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issue, in the year 1575, was succeeded Popish Lords pursued with inflexible by Sir Colin Campbell of Glenurchie, resentment, Prelacy was viewed only who was Lord High-chancellor of as a modification of that church, which Scotland, from the year 1579 to his had so long tyrannised over the civil death, which happened in the year and religious liberties of the nations 1584. His eldest son Archibald was of

of Europe. no less distinguished for his bravery Men hate always been apt to run than for his attachment to his sove- from one extreme to another, and to reign, whose forces he commanded, overshoot the boundary where their against the Earls of Huntley and Er- progress should have terminated. rol, at the battle of Glenlivet, in the Thus it happened about the end of year 1594. He afterwards obtained the 16th century. From a dread of a grant of the country of Kintyre, the absurd and superstitious doctrines for his faithful services in suppressing by which the Papal See imposed on an insurrection of the M‘Gregors, in the credulity of mankind, the reform1603, and a more formidable one byers wished at once to destroy every the M‘Donalds, in 1614. He was vestige of idolatry, and to remove twice married : first to Anne, daugh. from their fight whatever bore the ter and heir of William Earl of Mor- least resemblance to their antient worton. His second wife was daughter ship. They contracted such a deep of Sir William Cornwallis of Brome, rooted averfion tó Epifcopal governby whom he had a son, who was first ment, that neither the foothing arts treated Lord Kintyre, by James VI. of the court, nor the dread of perfe. in 1622; and dignified by Charles I. cution, were able to make them retina With the title of Earl of Irvine in 1642. quith it. King James; on the othet Of his fiift wife he had four daugh- hand, firmly attached to Prelacy, did ters and one fon, Archibald, whom we every thing in his power to establishi, have chosen as the subject of the fol. in his own country, that form of eco lowic memoir*

clefiaftical government and discipline; ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, Earl and which he confidered as the pillar that Marquis of Argyle, was born in the supported the stability of his throne. year 1598, with the title of Lord Besides, neither the prerogative of Lorn, which belonged to the heirs the king nor the liberties of the fuba apparent of tris family. He was edu- ject were so fully examined, or so ac cated in the profession of the Protes curately fixed, as they have been in Itant religion, according to the strict- moderá times. The progress of let teft rules of the church of Scotland, ter's had already opened the eyes of as it tasteitablished at the Reformas men to a clearer perception of their tion, and was fu firmly attached to it, just rights and privileges, than they that he Braintained, as long as he had hitherto poffeffed; but experience livet!, tiie principles with which kis had not yet taught them that modetender mind had been imbued. ration which is the fecurity and hap

For periods in the history of Scot- piness of a well regulated government. land have been more critical than the sovereign, unwilling to relinquish that at which he appeared. The any part of that power which his andoctrines of the reformation had late- cestors had enjoyed; had to ftruggle ly been introduced ; and every thing with the violence of popular fury, and that bore the imalleit resemblance to fem the torrent of innovation and the church of Rome, was looked up- disorder. Hence, from the keen opon with abhorrence by the great mais position maintained betwixt those who of the people. Not only were the favoured the measures of the court,

and those who favoured the measures * Crawford's Peerage.“

of the people, originated those troubles

and

and commotions which agitated these their quarrels were, for a tine, fuso kingdoms, in a greater or less degree, pended, and the nation enjoyed a confrom the period of the Reformation liderable degree of tranquillity. In to the revolution in 1688.

this state of affairs, he resolved to Such was the situation of things make a journey to the north, and to when Argyle was born, a situation be inaugurated in his native country. peculiarly fitted for nourishing that He arrived in Scotland on the izth eaution for which he was distinguish. of August 1633, and was received ed through the whole progress of his at Edinburgh with all the expressions life. His Lordship had very early of the most profound respect, and engaged in the service of his country. joyful congratulation. After three He accompanied his father in his ex- days of public rejoicings, he was pedition against the Macdonalds in crowned, in the abbey church, by the weit, when he was only fixteen the celebrated Dr Sportifwood, arch. years of age, and conducted himself bishop of St Andrews ; upon which in such a manner as to merit the fa occasion, Dr Lindsay, biihop of Bre: vour and approbation of his Sove. chin, preached a sermon upon these reign. From this time, we find little words, “ And all the people said, mention made of him till the year 1626, God save King Solomon." when he was raised to theoffice of a pri At this time, Lord Lorn stond vy councillor, on account of “his great high in his Majesty's esteem, of which learning, fingular judgment, and other there cannot be a stronger proof than endowments *.” This promotion was the decision given in his favour, in the more honourable, as his father the quarrel that had lately arisen bewas still alive, and he himself confe- twixt him and his father. The ori. quently not a lord of parliament f. gin of the quarrel we have not been Ambition seems not to have been a able to learn ; the fact itself, howleading feature in the character of ever, rests on the authority of ClaArgyle, fince, instead of grasping at rendon, a cotemporary historian *. poweror preferment, in the attainment of which his high rank might have

• The truth of this fact is doubted by afforded him the most fiattering hopes Biographia Britannica ; but, on the supa

the author of the life of Argyle, in the of success, in the year 1628, he re position of its truth, he endeavours to figned the office of justiciary of all account for it in the following mana Scotland, which had continued in his " It is neceffary to obferve, that family from the tiine of Colia Earl the old Earl of Argyle had been the best of Argyle, who fourished in the part of his life a very warm and zealous

Protestant, had fought against the Huntley reign of James V. He still reserved family, and afterwards against the Maca to himself, and his heirs, however, donalds, partly on account of religion : yet, the justiciary of Argyle, and of the drawn alide by his English lady, who was western isles, which was afterwards a Papist herself, and descended of a rebelratified by an act of parliament.

lious family, he went abroad into the Spa

nilh service, commanded their troops in the On the death of James VI. in the low countries, and was even suspected of year 1625, Charles I. had ascended carrying on some correspondence with the the throne of his father, and found Macdonalds, wliom he had dispofTefled of his subjects submissive to his govern. their lands for treason, and had received ment. He began his reign in as fa- some grants of them from the crown. By

this means, he totally lost King James's vourable circumstances as he could

favour, who, as Archbishop Spoitilwood reasonably expect. While the people says, could not ensure an apoftate Papist, entertained the most favourable ex and was publicly denounced a rebel. 10 pectations from his administration, might very well happen, that when this

old lord returned hone, which he did after

an abience of ten years, he inight be very • Crawford's Peerage.

angry with his fon, and yet that fon be in | Biographia Brit.

no great sauli, unless adhering to the Fro. VOL LXV.

B

The

Der.

The Earl was so incensed at his son, and numerous meetings were informal, that he wished to dispose of his for- disorderly, and illegal. Soon after, tunes in such a manner, that, after Lord Lorn, along with the Earl of his death, the son should enjoy little Southesk, were chosen by the Privy more than the bare honours of his Council as the most fit persons for family. By the interposition of the treating with the commissioners ap. king, however, the old man was com. pointed by the states, about a petipelled to leave to his son all his estate, tion which they presented for a rereserving to himself a fufficient provi- dress of grievances t. But matters fion for supporting him according to were now ripening for an event which, his rankt. Had his Lordship, at this for a confiderable time, convulsed and time, been suspected of infidelity, or divided the nation. A covenant was disaffection to the government, there is contrived, as the only measure which every reason to believe, that, in the could save the people from spiritual present instance, a very different de- tyranny. cision would have been given by his

That this transaction

may

be more Majesty.

clearly understood, it may be proper But while Argyle continued faith- to state briefly its nature and design. ful to his sovereign, and enjoyed a The first national covenant of Scot. proportional share of his favour, he land was subscribed at Edinburgh on was not forgetful of what he owed the 28th of January 1581, on acto his country. Unlike those fyco. count of the dangers apprehended phants of a court, who flatter but to from Popery. In it all the corruptions destroy, and who can submit to al- of the church of Rome, both respecmost any compliances that they think ting doctrine and outward rites, were will promote their own private views, folemnly abjured. All ranks of men he steadily opposed those innovations were enjoined, by a royal mandate, to which the overbearing and intolerant subscribe it, and the injunction was Laud wished to introduce into the sanctioned by an act of the general church of Scotland. He had early assembly. Although the young imbibed the principles of the reform- king complied in this instance with ers, and he still continued to cherish the desires of the nation, yet, as he them, amidst all the changes of his grew up, he became more and more external condition. But they were desirous of curbing that bold and inregulated by wisdom, and by a defirenovating spirit, which the progress of preserving the public tranquillity of the Reformation had diffused When, in the year 1637, the people amortg his fabjects. He was afraid were flocking to Edinburgh in great of the consequences to which it might numbers, in order to petition for a lead, and was anxious that it should tedress of their grievances, he endea- be confined within the limits of Epifvoured to check their fury, and pre- copal government. Hence he was serve them within the bounds of du- led, with unwearied perseverance, to tiful submiffion. In conjunction with endeavour to procure the establishment the Treasurer, and the Earl of Lau- of Prelacy in his dominions, till, in derdale, he wrote to the nobles, at the year 1612, he with difficulty efthat time assembled, endeavouring to fected his purpose. In Scotland, this persuade them, that their frequent establishment met with a keen oppo.

fition, as might have been expected testant religion, and the conftitution of his from a people, whose sentiments upon country, were faults.” Perhaps, too, he church-government were completely might wish to bellow his poffeflions upon different from those which it His other son, who was at this time on the

requicontinent, and who had been created Lord

red. It was therefore necessary to Kintyre, in 1622. + Hift. of the Rebellion, p. 42.

† Stevenson's Church History.

smploy

employ force in supporting it. A engage themselves, to defend the court of high commiffion was erect king's person and government, to ed, for the punishment of those who maintain the purity of religion against offended against the new constitution. the usurpations of the church of Rome; This court was the source of many and to adhere inviolably to the confeftroubles; it gave the bishops a powerfion of faith subscribed first bythe king which they were extremely apt to

and his household in 1580, afterwards abuse, and kindled into a flame the by persons of all ranks in 1581, and resentment of the people. It was, again, in 1590, by an act of council, however, but of short duration ; for, with the approbation of the general in June 1592, the church obtained a affembly * ratification of her liberties, of her This resolution being made on the provincial fynods, and seffions. But, ift of March 1638, the covenant was in 1606, the bithops were restored to subscribed in the Old Grey-Friars their antient honours, privileges, and Church, at Edinburgh, by all the livings, and plans were contrived to nobles who were then in Scotland, abolish for ever the Prefbyterian form (the lords of privy council, and four of government, and likewise to unite or five others excepted), by commisthe two crowns of Scotland and fioners from almost all the thires and England, which was the favourite burghs in the kingdom, and by a object of James VI. For this end, great concourse of private persons, a liturgy was prepared for the church whose zeal had brought them to of Scotland; and, in an afsembly held Edinburgh, to affist and support their at Perth, in 1618, five articles, known commissioners upon that occasion t. by the articles of Perth, were pas Copies of the covenant were sent to sed, and afterwards ratified by par. all the parishes in the kingdom, and liament, in 1621. While the king the number of those who refused to was thus prosecuting his plan of efta- fubscribe was extremely small, comblishing a uniformity in religion a- pared with the covenanters. mong all his subjects, he died in the When the king was informed of gear 1625.

this transaction, he was highly offendHis successor, Charles I. began to ed, and refused to receive the petition prosecute the plan which his father which the covenanters had sent him, had left unfinished.

as a vindication of their conduct, and 1637, by the inftigations of Laud, an accusation of the bishops. He archbishop of Canterbury, a book of wrote first to the Lords Treasurer canons was imposed upon the church and Privy Seal, and afterwards to of Scotland, the design of which Lord Lorn, to come to court, and ore was to establish Prelacy, and to root dered the most eminent Scottish law. out Presbyterianism. The Scots had yers to be consulted, concerning the submitted, with some degree of pa- legality of entering into covenant, tience, to former encroachments up- without his permission. The report on their religious liberties ; but the of the lawyers was favourable to their imposition of the canons was a bur countrymen ; and it was suspected den altogether intolerable. When that the covenanters had hitherto they saw themselves subjected to the acted by the advice of Lorn, in the power of the bishops, and, in conse- most intricate steps of their managequence of disobedience, the thunder ment f.

ment 1. Whatever grounds there of excommunication ready to fall up- might be for this suspicion, it is certain, on their heads, they were alarmed at their danger, and began to contrive

* Stevenson's History of Scotland. measures for guarding against it. They + Echard's History of England. resolved to enter into a strict union, | Stevenson's History, or covenant, by which they should

that,

In the year

B 2

that, when the bishops used all their proceedings. The assembly, howinfluence with his majetty to make ever, still continued to fit, and ob. him force the Scots to submission, tained the concurrence of Lorn (now his lordship boldly stated the grievan- Earl of Argyle, his father having ces of his countrymen; and declared, died a short tiine before.) that he would never concur in bring The accession of the Earl of ing upon them burdens, of which they Argyle, at that time the most powerhad just reason to complain and to ful of the Scottish nobility, added no petition redrcfs.

small strength to the party of the coThe king having determined to venant. Various reasons have been employ peaceful measures with the assigned to account for his conduct Scots, appointed Hamilton hiscommif- upon this occasion ; his envying the fioner, to treat with them. When Marquis of Hamilton in being appointhe arrived in Scotland, three months ed commissioner ; his resentment at had now elapsed since the date of the preference of Spottiswood to the the covenant. The terms of agree. office of chancellor; the report of an ment he proposed to the covenanters intended invation from Ireland, upon were rejected with disguit, and they that part of the island where his refused to listen to an accommoda- etates lay ; and the expectation of tion, till, having gone to court, he increasing his power and fortune, as returned with an assurance, that the his anceitors had done at the Reforking had granted all they defired. mation, have all been assigned as reaImmediately he proposed that King fons why the Earl of Argyle openly James's covenant should be renewed, revolved from the measures of the which was subscribed by Lorn, along court. These reasons might have with the rest of the lords of council, some influence upon his mind, but it the 22d day of September, 1638. is far more probable that he acted Lorn, however, refused to subscribe from principle, with a view of mainit, till a clause was inserted, imply- taining the privileges of his country, ing, that it was subscribed according and of preserving his country men to the meaning it bore when it was from being subjected to burderas, first sworn. This covenant, how. which, of all kinds of slavery, they ever, far from fatisfying the cove confidered as the most intolerable. nanters, appeared to them to be an About the beginning of the year artifice of the court to divide and 1639, the Marquis of Hamilton went weaken them. Being capable of dif- to court, and gave the king a full ferent interpretations, the court party account of the proceedings of the considered it as a ratification of the Scots. The disobedience of the existing government of the church, general assembly, in continuing to fit and with this view were eager to cir, after they were diffolved, and the culate it.

approbation of the people, which, on Meanwhile, an assembly was con this account, they received, detervened at Glasgow, on the zist of mined Charles to put in immediate November, which excited, throughout execution the designs he had already the kingdom, an uncommon intereit. formed, of curbing the licentiousness A great accession of the nobility and of the covenanters *. He began to gentry gave it a degree of authority, to which it could not otherwise pre The design of the king is thus fated tend. But it had sitten only a by Burnet : “ His majesty was to raise an very short time, when the commif. aimy of 30 000 horle and foot, and to lead fioner, weary of its proceedings, dif- them in perfon towards Scotland. He was

to urite to all the nobility of England to folved it, in the name of the king, wait upon him to the campaign : he was and prohibited it from all further to put strong garsiduas in Berwick and

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