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levy forces with the utmost activity, of Colonel Munro, and 400 more, and to prepare for making a descent within the fire of Argyle, to be unupon Scotland both by sea and land. der the command of the Eail. Af

When these formidable prepara- ter convening at Perth the noblemen tions were made known to the cove- and gentlemen of the northern dilnanters, they were animated with tricts, to concert measures for prenew boldness in defence of their serving the peace of the country, Arcause. They saw the storm ready gyle went to Lorn, and made the to burit upon their heads, and re- Macdonalds, and other clans fappofolved immediately to guard them- fed to be disaffected, give security for felves againit it. Fond of peace, their good behaviour *. About this however, and unwilling to renounce time, he wrote a large vindication of the loyalty of subjects, they employed his conduct, and sent it to court: every mean in their power, confiftent- the only answer the king gave it ly with their adherence to the cove was, that he should be glad to renant, (which contained nothing de- ceive his vindication from his own rogatory to the royal authority), to mouth ř. appease their sovereign, and prevent Every thing now wore a hostile althe miseries of a civil war. But pect; Antrim's boats were making when all their petitions failed of fuc- ready on the Irish fhore: Sir Donald cess, they published a declaration to Gorrum, and others of the Macdothe people of England, vindicating nalds, went over to Ireland to join their conduct from the misrepresenta- Antrim, in hopes of recovering Kintions of their enemies, and jutifying tyre, which they claimed as their pathe measures which they were now trimony, and of avenging themselves compelled to adopt. Besides making on the Campbells, their inveterate vigorous preparations at home, they enemies. . Thus was Argyle drawa, resolved to apply for foreign affistance. by neceffity, to defend his country General Leslie was sent for from from unjaft oppression, and to oppose Germany, and brought with him fe- those who acted with the approbation veral Scots gentlemen, who served and authority of the sovereign. under him. On the 7th of March, a The warlike attempts of the covecommittee of the nobles, barons, and nanters were attended with rapid fucburgesses, with two of the senators of cels. Before the middle of summer the college of justice, were chosen for they had obtained possession of the giving out orders, and receiving in- principal Atrong places in the kingtelligence. They ordered 2000 foot dom. Edinburgh castle submitted to to be raised in the country fouth of General Leslie on the 23d of March, the Tay, to be under the command and was soon followed by the rock of

Dumbarton, which was committed in Carlisle : he was, át the fame time, to fend trust to the Earl of Argyle. This. a feet to ply from the firth northward for nobleman now judged it necessary to Itopping of trade, and making a great di- increase his forces to 700 men, of verlion for guarding the coait. He was whom he placed the half in Kintyre, allo to send an army of 5000 men, under to watch the motions of Antrim, and Hamilton, to join with Huntley's forces in

the rest at the head of Lorn, to atthe north. Next, the Earl of Antrim was to land in Argyleshire, upon his pretenfions

tend to Lochaber and the western to Kintyre, and on account of the feuds illes. He then went over in boats to betwix: him and the Campbells ; and he Arran, with some cannon, and took promised to bring along with him ten or the cattle of Brodick, belonging to twelve thousand me!). Lall of all, the Hamilton, without resistance. Earl of Strafford was to colle& forces in Ireland, and come with another feet into Stevenson's History, Dumbarton firib,

+ Bingraphia 3. itannica.

The boldness and success of the terms of submission proposed by the Scots augmented the anger of the Scots. Commiflioners were appointking, and made him halten the pun- ed on both sides to treat of a pacifiilhment he had already resolved to cation, and on the 17th of June they inflict upon them. He found the came to the following agreements English, however, averse to co-ope

• That all ecclefiaftical matters rate with him in chastising the co- should be determined by the general venanters. They confidered the fi- assemblies of the kirk, and civil cautuation of their northern neighbours fes by the parliament : that an act as in some degree their own : they of indemnity should be passed for all beheld, with a jealous eye, the arbi- bygone proceedings ; that the covetrary proceedings of the court, and nanters should deliver up to the king were offended that a parliament had, their fortified places, and disband their for many years, been denied to their troops ; and that the king should alardent wishes. They began to fuf- so withdraw his forces both by sea pect that the ambitious Laud advised and land.” the conquest of the Scots, that he Both fides were dissatisfied with might prepare the way for reducing this agreement. On the one hand, it them allo to submit to his impofi- was said, that an opportunity had tions. Many of them accordingly been loft of weakening or destroying called in question the lawfulness of the power of the covenanters : on the the war, and the guards declared that other, that the surrender of the castle they were not obliged to follow bis of Edinburgh, and the fortifications of majetty without the kingdom. Leith, were unjustifiable, and that

These indications of discontent, some of the articles of the treaty were however, did not prevent the king obscure. While jealoufies continued from profecuting his deligns. Insti- to increase on both sides, the king, gated and encouraged by the cour- upon the 16th of July, sent for the tiers, and the friends of the hierarchy, Earl of Argyle, along with 13 others he sent a feet to Leith, under the of the covenanters, to wait upon

him Marquis of Hamilton, while he him- at Berwick ; but the Scots, suspectfelf set out from London, upon the ing that, in this measure, the king 27th of March, and proceeded to the had some design upon them, sent only banks of the Tweed, two miles west Montrose, Loudon, and Lothian.of Berwick. After having proceed. The king was greatly offended at ed thus far, and made several unsuc- this refusal, and set out for London cessful attempts upon the covenaoters, on the 29th of July. Argyle was who were drawn up under General commanded either to come to court, Leslie, ready to receive him, the and answer for his conduct, or go to English became disheartened, and be- ward in some of his own houses in gan to think it better not to carry Argyleshire. With these commands, matters too far. The feet also, un the Earl refused to comply,and urged, der the Marquis of Hamilton, became in his excuse, the danger of his counequally tired of the service in which try, and of the king's intereft, which they were engaged, refused to com- might suffer material injury by his abply with an arbitrary proclamation, fence.f which Hamilton had caused to be The general afsembly, according published at the market-cross of to appointment, met at Edinburgh Edinburgh, and assumed new courage on the i2th day of August, in which from the irresolution of the royal the Earl of Traquair presided as his forces.

majesty's commissioner. The princiIn this state of affairs, Charles found it neceffary to listen to the + Stevenson's History.

pa!

pal acts that were passed in this af- The Scots brought their plate to the fembly were, the abolition of the mint; the wealthy contributed or prohierarchy, and the establishment of cured loans of money ; voluntary conthe Presbyterian form of government. tributions were raised at the churchThe parliament met upon the 31st of doors ; and every effort was made to the same month. It was opened by procure supplies for supporting the Traquair, who rode in state from the

army. Their forces were ordered to palace of Holyrood-house. The en- affemble from the distant parts of the figns of honour were carried by Ar country at the general rendezvous; gyle, Crawford, and Sutherland, the and, before the king's troops were enthree eldest earls. The proceedings of tirely collected, they had crossed the this parliament were so offensive to Tweed, and advanced into the borders Charles, that he caused it to be pro of England. Various reasons have rogued in the month of January 1640. been offered for justifying their con

Upon the prorogation of the par- duct in the invasion of England. The liament, the Scots fent commissioners promise of effectual support, given to London to complain of their grie- them as an encouragement by the vances ; but the king, on account of English, the prospect of obtaining a the representation of the affairs of more speedy redress of grievances, Scotland, communicated by Traquair, and of accomplishing more effectually and of the powerful inftigations of the object of their undertaking, have the bishops, caused them all to be ap- all been stated in their defence. But, prehended, and the Earl of Loudon if their conduct can be justified, in to be put into the Tower. These vio- acting in opposition to the royal aulent proceedings of the court irritated thority, the invasion of England may the covenanters to just indignation, easily be vindicated, upon the same and caused them to make active pre- principles. After a flow march through parations for a new war. The castle the county of Northumberland, they of Edinburgh, which had been re- encamped at Newburn, about five paired and garrisoned since the pacifi- miles above Newcastle. Here they cation, was invested by Leslie : the were met by the English forces. An Highlands were restrained by Argyle engagement took place upon the 28th with a train of artillery ; and the of August, in which the Scots gained friends of the court were suppressed a complete victory. Upon which in the north by Munro. Argyle tra- Newcastle, Tinmouth, Shiels, and versed the head of Athol, Badenoch, Durham, immediately submitted to and Mar, and kept those places in the victors. Their success imboldenawe. From thence he marched to ed, but did not elevate them beyond Angus, and reduced it to subjection. the bounds of moderation. They He afterwards returned to Argyle- remembered that they were subshire, that he might more effectually jects, and that they were contending obstruct a threatened invasion from with their sovereign. They fent a peIreland.+

tition to the king, that he would conWarlike preparations went on, on sider their grievances, and give them both sides, with the greatest rapidity. redress. “ In the extremity

to which

the king was reduced, he had retired † In these expeditions he is accused by with his army from Northallerton to Guthrie of pillaging and wasting the coun: York, where he fummoned a council try. Mem. p. 77. Sir James Balfour, on of peers to meet, and referred to their the contrary, says, that he preserved a strict consideration the petitions of the military discipline among the foldiers, and took nothing which he did not pay for, ex

Scots, and their expulfion from Engcept subliñence to his army, from those who land. A treaty was proposed, as the were violent in opposing him, See Annals. only means to prevent their advance ;

a parliament was requested and ap- of the preliminaries; the English com. pointed to be held, and 16 noblemen, missioners, finding that they would eminent for their popularity, and their not be able to bring matters to a firank, were suggested by the council to nal accommodation before the meetnegotiate with the committee of ing of parliament, petitioned the king Scottish estatest.” As a preliminary to transfer the treaty from Rippon to the treaty, the Scottish commis- to London. The treaty was designfioners in Gifted upon maintenance for edly spun out, that some of its artitheir army. This, the English com cles might be discussed in parliament; millioners, after some consultation and it was not till the 17th of Auupon the subject, thought proper to gult, the following year, that it was grant. Three weeks had already brought to a final conclusion. clapsed since they had begun to treat

(To be continued.)

For the Scots Magazine.

ANALYSIS of the worD CHARACTER.

IN a moral sense, it signifies an ha No member of society is more dan. bitual disposition of the foul, that in- gerous than a man without a charac: clines to do one thing in preference to ter, that is, a person whose foul has another of a contrary nature. Thus, not any one disposition more habitual a man who seldom or never pardons to it than another. We readily conan injury, is of a revengeful charac- fide in a virtuous man, but are diftruitter. We say seldom or never, be. ful of a villain. The man without a cause a character results not from a character, is alternately the one and disposition being rigorously conftant the other, nor are we able to deterat all times, but from its being ge- mine which : therefore we can look nerally habitual, and that by which upon him neither as a friend nor an the soul is most frequently swayed. It enemy. He is a fort of amphibious hath been remarked, that the greatest being, if we may be allowed the expart of the errors and follies in the con pression, not specifically adapted to duct of mankind happen because their live in any one element. This recals abilities and their characters do not to our remembrance that admirable correspond. Cicero was a man of law of Solon, that declared all those great genius, but of a weak soulpersons infamous, who were of no Hence, while his fame as an orator party in times of fedition ; because was unrivalled, as a man he could he knew well, that there are no men never rise above mediocrity.

in society more to be feared than men

undetermined from a want of charac † Laing's Hift. vol. i. p. 177.

ter.

ON THE USES OF HISTORY.

Concluded from yol. LXIV. page 965.

ence.

THIRDLY, History is the vehicle merely a negative, but a positive of moral instruction.

effect. From the manner in which To enforce the love and practice they are introduced, they engage of virtue, moralists have had re the attention, and fecure imitation. course to precept and example. Virtue appears there in her true coThe one is immediately addreiled lours, and surrounded with her na. to our judgment, the other presentative honours. When exhibited in ed to our senses. The former ex. this form, bad as the world is, she plains the nature of the duty, and is still venerable and lovely. Even the propriety of yielding it obedie the most abandoned, when they pe

The latter shews us a simple ruse the records of history, not on: fact, and, without seeming to courtly esteem the good man, and join attention, finds immediate access to the writer in the commendation he the heart. Precepts, notwithstand. bestows on his merit, but involuning their appeal to the judgment, tarily wish to make his virtues and still appear to be recommended by his praise their own. the authority of others; not to say, HISTORICAL characters have tlie that they imply something in our fame effect with the statues of their conduct previously defective or ancestors, which the Romans pla. wrong: Many maxims too, which çed in the vestibules of their houses. have seemed plausible in theory, The monuments of their departed when put to the trial have been heroes inspired the living with the found impracticable. Hence, when love of patriotism and valour. * a new principle is proposed, the The virtue of one generation was, mind may indeed be convinced of by the magic of example, transits reasonableness, but, from a pre-fused into several, and a spirit of posterous diffidence will refuse to heroism maintained through several adopt it. But where precept fails, ages of the republic. example succeeds. It requires no circuitous process to persuade us of its propriety. It is in fact, a living

* Sæpe andivi Q. Maximum, P. Sciillustration of that principle which

pionem, præterea civitatis noftræ præe. precept is labouring to

claros viros folitos ita dicere, cum mamend.

jorum ilagines intuerentur, vehemert : These observations will, in some me fibi animun ad virtutem acendii, Scidegree, enable us to appreciate the licet non aram illam, neque figurat value of history, which has often

tantam vim in sese habere ; fed incmo. been defined -philosophy teaching

sia rerum geftarum wm flammam e.

gregiis viris in pectore crescere, ne. by example.

que prius sedari, quam virtus eorum The virtuous characters with

tamam atque gloriam adæquaverit which it presents us, have not Sallut. Boil. Jugurth. cap. 4. VOL, LXV.

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