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Jord Cobham; attached himself to Fre. reftored to the office of secretary of derick Prince of Wales, and in 1737 ftate, became the favourite of the king, was appointed groom of his bed-cham- and took the lead in the conduct of fober. He continued in opposition till reign affairs. After an inneffectual fl rugthe formation of the broad bottom mi- gle with Newcastle for pre-eminence, nistry. In 1946, bę was nominated vice. he resigned in February 1745. I: 1751 treasurer of Ireland, and in the same he was appointed president of the counyear paymaster of the forces; but the cil, and retained that office till his death. antipathy of the king, in confequence He was a man of great talents and liter. of his acrimony in censuring German ary acquirements ; indefatigable in bui. measures, overcame the repeated efforts ness, of commanding eloquence, and of the duke of Newcattle to introduce conversant in foreign affairs. To those him into the cabinet. At length, the who considered his eminent capacity, irresistible fuperiority of his talents bore and arrogant dispofition, it was matter down every obstacle: in 1757 the king, of surprize that he submitted to the affenfible of the weakness of the ministry, cendancy of the Pelhams, and acceptand alarmed at the ill success of the ed a fituation which, though superior war, reluctantly consented to appoint in dignity, was fubordinate in import. him secretary of ftate, an office which, ance. during the temporary retreat of the Mr Fox, paymaster of the forces, was duke of Newcaitle, lie had held for a.. a friend and active supporter of Sir Robout four months ; on his recall to of- bert Walpole; and from his first enfice, Mr Pitt, according to the current trance into parliament, had almost uniexpreffion of the day, “ took the cabi- formly promoted the measures of go. net by storm." From this moment vernment. Under Mr Pelham, he act. Great Britain assumed a formidable po. ed in the capacity of lord of the treafition. Mr Pitt relinquished his oppo- fury and secretary at war; and was conGtion to continental connections : con tent to fill a subordinate department in ftant success attended his measures: his the house of commons; but, on his commanding cloquence, the wisdom of death, thought himself entitled to mahis plans, the vigour of his exertions, nage the house, and contended with together with the strength of his admi- Mr Pitt for pre-eminence. After a nistration, lilenced parliamentary op- long series of cabals, he gained a mopofition: the people viewed him with mentary ascendancy, and on the 14th an admiration bordering on idolatry; of November 1755 was appointed fecand George II. highly gratified at the retary of state ; but in the month of prosecution of his favourite meafures, November 1756 he refigned, and on and the unprecedented tranquillity of the sth of July 1757, became paymalthe kingdom, yielded, with implicit ter of the forces. Mr Fox was of an aconfidence, the reins of government to cute and penetrating genius, and active bis direction.
in buliness. His peeches were replete Mr Pitt was supported in the cabinet 'with information, method, and sense, by his brother-in-law, Lord Temple, but he wanted that nervous and irres! who succeeded to the influence and e ible eloquence which characterijed Mr ftate of his uncle, lord Cobham. He Pitt. His manaers were concilia:o!y, was distinguished for his parliamentary and few men had more personal frienus. abilities, and much respected and be Several of the remaining members of loved by his adherents
administration were highly reipcetable Lord Granville, better known under for talents and integrity; amongit whom the title of lord Carteret, was prelident muft be noticed, lord keeper, afterwards of the council. At an early period of lord chancellor Northington, the duke his life he was secretary of fiate, and of Devonshire lord chaniberlain, Mr lord lieutenant of Ireland. Being dif. Legge chancellor of the exchequer, lord missed in the reign of George I. he join. Anson first lord of the admiralty, and ed the opposition against Sir Robert lord Holderneffe fecretary of State. Walpole ; and, on bis resignation, was
THE FINAL SUPPRESSION OF THE JESUITS.
FROM THE SAME.
THE event which, at this period, ed this great project, in which he was (1767) moft immediately affected the animated by political considerations, interiitsof mankind was the fail of the and by an attachment to the modern' Jeluits. That body, by their learning, systems of free-thinking philofophers. activity, intrigue, and federal union, He procured in 1764 a suppression of had acquired an unlimited authority in their order in France, although the all catholic countries ; they regulated members were still permitted to conthe consciences of crowned heads; at tinue their residence as individuals, contheir suggestions treaties were confirm- forming to the spiritual and civil ordied or broken, and war or peace prevail, nances of the realm. ed. Theirinfluence extended to all parts; In Spain, and the trans-atlantic domi. the camp, the college, and even the nions of that country, their influence cottage paid implicit deference to their' was most extensive, and from the bigot. mandates. As preceptors they had the ed attachment of the Spaniards to the advantage of discerning and giving an catholic religion, and to the Jesuits in inflexion to the tempers, paflions, and particular, their establishment was deemhabits of youth, of acquiring an unli. ed perfectly secure, and their governmited ascendency over the mind ; of en ment as permanent and efficient as that Daving the timid, reítraining the proud, of the king himself. Yet in the midit and bending even the energies of cou of this security, and without any prerage and virtue to their own peculiar vious indication of jealousy or displeaviews. Their orders, and even many sure, their total ruin was effected. This regulations of their fociety, were an in project was conceived under the influscrutable mystery, but lo early was ence of De Choiseul, and conducted by their intelligence, and so prompt their means of the marquis D'orun, the communication, that they seemed every French ambassador at the court of Mawhere to be the firft apprised of occur. drid, who concerted his measures with rences, and earliest and most abundant. Charles III. king of Spain, and the ly benefited by them. Their activity count D'Aranda bis prime minister. and influence over the timid and super The exccution of the defign was fud. llitious threw enormous wealth into den and decisive ; at midnight large botheir hands, and their ambition was dies of the military surrounded the fix supposed equal to their power. From colleges of the Jesuits in Madrid, forcevi their first eliablishment as an order, they the gates, secured the bells, and placwere occaiionally regarded with suspi ing a fentry at the door of each cell, cion and inquietude, and already reve commanded the fathers to rile, fumral principal powers in Europe had ex moned them into the refectory, and pelled them as a body dangerous to read the king's order for instant tranfgovernment*. In some countries in portation. The royal feal was put on trigue, iuperstition, or fear, had pro all their effects, except a few neceffaries cured their re-admission, but the pre which they were permitted to carry afent period was marked for their total way. All the hired coaches and chais. expuition and final fupprefiion. De es in Madrid, together with suveral wagChoiseul, the French minister, conceiv gons, being engaged and distributed in
proper places, their journey towards
Carthagena immediately began. The They were expelled from France inhabitants of the capital, in the mornin 1594, but re.eitablished in 1603 ; ing learned the intelligence with furfrom England in 1604, from Venice in prize and confternation, but had not 1606, and from Portugal in 1759, under the power, if :hey had inclination, to pretence of having initigated the fami- interfere in preventing the execution of lies of Tavora and d'Aveiro to affalfi. the king's command. nate king Joseph I.
Three days afterwards, the jefuits'
college in Barcelona was surrounded, homes, and all their social connections, and the members transported in cir. was augmented by the terrors of an cumstances exactly similar. The same uncertain destination, and the anticipameasures were adopted at the same tion of an unwelcome reception. Mea hour in every part of the kingdom; who were for the greater part advanced fhips were provided in the different fea in years, all of them used to the indul. ports for carrying the jesuits to the ec gence of an honourable fituation, and clefiaftical state, and the most effectual to the ease of a sedentary life, were means were adopted for preventing any now reduced to the allowance and treatcommunication to the king's foreign ment of foldiers in transports. When dominions. The royal ordinance for they arrived before Civita Vecchia, the the expulsion of the jesuits was then Pope, Clement XIII, prohibited their published, by which all their property landing in his dominions: they were was confiscated. A fmall penfion was therefore obliged to await fresh orders ashgned to each individual, payable on. from Spain. A negotiation was openly while he resided in a place appoint- ed with the republic of Genoa, for per. ed, and abstained from offence in his mision to land them in Corsica: before writings and conduct, and the misde- the treaty was concluded, the Spanish meanour of one was declared sufficient admiral received orders to fail for the to subject the whole body to a forfeito port of Baitia; but the Corlican goverure of iheir ftipends. The king's sub por would not suffer them to disembark.' jects were forbidden, under penalties At length the fanction of the Genoefe of high treason, to correspond with the government was obtained; the tranf. jesuits; they were enjoined to observe ports were ordered to the ports of CalAtrict filence, and not to write, declaim, vi, Algaiola, and Ajaccio, and the furor make any movement for or againit viving jeluts, amounting to two thouthese measures. The fame regulations fand three hundred, were put on shore. extended also to the Indies, where a The example of the king oʻ Spain was fimilar feizure and expulsion took place, immediately followed by his fon Ferdiand an immense property was acquired nand VI, king of Naplts, and after. by government.
warda by Parma: and in 1793 the orAll men were surprized at the secrecy der was fupprefliu by Clement XIV, and rigour of this transaction, and were who was elevated to the pipicy on that therefore prepared to receive and cre express condition. dit the accounts which might be given Alihough, by a resolute exertion of of the motives of the Spanih court. the civil power, this formidable society Extensive projects and dangerous ma was thus reduced, there is great reaton chinations were imputed to the jefuits, to doubt that the strength of the Euro. and all the dread and jealousy which pean governments was augmented by other nations entertained of their ma. iheir full. If they were really guity of lignity and influence were exerted in dangerous and treasonable designs, fuffinding the causes of their unexpected ficient means were not wanting efpeciownfall. It was currently believed cially in arbitrary morarchies, to punith that they had fomented, and perhaps the guilty and disperse their aberent. excited, a dangerous popular insurrec- Even the whole order night have been rion, wbich the year before had agitat. reformed, their wealth di wimitsest, their ed the capital, and compelled the king power abridged, and their numörrureto dismiss his ministers.
duced. But the destruction of t fociety But whether the crimes and inten- which included fo much learning ani tions of the jesuits were founded in ability, and refpectable from condi.co fact, or the more fuggeftions of a party tions and able publications in litcrature joimical, not only to their establishment and theology, diminified the general as a body, but to the Chriftian religion credit of the established religion, and in general, their fifierings entitle them, gave new fpirit to those who alreaily az men, to commiferation. The hor- meditated the destruction both of Chile for of being suddenly forn from their tianity and monihy.
EXTRACT FROM PROFESSOR STEWART'S ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE
AND WRITINGS OF DR REID.
THOMAS RFID, D. D. late Professor which may be found in the colle&tion of Moral Philosophy in the University entitled Delitic Poetarum Scotorum. On of Glasgow, was born on the 26th of his return to his native country, he fixe April 1710, at Strachan in Kincardine ed his residence in London, where he mire, a country parish situated about was appointed fecretary in the Greek twenty miles from Aberdeen, on the and Latin tongues to King James the north fide of the Grampian Mountains. First of England, and lived in habits
His father, the Reverend Lewis Reid, of intimacy with fome of the most difwas minister of this parish for fifty tinguished characters of that period. years. He was a clergyman, accord- Little more, I believe, is known of ing to his son's account of him, re Thomas Reid's history, excepting that spected by all who knew him, for he bequeashed to the Marischal College bis piety, prudence, and benevolence; of Aberdeen a curious collection of inheriting from his ancestors, (mott of books and manuscripts, with a fund whom, from the time of the Protestant for establishing a falary to a librarian. establishment, had been ministers of the Alexander Reid, the third fon, was church of Scotland) that purity and phylician to King Charles the First, and fimplicity of manners which became published several books on surgery and bisitation; and a love of letters, which, medicine. The fortune he acquired in without attra&ting the notice of the the course of his praliice was confiderworld, amused his leisure, and dignifi: able, and enabled him (besides many ed his retirement.
legacies to his relations and friends, For some generations before this to leave various lafting and honourabie time, a propensity to literature, and to memorials, both of his benevolence, the Icarned professions,-a propensity, and of his attachment to letters. which, when it has once become cha A fourth son, whose name was Adam, racteristical of a race, is peculiarly apt taanslated into English Buchanan's Hila to be propagated by the influence of tory of Scotland.of this translation, early associations and habits,---may be which was never published, there is a traced in several individuals among his manuscript copy in the poffeflion of kindred. One of his ancestors, James
' the University of Glasgow. Reid, was the first minister of Banchory. A grandson of Robert, the eldent of Ternan after the Reformation; and these fons, was the third miniiter of transmitted to four fons a predilection Banchory after the Reformation, and for those ftudious habits which formed was great-grandfather of Thomas Reid, his own happiness. He was himself a the lubject of this memoir. younger son of Mr Reid of Pitfoddels, The particulars bitherto mentioned, a gentleman of a very ancient and re are ftared on the authority of fome spectable family in the county of Aber- fort memorandums written by Dr deen.
Reid a few weeks before his death. th James Reid was succeeded as minif- consequence of a fuggestion of bis ter of Banchory by his fon Robert. friend Dr Gregory, he had resolved ti Another son, Thomas, rose to confi- amuse himself with collecting fuch facis derable distinction both as a philosopher as his papers or memory could supply, and a poet ; and feems to have wanted with respect to his life, and the proDeither ability nor inclination to turn gress of Iris ftudies ; but, unfortunately, his attainments to the best advantage. before he had fairly entered on the subAfter travelling over Europe, and main. ject, his design was interrupted by his taining, a's was the custom of his age, iart illness. If he had lived to coin. public difputations in several Univerfi- plete it, I might have entertained hopes ties, he collected into a volume the of presenting to the Public fome detheres and dissertations which had been tails with respect to the history of his the subjects of his literary contests; opinions and speculations on those imand also published fome Latin poems, portant subjects to which he dedicated VOL. LXV,
his talents :-the most interefting of all particularly, by a book, entitled Prinarticles in the biography of a philofo- ciples of Moral Philosophy, and by a pher, ard of which it is to be lament. voluminous treatise(longago forgotten) ed, that so few authentic records are on ancient Painting. The feflions of to be found in the annals of letters. the College' were, at that time, very All the information, bowever, which mort, and the education, according to I have derived from these notes, is ex- Dr Reid's own account, fight and fuhausted in the foregoing pages ; and I perficial. must content myself, in the continua It does not appear from the information of my narrative, with those in- tion which I have received, that he direct aids which tradition, and the gave any early indications of future e. recollection of a few old acquaintance, minence. His industry, however, and afford; added to what I myself have modefty, were conspicuous from his learned from Dr Reid's conversation, childhood, and it was foretold of him, or collected from a careful perusal of by the parish schoolmaster, who inihis writings.
tiated bim in the first principles of learn. His mother, Margaret Gregory, was ing, “That he would turn out to be a a daughter of David Gregory, Esq; of man of gond and well wearing parts ;" à Kinnairdie, in Banffshire; elder bro- predi&tion which touched, not unhappia ther of James Gregory, the inventor ly, on that capacity of “patient thought" of the reflecting telescope, and the an which so peculiarly chara&erised bis tagonist of Huyghens. She was one of philosophical genius, twenty-nine children; the most remark- His residence at the university was able of whom was David Gregory, prolonged beyond the usual term, in Savilian Professor of Afronomy at Ox- consequence of his appointment to the ford, and an intimate friend of Sir office of Librarian, which had been enIsaac Newton. Two of her younger dowed by one of his ancestors about a brothers were at the same time Profef- century before. The ftuation was acé fors of mathematics ; the one at St ceptable to him, as it afforded an opAndrew's, the other at Edinburgh; portunity of indulging his paffion for and were the first persons who taughé itudy, and united the charms of a learnthe Newtonian philotophy in our north- ed society, with the quiet of an acade ern universities. The hereditary worth mical retreat. and genius which bave so long disin ". During this period, he formed an inguished, and which fill distinguish, timacy with John Stewart, afterwards the descendants of this memorable fai Professor of Mathematics in Marischa! mily, are well known to all who have College, and author of a Commentary turned their attention to Scotish bió. on Newton's Quadrature of Curves. His graplıy; but it is not known fo gene- predilection for mathematical pursuits, rally, that through the female line; was confirmed and strengthened by the fame characteristical endowments this connection. I have often beard have been confpicuous in various in- him mention it with much pleasure, stances; and that to the other monu while he recollected the ardour with ments which illustrate the race of the which they both prosecuted their fasci. Gregories, is to be added the Philofo- rating Audies, and the lights which pby of Reid.
they imparted mutually to each other, With respect to the earlier part of in their firft perufal of the Principia, at Dr Reid's life, all that I have been a time when a knowledge of the Newable to learn amounts to this, Thai, tonian discoveries was only to be acafter two years spent at the paritli- quired in the writings of their illuftrischool of Kincardine, he was sent to ous author, Aberdeen, where he had the advantage In 1736, Dr Reid refigned his office of profecuting his claflical studies un of librarian, and accompanied Mr Stew. der an able and diligent teacher; that; art on an excursion to England. They about the age of twelve or thirteen, he vifted together London, Oxford, and was entered as a student in Marischal Cambridge, and were introduced to College ; and that his master in philo the acquaintance of many persons of sophy, for three years, was Dr George the firit literary eminence. His rela: Turnbuil, who afterwards atiracist tion to Dr David Gregory procured some degree of notice as an anthor; bin a ready access to Martin Folkes.