Ohio River. New free inhabitants, as many as shall then be in any one of York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts had al- the least numerous of the thirteen original States, such
State shall be admitted, by its Delegates, into the Conready made similar concessions to the Confede gress of the United States, on an equal footing with the ration of their respective claims to territory said original States; after which the assent of two-thirds westward of their present limits. Congress
of the United States, in Congress assembled, shall be
requisite in all those cases whe, ein, by the Confederation, hereupon appointed Messrs. Jefferson of Vir the assent of nine States is now required, provided the ginia, Chase of Maryland, and Howell of Rhode consent of nine States to such admission may be obIsland, a Select Committee to report a Plan of tained according to the eleventh of the Articles of
Confederation. Until such admission by their Delegates Government for the Western Territory. This into Congress, any of the said States, after the establishplan, drawn up by Thomas Jefferson, provided ment of their temporary governinent, shall have authofor the government of all the Western terri- rity to keep a sitting neinber in Congress, with a right
of debating, but not of voting. tory, including that portion which had not yet
That the territory northward of the forty-fifth degree, been, but which, it was reasonably expected, that is to say, of the completion of forty-five degi ees would be, surrendered to the Confederation by from the equator, and extending to the Lake of the the States of North Carolina and Georgia (and under the forty-fifth and forty-fourth degress, that which
Woods, shall be called Sywania ; that of the territory which now forms the States of Tennessee, lies westward of Lake Michigan, shall be called Michi Alabama and Mississippi), as well as that which gunia; and that which is eastward thereof, within the had already been conceded
peninsula formed by the lakes and waters of Michigan,
by the wore luron, St. Clair, and Eie, shall be called Chersonerus, northern States
and shall include any part of the peninsula which way
extend above the forty-fifth degree. Of the territory | taining his views of "non-intervention by under the forty-third and forty-second degrees, that to
Congress." the westward, through which the Assenisipi or Rock River runs, shall be called Arenisi pia ; and that to the
The Ordinance, thus depleted, after undergoeastward, in which are the fountains of the Muskingum, ing some further amendments, was finally ap. the two Miamies of the Ohio, the Wabash,
the Illinois proved April 23d—all the delegates, but those the Miami of the Lake, and the Sandusky rivers, shall be called Metropotamia. of the territory which lies under from South Carolina, voting in the affirmative. the forty-fi.st and fortieth degrees, the western, through In 1787, the last Continental Congress, sitwhich the river Illino s runs, shall be called Ilinoia; ting in New-York simultaneously with the that next adjoining to the eastward, Saratoga; and that between this last and Pennsylvania, and extending Convention at Philadelphia which framed our f.om the Ohio to Lake Erie, shall be called Washington. Federal Constitution, took up the subject of the Of the te rito:y which lies under the thirty-ninth and thirty-eighth degrees, to which shall be added so much government of the Western Territory, raising a of the point of land within the fork of the Ohio and Miss Committee thereon, of which Nathan Dane, of sissippi as lies under the thirty-seventh degree; that to Massachusetts, was Chairman. That Committee the westward, within and adjacent to which are the reported (July 11th), “ An Ordinance for the confluences of the rivers Wabash, Shawanee, Tanisee, Ohio, Illinois, Mississippi, and Missouri, shall be called government of the Territories of the United Polypotamia; and that to the eastward, further up the States, Northwest of the Ohio"—the larger area Ohio, otherwise called the Pelisipi, shall be called contemplated by Mr. Jefferson's bill not having Pelisi pia.
Tiat ill t'ie preceding articles shall be formed been ceded by the Southern States claiming into a charter of compact, shall be duly executed by dominion over it. This bill embodied many of błed, under his hand and the seal of the United States; by Mr. Jefferson, but with some modifications, the President of the United States, in Congress assem- the provisions originally drafted and reported shall be promulgated, and shall stand as fundamental conditions between the thirteen original States and and ooncludes with six unalterable articles of those newly described, unalterable but by the joint perpetual compact, the last of them as follows: consent of the United States, in Congress assembled,
“There shall be neither Slavery nor involuntary and of the particular State within which such alteration servitude, in the said Territory, otherwise than in is proposed to be made.
punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall be duly April 19, this reported plan came up for convicted." consideration in Congress. Mr. Spaight of N. To this was added, prior to its passage, the C. moved that the 5th proposition (prohibiting stipulation for the delivery of fugitives from Slavery after the year 1800) be stricken out of labor or service, soon after embodied in the the plan of ordinance, and Mr. Read of S. C. Federal Constitution ; and in this shape, the seconded the motion. The question was put in entire ordinance was adopted (July 13th) by a this forin : “Shall the words moved to be manimous vote, Georgia and the Carolinas stricken out stand ?" and on this question the concurring. Ayes and Noes were taken, and resulted as
UNDER THE CONSTITUTION, follows: N. HAMPSHIRE. Mr. Foster,
The old Articles of Confederation having Mr. Blanchard,
proved inadequate to the creation and mainMASSACHUSETTS.... Mr. Gerry, Mr. Parti idge,
tenance of a capable and efficient national or RHODE ISLAND... Mr Ellery,
central authority, a Convention of Delegates Mr. Howell,
from the several States, was legally assembled CONNECTICUT. Mr. Sherman,
.ay Mr. Wadsworth,
in Philadelphia, in 1787–George Washington, New-YURK. Mr. De Witt,
President; and the result of its labors was our Mr. Paine,
present Federal Constitution, though some New-JERSEY Mr. Dick,
amendments mainly of the nature of restrictions Mr. Mimin, Mr. Montgomery,
on Federal power, were proposed by the several Mr. Hand,
State Conventions assembled to pass upon that MARYLAND..... Mr. McHenry,
No. Constitution, and adopted. The following are Mr. Stone, VIRGINIA...... Mr. Jefferson,
all the provisions of that instrument, which are Mr. Hardy,
No. presunied to bear upon the subject of Slavery: Mr. Mercer,
(Preamble): We, the people of the United States, in N. CAROLINA.... Mr. Williamson, Mr. Spaight,
- Ay Divided order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice,
insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common S. CAROLINA... Mr. Read,
defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the Mr. Beresford,
blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do Here we find the voles sieteen in favor of Mr. ordain and establish this Constitution for the Un.ted Jefferson's restriction to barely seven against it,
States of America.
Art. I. § 1. All legislative powers herein granted, shall and the States divided six in favor to three be vested in a Congress of the United States, which against it. But the Articles of Confederation shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. (Årt. IX.) required an affirmative vote of a apportioned among the several states which may be
Representatives and direct taxes shall be majority of all the States—that is, a vote of included within this Union, according to their respective seven States—to carry a proposition ; so this numbers, which shall be determined, by adding to tho clause was defeated through the absence of one whole number of free persons, including those bound to
servitude for a term of years, and excluding Indians not delegate from New-Jersey in spite of a vote of taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. more than two to one in its favor. Had the § 9. The mig ation or importation of such persons as New-Jersey delegation been full, it must, to a any of the States now existing shall think proper to moral certainty, have prevailed; had Delaware admit, shall not be prohibi ed by the Congress prior to
the year 1803; but a tax or duty may be inposed, not then been represented, it would probably have exceeding ten dollars on each person. been carried, even without New-Jersey. Yet,
be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or
invasion, the public safety may require it. Douglas in his “ Harper" essay claims as sus. No bill of attainder or em post facto laws shall be
passed. * No quorum.
Art, III. $ 8. Treason against the United States
,ay | Ay.
ay .no .no ..ay
CESSIONS OF SOUTHERN TERRITORY.
shall consist only in levying war against them, or in ad-
A t. IV. & 2. The citizens of each State shall be en. The State of Kentucky was set off from the titled to all the privileges of citizens, in the several State of Virginia in 1790, by mutual agree. States.
No person held to service or labor in one State, ment, and admitted into the Union by act of
diction, except as a State, and inherited
The State of North Carolina, like several States : and nothing in this constitution shall be so con- others, claimed, during and after the Revolustrued as to prejudice any claims of the United states, tion, that her territory extended westward to or of any particular State. $ 4. The United States shall guarantee to every
the Mississippi. State in this Union a republican form of goverament,
On the 22d of December, 1799—one month and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on after the ratification of the Federal Constitution application of the legislature, or of the executive when - North Carolina passed an act, ceding, on certhe legislature cannot be convened, against domestic tain conditions, all her territory west of her
Art. VI. This Constitution, and the laws of the prezent limits to the United States. Among United States, which shall be made in pursuance thereof, the conditions exacted by her, and agreed to and all the treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme by Congress (Act approved April 2nd, 1790) is law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be the following: bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of
Provided always, that no regulations made, or to any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
be made, by Congress shall tend to emancipate slaves. The above are all-and perhaps more than Were it not then conceded that Congress all—the clauses of the Constitution, that have had the power to make regulations for the been quoted on one side or the other as bear. territories which would “tend to emancipate ing upon the subject of Slavery.
slaves,” this proviso would be utterly meaniugIt will be noted that the word “slave' or less. “slavery” does not appear therein. Mr. Madi- Georgia, in like manner, ceded (April 2nd, son, who was a leading and observant member 1802) the territories lying west of her present of the Convention, and who took notes of its limits, now forming the States of Alabama and daily proceedings, affirms that this silence was Mississippi. Among the conditions exacted by designed—the Convention being unwilling that her, and accepted by the United States, is the the Constitution of the United States should following: recognize property in human beings. In pas- Fifthly. That the territory thus ceded shall become sages where slaves are presumed to be contem- a State, and be admitted into the Union as soon as it plated, they are uniformly designated as “per- earlier period, if Congress shall think it expedient, on
shall contain sixty thousand free inhabitants, or, at an sons,” never as property. Contemporary his- the same conditions and restrictions, with the same cory proves that it was the belief of at least a privileges, and in the same manner, as is provided in the large portion of the delegates that Slavery ordinance
of Congress of the 13th day of July, 1787, for
the government of the Western territory of the United could not long survive the final stoppage of the States ; which ordinance shall
, in all its parts, extend to slave-trade, which was expected to (and did) the territory contained in the present act of cession, the occur in 1808. And, were Slavery this day article only excepted which forbids slavery. banished forever from the country, there might, EARLY ATTEMPTS TO OVERRIDE THE ORDINANCE. indeed, be some superfluous stipulations in the Federal compact or charter; but there are none residue of the vast regions originally conveyed
When Ohio (1802-3) was made a State, the which need be repealed, or essentially modi- by the ordinance of '87 was continued under fied. A direct provision for the restoration of Territory," whereof Wm. Henry Harrison (since
Federal pupilage, by the name of “Indiaua fugitive slaves to their masters was, at least President) was appointed Governor. It was once, voted down by the Convention. Finally, quite commonly argued that, though Slavery the clause respecting persons "held to service or labor,” was proposed by Mr. Butler, of South was injurious in the long run, yet, as an expe
dient while clearing away the heavy forests, Carolina, and adopted with little or no opposi- opening settlements in the wilderness, and surtion. The following, among the amendments to tions of border life, it might be tolerated, and
mounting the inevitable hardships and privathe Constitution, proposed by the ratifying con
even regarded with favor. Accordingly, the ventions of one or more States, and adopted, new Territory of Indiana made repeated efforts are supposed by some to bear on the questions to procure a relaxation in her favor of the renow agitated relative to Slavery :
strictive clause of the Ordinance of '87, one of Art. I. Congress shall make no law respecting an them through the instrumentality of a Conven. establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exer. tion assembled in 1802-3, and presided over by cise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the Press, or of the rights of the people peacefully to the Territorial Governor; so he, with the great assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress body of his fellow-delegates, memorialized Conof grievances.
Art. II. A well-regulated militia being necessary to gress, among other things, to suspend temporthe security of a free State, the right of the people to arily the operation of the sixth article of the keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
Ordinance aforesaid. This memorial was reArt. V. No persons shall be . deprived of life, ferred in the House to a select committee of liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without three, two of them from Slave States, with the just compensation.
since celebrated John Randolph as chairman.
On the 2nd of March, 1803, Mr. Randolph made tion of slaves, born within the United States, from any of
the individual States. what appears to have been a unaninious report from this Committee, of which we give so niuch
This report and resolve were committed and as relates to Slavery-as follows:
made a special order on the Monday following, The rapid population of the State of Ohio sufficiently but were never taken into consideration. evinces, in the opinion of your Committee, that the labor At the next session, a fresh letter from Gov. of slaves is not necessary to promote the growth and William Henry Harrison, inclosing resolves of settlement of colonies in that region; that this labor, the Legislative Council and House of Represen. demonstrably the dearest of any-can only be employed tatives in favor of suspending, for a limited pe. in the cultivation of products more valuable than any known to that quarter of the United States ; that the riod, the sixth article of compact aforesaid, was Committee deem it highly dangerous and inexpedient to received (Jan. 21st, 1807) and referred to a SeImpair a provision wisely calculated to promote the hapi lect Committee, whereof Mr. B. Parke, delegate piness and prosperit of the northwestern country, and io give strength and security to that extensive frontier. from said Territory, was made Chairman. The In the salutary operation of this sagacious and benevo- entire Committee (Mr. Nathaniel Macon, of N. lent restraint, it is believed that the inhabitants of Indi: C., being now Speaker,) consisted of ana will, at no very distant day, find ample remunera. tion for a temporary privation of labor, and of emigra- MESSRS. ALSTON, of N. C.
Rhea, of Tenn. tion.
MASTERS, of N. Y.
SANDFORD, of Ky. MORROW, of Ohio.
TRIGG, of Va. The Committee proceed to discuss other sub
PARKE, of Ind. jects set forth in the prayer of the memorial, and conclude with eight resolves, whereof the 12th,) a third Report to the House in favor of
Mr. Parke, from this Committee, made (Feb. only one relating to Slavery is as follows:
granting the prayer of the memorialists. Resoloed, That it is inexpedient to suspend, for a This report, with its predecessors, was comXimited time, the operation of the sixth article of the compact between the original states and the people and mitted, and made a special order, but never States west of the river Ohio.
taken into consideration. This Report having been made at the close
The same letter of Gen. Harrison, and resolves of the Session, was referred at the next to a the Senate, Jan. 21st, 1807. They were laid on
of the Indiana Legislature, were submitted to new Committee, whereof Cæsar Rodney, a new Representative from Delaware, was Chairman. the table for consideration," and do not apMr. Rodney, from this Committee, reported pear to have even been referred at that session; (February 17th, 1804),
but at the next, or first session of the fourth
Congress, which convened Oct. 26th, 1807, the That, taking into their consideration the facts stated in the said memorial and petition, they are in President (Nov. 7th) submitted a letter from duced to believe that a qualified suspension, for a limit-Gen. Harrison and his Legislature—whether a ed time, of the sixth article of compact between the new or old one does not appear-and it was now original states and the people and States west of th river Ohio, might be productive of benefit and advan referred to a Select Committee, consisting of tage to said Territory.
Messrs. J. Franklin, of N. C., Kitchel, of N. J., The Report goes on to discuss the other and Tiffin, of Ohio. topics embraced in the Indiana memorial, and
Nov. 13th, Mr. Franklin, from said committee, concludes with eight resolves, of which the first reported as follows: (and only one relative to Slavery) is as follows: The Legislative Council and House of Representa.
tives, in their resolutions, express their sense of the proResolved, that the sixth article of the Ordinance of priety of introducing Slavery into their Territory, and 1787, which prohibited Slavery within the said Territory, solicit the Congress of the United States to suspend, for be suspended in a qualified manner, for ten years, so as a given number of years, the sixth article of compact, to permit the introduction of slaves, born within the in the ordinance for the government of the Territory United States, from any of the individual States ; pro- northwest of the Ohio, passed on the 13th day of July, vided, that such individual State does not permit the 1787. That article declares : “ There shall be neither importation of slaves from foreign countries : and pro- Slavery nor involuntary servitude within the said Tervided, further, that the descendants of all such slaves ritory. shall, if males, be free at the age of twenty-five years, The citizens of Clark County, in their remonstrance, and, it females, at the age of twenty-one years.
express their sense of the impropriety of the measure, The House took no action on this Report.
and solicit the Congress of the United States not to act The original memorial from Indiana, with into the Territory; at least, until their population shall
on the subject, so as to permit the introduction of slaves Beveral additional memorials of like purport, entitle them to form a Constitution and State Guvern. was again, in 1805-6, referred by the House to
ment. a select committee, whereof Mr. Garnett of Vir- spectfully submit the following resolution :
Your Committee, after duly considering the matter, reginia was chairman, who, on the 14th of Febru- Resolved, That it is not expedient at this time to susary, 1806, made a report in favor of the prayer the Territory of the United States northwest of the river
pend the sixth article of compact for the government of of the petitioners--as follows:
That, having attentively considered the facts stated in the said petitions and memorials, they are of opinion
And here ended, so far as we have been able that a qualified suspension, for a limited time, of the to discover, the effort, so long and earnestly sixth article of the compact between the original States, persisted in, to procure a suspension of the reand the people and States west of the river Ohio, would striction in the Ordinance of 1787, so as to be beneficial to the people of the Indiana Territory. The suspension of this article is an object almost univer: admit Slavery, for a limited term, into the Ter. sally desired in that Territory.
ritory lying between the Ohio and Mississippi After discussing other subjects embodied in rivers, now forming the States of Ohio, Indiana, the Indiana memorial, the Committee close with Winois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. a series of Resolves, which they commend to the adoption of the House. The first and only
The vast and indefinite Territory known as one germane to our subject is as follows: Resoloed, That the sixth article of the Ordinance of States in the year 1803, for the sum of $15,000,
Louisiana, was ceded by France to the United 1787, which prohibits Slavery within the Indiana Territory, de suspended for ten years, so as to permit the introduc: 000, of which $3,750,000 was devoted to the
THE FIRST MISSOURI STRUGGLE.