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tedin the same individual, they think human existence ; and to conceive themselves at liberty to indulge their of himself as a kind of outcast, cut feelings to the utmost. Fear and off by the sentence of nature from hatred then combine with disgust the common charities of life, and to produce a fervour of abhorrence, from every finer sentiment that dig. in many cases to be compared only fies and adorns our nature. That to that sensation with which the such ideas are false and exaggerated, fight of a venemous reptile inspires and that they imply defective obser,
vation and ignorance of human na, A REGARD to safety, therefore, ture, will I hope be evident, from as well as to duty, should prompt a short investigation. the deformed to cultivate the good There are several circumstan. opinion of mankind with more than ces, which the deformed seem to common affiduity ; and this is best lofe fight of in those complaints done by cherishing real benevolence, which they fometimes commit to which alone, by a provision of na the ear of friendship. Of these the ture in favour of truth, has the pow- most obvious and important is the er of exciting reciprocal sentiments power of custom;--the great inin the breasts of others. I am fen- strument employed by nature to fible, however, that this precept is equalize the conditions of mankind; more easily delivered than observed; an object which she seems carefully for to preserve an uniform placidity to have studied, and whatever our of temper, while a constant source felf love may suggest, which she of irritation remains in the mind, has, in a confiderable degree, atis scarcely to be expected from hu- tained. Custom diminishes the inman infirmity. It will be more to fluence both of beauty and of defor. the purpose, if we endeavour to re. mity, and at last reduces them move the root of the evil, by shew- nearly to a level. It is indeed harding that deformity is by no means ly possible for any one to avoid refo great a misfortune as is generally marking how completely the greatimagined ; that its importance in est deformity of countenance is overthe Icale of qualities and circum- looked and forgotten after a short stances is, upon the whole, inconfi. acquaintance ; especially, where derable; and that its existence is there are agreeable qualities of in no cafe incompatible with the mind to counteract its impression. higheit degree of affection and re. On this principle, by which the (pect which it is poflible to attain; beauty is prompted to shade her not even with the passion of love, charms from the public eye, the from which at least, as the subjects fons and daughters of deformity
of it in others, the deformed would ought boldly to bring their defects · seem to be excluded. It is highly into view, in order that those with
requisite that just notions should be whom they affociate may the foonentertained on this subject, as the er arrive at the state of indifferpersons who are best qualified to re The less they seem to think deem their corporeal defeets, by en of their misfortune, the more quickdowmentsof mind, are thoseon whom ly will others forget it. By this an evil that addresses itself folely magnanimous policy, they will at to the imagination makes the deep- the lame time avoid the many aukest impression. A man of this cha. ward tricks contracted by those ra&ter is very apt to view his de- who are constantly endeavouring to formity, as an exclusion from all hide defects impossible to be conthat is valuable and delightful in sealed; which endeavours only
serve to draw more particular at. pable of being beloved. The ob. tention.
fervations already made may have BESIDES custom, there is another tended to remove this prejudice; principle, which probably has a but in order more distinctly to per. confiderable influence in reconciling ceive its fallacy, it will be of use to us to deformity. In proportion as attend for a moment to the process we become familiar with the coun- by which the affections are genetenance, we acquire a knowledge of rated in the mind. According to its peculiar modes of expression; the fyítem of Hartley, which af. and hence are often enabled to dif- fords by far the most satisfactory cern benevolence, where we at first explication of the mental phenome, thought we saw only malignity. na that has yet been given, the vaIt not unfrequently happens, that rious impressions we receive from a countenance which, at a distance, those wità whom we afsociate, coa, appeared hard and forbidding, lefce into one complex feeling, thall gradually foften, on a nearer which is accompanied either with approach, into something highly attachment or averfion, according benignant and engaging: Defore to the predominance of pleasing or mity is always occafioned by an ir- painful ideas. . This feeling beregularity in the larger features, comes inseparably connected with and seldom extends to those minute the idea of the individual, and tineaments, which are more imme. arises in our minds whenever he is diately fubject to the mind, and in the obje&t of our attention ; so that which the moral expression seems every thing belonging to him is chiefly to reside. To this we may viewed through this medium, and add, the progreflive effect of habi- neceffarily receives a tinge of its tual good humour, in moulding prevailing colour. Hence it is, that the looks to a conformable exprei. we are able to form such entire and fion; which is universally admitted powerful attachments, notwithitandto be considerable, and is perhaps ing all the faults and imperfections Atill greater than is commonly ap- win which human nature is checprehended. The sunshine of the quered. For although some disa. mind will at lait break through the greeable feelings, arising from mocloudiest features. The elegant but ral or personal defects, thould blend mystical genius of Lavater has both themselves with the idea of those illustrated and obscured this fubje&t; whom we love, yet as they exist not but if we divelt his doctrine of the in a separate state, but are comparadoxical form in which he has bined with more powerful impresitated it, we may, I presume, re. fions of a pleasing kind, they in a duce it to this plain and rational great measure lose their proper efpofition-tbat a homely counte fect ; they perhaps diminish the fum nance, though it can never produce total of complacency, but being the the appropriate effect of beauty, smaller part, they leave a balance may yet be the external index of fo of pure pleasure behind. Common many amiable qualities, of so much observation confirms this theory.
of the good and fair in the mind The lover is blind to the faults of within, as to be on the whole, a his mistrets, or if he at all perceives highly pleasing object to every man them, he loves them as a part of of taste and virtue.
her; they form an inseparable part It is a common error with de- of the idea which he cherishes in formed people, and men advanced his bosom, and he is often difpofed in life, to suppose themselves inca. to ascribe to them a certain unac
countable charm, which gives them tions as the foregoing will be ra. he knows not what of graceful and ther detrimental than useful, by enbecoming. It is not too much creasing that absurd personal vanity to affirm, that homeliness may be, for which they are already so reand often is, in this manner, con
markable. That deformed people verted into beauty by the trans are peculiarly subject to vanity, is forming power of a lover's imagi. an opinion very generally enternation. Every person knows, that tained, and in spite of its evident beauty is only one of the causes improbability, not without some which excite affection; that elegant foundation in appearances. A little accomplishments, good humour, wit, reflection must however convince the arts of pleasing conversation- us, that this is entirely a misappre. whatever, in short, serves to con- henfion, occasioned by our not adnect agreeable feelings with the verting to the fact, that states of presence or recollection of the indi-' mind, apparently similar, sometimes vidual, also tend to produce it. It arise from contrary causes. Thus, were highly unreasonable to sup- the handsome and the deformed pose, that the fingle disadvantage are both much occupied about their of person or of age, must necessarily persons; but from motives precise. overcome a combination of these ly opposite ; the one, because he is causes; and in fact, instances to conscious of being an agreeable obthe contrary so frequently occur in jeet in the fight of mankind; the common life, as to have drawn upon other, because he feels that he is the fair sex, an imputation of whim- the reverse. Both are fond of dress, ficalness from superficial observers. and equally eager to adopt every Our immortal dramatist has never new ornament; but in the former, been accused of violating the pro- this proceeds from a desire to enbability of nature, by the affection crease his attractions ; in the latter, of Desdemona for the Moor Othel- from a wish to palliate or conceal lo. With his usual knowledge of his defects. Their actions are there the human mind, he has assigned fore fimilar, and hence are ascribed two moral causes amply competent to the fame motive : though in the to this effect; pity, and the admira- one, vanity or conceit is the moving tion of valour; to which we may principle; in the other, perhaps too add eloquence, perhaps not the deep a sense of inferiority. It must least powerful of the three. It is be acknowledged however, that not, however, necessary for our pur- this principle in the minds of the pose to infilt on this point. It is a deformed, by keeping the attention suficient consolation to the deform- constantly fixed on the perion:ul ap. ed to know, that all which a wise pearance, produces many of the man can defire, may be theirs ; effects of vanity. In its excess, it that they are capable of infpiring is the great source of their unhap. that calm and rational affection, piness; its ufual effect being either which is the true foundation of do a total want of firmness and felf mestic happiness, and which, being poffeffion, in fo much' that, like fixed on moral qualities, is not bashful children, they are hardly liable to decay with years, or to able to look up to meet the eye
of pall by fatiety.
a stranger; or an irritable jealousy: It may be thought after all, that of temper, which is constantly consolation of this kind is very watching the looks of others for little needed by those to whom it fymptoms of contempt or ridicule, is addressed, and that such observd. and finds matter of reientment and Vol. LXV.
complaint in the most innocent cir- with an affiduous cultivation of cumstances. The only effe&ual re- those intellectual and moral graces, medy against it, is a just and man. which form the best counterpoise to ly confidence in the superiority of corporeal imperfections. the mind over the body; together
For the Scots Magazine.
* PROVIDENCE, thou art un of mirth and jollity was loud. just.” It was exclaimed in a def- Within, extravagance seemed to perate tone, by a man betwixt 60 reign. I well understood the old and 70 years of age. He was fit- man's meaning, and felt keenly the ting on a stone at the end of the striking contrast. The proprietor street, immersed in deep medita. of that house, said the old man, tion. His clothes were much worn, was the son of one of my father's and in his countenance was depict. servants. I took a liking to the ed poverty and extreme grief. I boy, and bestowed on him a liberal gently enquired into the cause of education. We for sometime car. his sorrows. He rose up, and re- ried on together an extensive trade, quested me to accompany him. I but differed. By his villainous er. followed him into a miserable a. ertions, I am reduced to my prepartment. Here I beheld a young sent distressed state.
You comwoman pale and emaciated, reco. plained that I was accusing provivering flowly from the effects of a dedce; can you be surprised that severe fever. There was a delicacy I did so, when you thus see the gein her manners, extremely interest. nerous man amitted, while the un. ing. She was at the side of a bed, grateful man flourisheth, and tramadministering fome medicines to her pleth on the neck of his benefactor. mother, whose recovery w hardly His reasoning bewildered me, and expected. Their last farthing had his arguments I could not refute. been expended the preceding day, But I was sensible, that it was not and in order to obtain a little suste a time for argument,
while a fami. nance for his wife and daughter, ly were starving. My riches were the old man had gone out for the abundant. I procured physicians, first time, when I beheld him, with and the family recovered. I placed the intention of asking charity. I them in a comfortable situation. I fighed at the affecting scene. The regained to the old man great part old man fighed also took me to of the fortune which had been the window and pointed to the wrested from him by an unfceling opposite house. It was a stately wretch. That wretch now feels the dwelling. Elegant carriages were utmost anguish. Excess has wreckhurrying to the door. The founded his conititution. His hypocrisy
and baseness are known to the adminifters to his relief. He reworld. His riches are returned to
grets, that he
ever exclaimed, the right owner. He lies on his « Providence, thou art unjust.” He death-bed, with not a single conso- admires the ways of God to man. lation-the reflection that the wi. He is convinced, that we should dow and the orphan were support- never repine ; and that " although ed by his beneficence, cannot cheer weeping may endure for a night, his dark defponding foul. - The old yet, to the righteous, joy cometh in man pities his condition, and even the morning."
ON AN ESTABLISHED RELIGION.
To the Publisher of the Scots Magazine.
Sir, I OBserve in your Magazine fordern times. I do not wish, howSeptember, a paper by a Diffenter, ever, to ascribe to the writer it in answer to an Essay by Lælius, question, any improper motives, but on the Neceflity of an Established Re- furely the Diffenter must know, that ligion. The writer pays his anta- the sentiments which he avows, are gonist the compliment of having repugnant to the general opinions refrained from any acrimonious or of mankind, and will be regarded illiberal insinuation against the mo at least with a fufpicious eye, by lives of those whose sentiments dif- every person not infected with those fer from his own. I have always principles whose operation is found considered it as extremely unfair to to be so hostile to the peace and impute to any man intentions good order of society. The tenwhich he disavows, or to represent dency of every attempt to bring every diversity of sentiment as the the religious establishments of the effect of some finister motive. But, country into disrepute with the Sir, there are some cases, in which great body of the people, must be it is difficult to separate the attempt extremely obvious, and deserves to from the motive which has given be watched against with the greatrise to it; and in this age of inno- est care. vation, when so many attempts are
It is not the design of this paper made to overturn all those institu. to undertake a complete vindications, whether of a civil or religious tion of religious establishments, I nature, which are venerable from only wish to make a few observa. their antiquity, whose utility has tions on what the Dissenter has ad. stood the test of experience, and vanced on the subject. been confirmed by the voice of After some remarks on the naages, I own, I am apt to suspect ture and proper province of governthe motives of those who appear ment, which I shall not stay to exaanxious to controvert the general mine, he undertakes to shew, “ that sentiments, both of ancient and mo. religious establishments tend to ob