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the river of Rhine, for trying the legitimation of a child being thrown in-if he be a bastard, he will sink; if otherwise, he will not.


also in a degree of lukewarmness-as Martial's boy:

Tolle puer calices, tepidique toreumata Nili.

be made anywhere in that perfection, and whereas we drink it here in aqua vitæ measures, it goes down there by beer-glassfuls, being more natural to the nation. In the Seventeen Provinces hard by, and all Low In China, they speak of a tree called Magnais, which Germany, beer is the common natural drink, and affords not only good drink, being pierced, but all nothing else; so is it in Westphalia, and all the lower things else that belong to the subsistence of man; they circuit of Saxony; in Denmark, Swethland, and Nor- bore the trunk with an auger, and there issueth out way. The Pruss hath a beer as thick as honey; in sweet potable liquor; 'twixt the rind and the tree there the Duke of Saxe's country, there is beer as yellow as is a cotton, or hempie kind of moss, which they wear gold, made of wheat, and it inebriates as soon as sack. for their clothing: it bears huge nuts, which have exIn some parts of Germany they use to spice their beer, cellent food in them: it shoots out hard prickles above which will keep many years; so that at some wed- a fathom long, and those arm them with the bark dings there will be a butt of beer drunk out as old as they make tents, and the dotard trees serve for firing. the bride. Poland also is a beer country; but in Africa also hath a great diversity of drinks, as having Russia, Muscovy, and Tartary, they use mead, which more need of them, being a hotter country far. In is the naturalest drink of the country, being made of Guinea, of the lower Ethiopia, there is a famous the decoction of water and honey; this is that which drink called Mingol, which issueth out of a tree much the ancients called hydromel. Mare's milk is a great like the palm, being bored. But in the upper Ethiopia, drink with the Tartar, which may be a cause why they or the Habassins' country, they drink mead, concocted are bigger than ordinary, for the physicians hold, that in a different manner; there is also much wine there. milk enlargeth the bones, beer strengtheneth the The common drink of Barbary, after water, is that nerves, and wine breeds blood sooner than any other which is made of dates. But in Egypt, in times past, liquor. The Turk, when he hath his stomach full of there was beer drunk called Zicus in Latin, which was pilau, or of mutton and rice, will go to nature's cel- no other than a decoction of barley and water: they lar, either to the next well or river to drink water, had also a famous composition (and they use it to this which is his natural common drink; for Mahomet day) called Chissi, made of divers cordials and provotaught them that there was a devil in every berry of cative ingredients, which they throw into water to the grape, and so made a strict inhibition to all his make it gustful; they use it also for fumigation. But sect from drinking of wine as a thing profane; he had now the general drink of Egypt is Nile water, which of also a reach of policy therein, because they should not all water may be said to be the best ; * 'tis yellowbe encumbered with luggage when they went to war, ish and thick; but if one cast a few almonds into a as other nations do, who are so troubled with the car-potful of it, it will become as clear as rock-water; it is riage of their wine and beverages. Yet hath the Turk peculiar drinks to himself besides, as sherbet made of juice of lemon, sugar, amber, and other ingredients; he hath also a drink called Cauphe, which is made of a brown berry, and it may be called their clubbing drink between meals, which, though it be not very gustful to the palate, yet it is very comfortable to the stomach, and good for the sight; but notwithstanding their prophet's anathema, thousands of them will yenture to drink wine, and they will make a precedent prayer to their souls to depart from their bodies in the interim, for fear she partake of the same pollution. ** In Asia, there is no beer drunk at all, but water, wine, and an incredible variety of other drinks, made of dates, dried raisins, rice, divers sorts of nuts, fruits, and roots. In the oriental countries, as Cambaia, Calicut, Narsingha, there is a drink called Banque, which is rare and precious, and 'tis the height of entertainment they give their guests before they go to sleep, like that nepenthe which the pocts speak so much of, for it provokes pleasing dreams and delightful it will accommodate itself to the humour of the sleeper; as, if he be a soldier, he will dream of victories and taking of towns; if he be in love, he will think to enjoy his mistress; if he be covetous, he will dream of mountains of gold, &c. In the Molucca and Philippines there is a curious drink called Tampoy, made of a kind of gillyflowers, and another drink called Otraqua, that comes from a nut, and it is the more general drink. In China, they have a holy kind of liquor made of such sort of flowers for ratifying and binding of bargains, and having drunk thereof, they hold it no less than perjury to break what they promise; as they write of a river of Bythinia, whose water hath a peculiar virtue to discover a perjurer, for, if he drink thereof, it will presently boil in his stomach, and put him to visible tortures; this makes me think of the river Styx among the poets, which the gods were used to swear by, and it was the greatest oath for the performance of anything.


Nubila promissi Styx mihi testis erit.

In the New World they have a world of drinks, for there is no root, flower, fruit, or pulse, but is reducible to a potable liquor; as in the Barbadoe Island, the common drink among the English is mobbi, made of potato roots.

In Mexico and Peru, which is the great continent of America, with other parts, it is prohibited to make wines, under great penalties, for fear of starving of trade, so that all the wines they have are sent from Spain.

Now for the pure wine countries. Greece, with all her islands, Italy, Spain, France, one part of four of Germany, Hungary, with divers countries thereabouts, all the islands in the Mediterranean and Atlantic sea,

are wine countries.

The most generous wines of Spain grow in the midland parts of the continent, and Saint Martin bears the bell, which is near the court. Now as in Spain,. so in all other wine countries, one cannot pass a day's journey but he will find a differing race of wine; those kinds that our merchants carry over are those only that grow upon the sea-side, as malagas, sherries, tents, and alicants of this last there's little comes over right; therefore the vintners make tent (which is a name for all wines in Spain, except white) to supply the place of it. There is a gentle kind of white wine: grows among the mountains of Gallicia, but not of body enough to bear the sea, called Ribadavia. Portugal affords no wines worth the transporting.* They have an old stone they call Yef, which they use to throw into their wines, which clarifieth it, and makes it more lasting. There's also a drink in Spain called Alosha, which they drink between meals in hot weather, and 'tis a hydromel made of water and honey; much of them take of our mead. In the court of Spain there's a German or two that brew beer; but for that ancient drink of Spain which Pliny speaks of, composed of flowers, the receipt thereof is utterly lost.

It put me in mind, also, of that which some write of chiefly drunk in England is of Portuguese extraction. The im

* i. e. Coffee.

*This will sound strangely in these days, when the wine portation of wines from Portugal dates from the reign of Charles II.

In Greece there are no wines that have bodies enough to bear the sea for long voyages; some few muscadels and malmsies are brought over in small casks; nor is there in Italy any wine transported to England but in bottles, as Verde and others; for the length of the voyage makes them subject to pricking, and so lose colour, by reason of their delicacy.

France, participating of the climes of all the countries about her, affords wines of quality accordingly; as, towards the Alps and Italy, she hath a luscious rich wine called Frontiniac. In the country of Provence, towards the Pyrenees in Languedoc, there are wines congustable with those of Spain: one of the prime sort of white wines is that of Beaume; and of clarets, that of Orleans, though it be interdicted to wine the king's cellar with it, in respect of the corrosiveness it carries with it. As in France, so in all other wine countries, the white is called the female, and the claret or red wine is called the male, because commonly it hath more sulphur, body, and heat in't the wines that our merchants bring over upon the river of Garonne, near Bourdeaux, in Gascony, which is the greatest mart for wines in all France. The Scot, because he hath always been ar. useful confederate to France against England, hath (among other privileges) right of pre-emption of first choice of wines in Bourdeaux; he is also permitted to carry his ordnance to the very walls of the town, whereas the English are forced to leave them at Blay, a good way down the river. There is a hard green wine, that grows about Rochelle, and the islands thereabouts, which the cunning Hollander sometime used to fetch, and he hath a trick to put a bag of herbs, or some other infusions into it (as he doth brimstone in Rhenish), to give it a whiter tincture, and more sweetness; then they re-embark it for England, where it passeth for good Bachrag, and this is called stooming of wines. In Normandy there's little or no wine at all grows; therefore the common drink of that country is cider, specially in low Normandy. There are also many beer houses in Paris and elsewhere; but though their barley and water be better than ours, or that of Germany, and though they have English and Dutch brewers among them, yet they cannot make beer in that perfection.

The prime wines of Germany grow about the Rhine, specially in the Prolts or lower Palatinate about Bachrag, which hath its etymology from Bachiara; for in ancient times there was an altar erected there to the honour of Bacchus, in regard of the richness of the wines. Here, and all France over, 'tis held a great part of incivility for maidens to drink wine until they are married, as it is in Spain for them to wear high shoes, or to paint, till then. The German mothers, to make their sons fall into a hatred of wine, do use, when they are little, to put some owl's eggs into a cup of Rhenish, and sometimes a little living eel, which, twingling in the wine while the child is drinking, so scares him, that many come to abhor and have an antipathy to wine all their lives after. From Bachrag the first stock of vines which grow now in the grand Canary Island, were brought, which, with the heat of the sun and the soil, is grown now to that height of perfection, that the wines which they afford are accounted the richest, the most firm, the best bodied, and lastingst wine, and the most defecated from all earthly grossness, of any other whatsoever; it hath little or no sulphur at all in't, and leaves less dregs behind, though one drink it to excess. French wines may be said but to pickle meat in the stomachs, but this is the wine that digests, and doth not only breed good blood, but it nutrifieth also, being a glutinous substantial liquor: of this wine, if of any other, may be verified that merry induction, "That good wine makes good blood, good blood causeth good humours, good humours cause good thoughts, good thoughts bring forth good works, good works carry a man to heaven-ergo, good wine

carrieth a man to heaven.' If this be true, surely more English go to heaven this way than any other; for I think there's more Canary brought into England than to all the world besides. I think, also, there is a hundred times more drunk under the name of Canary wine than there is brought in; for sherries and malagas, well mingled, pass for canaries in most taverns, more often than Canary itself; else I do not see how 'twere possible for the vintner to save by it, or to live by his calling, unless he were permitted sometimes to be a brewer. When sacks and canaries were brought in first among us, they were used to be drunk in aqua vitæ measures, and 'twas held fit only for those to drink who were used to carry their legs in their hands, their eyes upon their noses, and an almanac in their bones; but now they go down every one's throat, both young and old, like milk.

The countries that are freest from excess of drinking are Spain and Italy. If a woman can prove her husband to have been thrice drunk, by the ancient laws of Spain she may plead for a divorce from him. Nor indeed can the Spaniard, being hot-brained, bear much drink, yet I have heard that Gondamar was once too hard for the king of Denmark, when he was here in England. But the Spanish soldiers that have been in the wars of Flanders will take their cups freely, and the Italians also. When I lived 'tother side the Alps, a gentleman told me a merry tale of a Ligurian soldier, who had got drunk in Genoa; and Prince Doria going a-horseback to walk the round one night, the soldier took his horse by the bridle, and asked what the price of him was, for he wanted a horse. The prince, seeing in what humour he was, caused him to be taken into a house and put to sleep. In the morning he sent for him, and asked him what he would give for his horse. Sir,' said the recovered soldier, the merchant that would have bought him last night of your highness, went away betimes in the morning.' The boonest companions for drinking are the Greeks and Germans; but the Greek is the merriest of the two, for he will sing, and dance, and kiss his next companions; but the other will drink as deep as he. If the Greek will drink as many glasses as there be letters in his mistress's name, the other will drink the number of his years; and though he be not apt to break out in singing, being not of so airy a constitution, yet he will drink often musically a health to every one of these six notes, ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la; which, with this reason, are all comprehended in this hexameter:—

Ut relivet miserum fatum solitosque labores.

The fewest draughts he drinks are three-the first to quench the thirst past, the second to quench the present thirst, the third to prevent the future. I heard of a company of Low Dutchmen that had drunk so deep, that, beginning to stagger, and their heads turning round, they thought verily they were at sea, and that the upper chamber where they were was a ship, insomuch that, it being foul windy weather, they fell to throw the stools and other things out of the window, to lighten the vessel, for fear of suffering shipwreck.

Thus have I sent your lordship a dry discourse upon a fluent subject; yet I hope your lordship will please to take all in good part, because it proceeds from your most humble and ready servitor, J. H.

Westmin. 7. Octob. 1634.

From another of Howell's works, entitled Instructions for Foreign Travel, published in 1642, and which, like his letters, contains many acute and humorous observations on men and things, we extract the following passage on the

[Tales of Travellers]

Others have a custom to be always relating strange things and wonders (of the humour of Sir John Man

deville), and they usually present them to the hearers through multiplying-glasses, and thereby cause the thing to appear far greater than it is in itself; they make mountains of mole-hills, like Charenton-BridgeEcho, which doubles the sound nine times. Such a traveller was he that reported the Indian fly to be as big as a fox; China birds to be as big as some horses, and their mice to be as big as monkeys; but they have the wit to fetch this far enough off, because the hearer may rather believe it than make a voyage so far to disprove it.

Every one knows the tale of him who reported he had seen a cabbage, under whose leaves a regiment of soldiers were sheltered from a shower of rain. Another, who was no traveller (yet the wiser man), said, he had passed by a place where there were 400 braziers making of a cauldron-200 within, and 200 without, beating the nails in; the traveller asking for what use that huge cauldron was? he told him—Sir, it was to boil your cabbage.'

Such another was the Spanish traveller, who was so habituated to hyperbolise, and relate wonders, that he became ridiculous in all companies, so that he was forced at last to give order to his man, when he fell into any excess this way, and report anything improbable, he should pull him by the sleeve. The master falling into his wonted hyperboles, spoke of a church in China that was ten thousand yards long; his man, standing behind, and pulling him by the sleeve, made him stop suddenly. The company asking, I pray, sir, how broad might that church be?' he replied, But a yard broad, and you may thank my man for pulling me by the sleeve, else I had made it foursquare for you.'


The only other traveller of much note at this time was SIR THOMAS HERBERT, who in 1626 set out on a journey to the east, and, after his return, published, in 1634, A Relation of some Years' Travels into Africa and the Greater Asia, especially the Territory of the Persian Monarchy, and some parts of the Oriental Indies and Isles adjacent. According to the judgment of the author of the Catalogue in Churchill's Collection, these travels have deservedly had a great reputation, being the best account of those parts written [before the end of the seventeenth century] by any Englishman, and not inferior to the best of foreigners; what is peculiar in them is, the excellent description of all antiquities, the curious remarks on them, and the extraordinary accidents that often occur."* This eulogy seems too high; at least we have found the author's accounts of the places which he visited far too meagre to be relished by modern taste. A brief extract from the work is given below. In the civil wars of England, Herbert sided with the parliament, and, when the king was required to dismiss his own servants, was chosen by his majesty one of the grooms of the bed-chamber. Herbert then became much attached to the king, served him with much zeal and assiduity, and was on the scaffold when the ill-fated monarch was brought to the block. After the Restoration, he was rewarded by Charles II. with a baronetcy, and subsequently devoted much time to literary pursuits. In 1678 he wrote Threnodia Carolina, containing an Historical Account of the Two Last Years of the Life of King Charles I. This was reprinted in a collection of Memoirs of the Two Last Years of that Unparalleled Prince, of Everblessed Memory, King Charles I.,' published in 1702. Sir Thomas Herbert died in 1682.

* Vol. i. p. 21.

[Description of St Helena.]

St Helena was so denominated by Juan de Nova, the Portugal, in regard he first discovered it on that saint's day. It is doubtful whether it adhere to America or Afric, the vast ocean bellowing on both sides, and almost equally; yet I imagine she inclines more to Afer than Vespusius. Tis in circuit thirty English miles, of that ascent and height that 'tis often enveloped with clouds, from whom she receives moisture to fatten her; and as the land is very high, so the sea at the brink of this isle is excessive deep, and the ascent so immediate, that though the sea beat fiercely on her, yet can no ebb nor flow be well perceived there.

The water is sweet above, but, running down and participating with the salt hills, tastes brackish at his fall into the valleys, which are but two, and those very small, having their appellations from a lemon-tree above, and a ruined chapel placed beneath, built by the Spaniard, and dilapidated by the Dutch. There has been a village about it, lately depopulated from her inhabitants by command from the Spanish king; for that it became an unlawful magazine of seamen's treasure, in turning and returning out of both the Indies, whereby he lost both tribute and prerogative in apparent measure.

Monuments of antique beings nor other rarities can be found here. You see all, if you view the ribs of an old carrick, and some broken pieces of her ordnance left there against the owner's good will or approbation. Goats and hogs are the now dwellers, who multiply in great abundance, and (though unwillingly) afford themselves to hungry and sea-beaten passengers. It has store of patridge and guinea-hens, all which were brought thither by the honest Portugal, who now dare neither anchor there, nor own their labours, lest the English or Flemings question them.

The isle is very even and delightful above, and 'Tis a saying gives a large prospect into the ocean. with the seamen, a man there has his choice, whether he will break his heart going up, or his neck coming down; either wish bestowing more jocundity than



We now turn to a circle of laborious writers, who exerted themselves in the age of Elizabeth to discover and preserve the remains of antiquity which had come down to their times. Among these, the leading place is unquestionably due to WILLIAM CAMDEN, who, besides being eminent as an antiquary, claims to be considered likewise as one of the best historians of his age. Camden was born in London in 1551, and received his education first at Christ's hospital and St Paul's school, and afterwards at Oxford. In 1575 he became second master of Westminster school; and while performing the duties of this office, devoted his leisure hours to the study of the antiquities of Britain-a subject to which, from his earliest years, he had been strongly inclined. That he might personally examine ancient remains, he travelled, in 1582, through some of the eastern and northern counties of England; and the fruits of his researches appeared in his most celebrated work, written in Latin, with a title signifying. Britain; or a Chorographical Description of the Most Flourishing Kingdom of England, Scotland, Ireland, and the Adjacent Islands, from Remote Antiquity. This was published in 1586, and immediately brought him into high repute as an antiquary and man of learning. Anxious to improve and enlarge it, he journied at several times into different parts of the country, examining archives and relics of antiquity, and collecting, with indefatigable industry, whatever infor


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I hope it shall be no discredit if I now use again, by way of preface, the same words, with a few more, that I used twenty-four years since in the first edition of this work. Abraham Ortelius, the worthy restorer of ancient geography, arriving here in England about thirty-four years past, dealt earnestly with me that I would illustrate this isle of Britain, or, as he said, that I would restore antiquity to Britain, and Britain to antiquity; which was (I understood), that I would renew ancientry, enlighten obscurity, clear doubts, and recall home verity, by way of recovery, which the negligence of writers, and credulity of the common sort, had in a manner proscribed and utterly banished from among us. A painful matter, I assure you, and more than difficult; wherein what toil is to be taken, as no man thinketh, so no man believeth but he who hath made the trial. Nevertheless, how much the difficulty discouraged me from it, so much the glory of my country encouraged me to undertake it. So, while at one and the same time I was fearful to undergo the burden, and yet desirous to do some service to my country, I found two different affections, fear and boldness, I know not how, conjoined in one. Notwithstanding, by the most gracious direction of the Almighty, taking industry for my consort, I adventured upon it; and, with all my study, care, cogitation, continual meditation, pain, and travail, I employed myself thereunto when I had any spare time. I made search after the etymology of Britain and the first inhabitants timorously; neither in so doubtful a matter have I affirmed ought confidently. For I am not ignorant that the first originals of nations are obscure, by reason of their

profound antiquity, as things which are seen very deep and far remote; like as the courses, the reaches, the confluences, and the outlets of great rivers are well-known, yet their first fountains and heads lie commonly unknown. I have succinctly run over the Romans' government in Britain, and the inundation of foreign people thereinto, what they were, and from whence they came. I have traced out the ancient divisions of these kingdoms; I have summarily specified the states and judicial courts of the same. In the several counties, I have compendiously set down the limits (and yet not exactly by perch and pole, to breed questions), what is the nature of the soil, which were places of the greatest antiquity, who have been dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, barons, and some of the most signal and ancient families therein (for who can particulate all?) What I have performed, I leave to men of judgment. But time, the most sound and sincere witness, will give the truest information, when envy (which persecuteth the living) shall have her mouth stopped. Thus much give me leave to say that I have in no wise neglected such things as are material to search and sift out the truth. I have attained to some skill of the most ancient British and Saxon tongues. I have travelled over all England for the most part; I have conferred with most skilful observers in each country; I have studiously read over our own country writers (old and new), all Greek and Latin authors which have once made mention of Britain; I have had conference with learned men in the other parts of Christendom; I have been diligent in the records of this realm; I have looked into most libraries, registers, and memorials of churches, cities, and corporations; I have pored over many an old roll and evidence, and produced their testimony (as beyond all exception) when the cause required, in their very own words (although barbarous they be), that the honour of verity might in no wise be impeached.

For all this I may be censured as unadvised, and scant modest, who, being but of the lowest form in the school of antiquity, where I might well have lurked in obscurity, have adventured as a scribbler upon the stage in this learned age, amidst the diversities of relishes both in wit and judgment. But to tell the truth unfeignedly, the love of my country, which compriseth all love in it, and hath endeared me to it, the glory of the British name, the advice of some judicious friends, hath over-mastered my modesty, and (will'd I, nill'd 1) hath enforced me, against mine own judg ment, to undergo this burden too heavy for me, and so thrust me forth into the world's view. For I see judgments, prejudices, censures, aspersions, obstructions, detractions, affronts, and confronts, as it were, in battle array to environ me on every side; some there are which wholly contemn and avile this study of antiquity as a back-looking curiosity; whose autho rity, as I do not utterly vilify, so I do not over-prize or admire their judgment. Neither am I destitute of reason whereby I might approve this my purpose to well-bred and well-meaning men, which tender the glory of their native country; and, moreover, could give them to understand that, in the study of antiquity (which is always accompanied with dignity, and hath a certain resemblance with eternity), there is a sweet food of the mind well befitting such as are of honest and noble disposition. If any there be which are desirous to be strangers in their own soil, and foreigners in their own city, they may so continue, and therein flatter themselves. For such like I have not written these lines, nor taken these pains.


The 'Britannia' has gone through many subse quent editions, and has proved so useful a repository of antiquarian and topographical knowledge, that it has been styled by Bishop Nicolson the common

sun, whereat our modern writers have all lighted their little torches.' The last edition is that of 1789, in two volumes folio, largely augmented by Mr Gough.

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them highly valuable, had before this time been unfortunately destroyed by fire. From those which remain, historians still continue to extract large stores of information. During his lifetime, materials In 1593 Camden became head master of West- were drawn from his library by Raleigh, Bacon, minster school, and, for the use of his pupils, pub- Selden, and Herbert; and he furnished literary lished a Greek grammar in 1597. In the same year, assistance to many contemporary authors. Besides however, his connexion with that seminary came to aiding Camden in the compilation of the Britannia,' an end, on his receiving the appointment of Claren-he materially assisted JOHN SPEED (1552-1629), cieux king-of-arms, an office which allowed him by revising, correcting, and adding to a History of more leisure for his favourite pursuits. The prin- Great Britain, published by that writer in 1614. cipal works which he subsequently published are, Speed was indebted also to Spelman and others for 1. An Account of the Monuments and Inscriptions in contributions. He is characterised by Bishop NicolWestminster Abbey; 2. A Collection of Ancient English son as a person of extraordinary industry and atHistorians; 3. A Latin Narrative of the Gunpowder tainments in the study of antiquities.' Being a tailor Plot, drawn up at the desire of James VI.; and, 4. by trade, he enjoyed few advantages from educaAnnals of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, also in Latin. tion; yet his history is a highly creditable performThe last of these works is praised by Hume as good ance, and was long the best in existence. He was composition, with respect both to style and matter, the first to reject the fables of preceding chroniclers and as being written with simplicity of expression, concerning the origin of the Britons, and to exercise very rare in that age, and with a regard to truth.' a just discrimination in the selection of authorities. It is, however, generally considered as too favour-His history commences with the original inhabitants able to Elizabeth; and Dr Robertson characterises of the island, and extends to the union of England the account of Scottish affairs under Queen Mary and Scotland under King James, to whom the work as less accurate than any other. Camden died un- is dedicated. In 1606 he published maps of Great married in 1623, at the age of seventy-two, and Britain and Ireland, with the English shires, hunwas interred in Westminster Abbey. Not long dreds, cities, and shire-towns. This collection was before his death, he founded and endowed a history superior to any other that had appeared. SAMUEL lecture at Oxford. DANIEL (1562-1619), who has already been mentioned as a poet, distinguished himself also as a writer of prose. Besides A Defence of Rhyme, published in 1611, he composed A History of England, of which only the first and second parts, extending SIR HENRY SPELMAN, a man of similar tastes, from the Norman Conquest to the end of the reign and who was intimate with Camden, was born of Edward III., were completed by himself. Of these, in 1562 at Congham, in Norfolk, of which county the first appeared in 1613, and the second about he was high-sheriff in 1604. His works are almost five years later. Being a judicious and tasteful perall upon legal and ecclesiastical antiquities. Hav-formance, and written in a clear, simple, and agreeing, in the course of his investigations, found it able style, the work became very popular, and soon necessary to study the Saxon language, he em- passed through several editions. It was continued bodied the fruits of his labour in his great work in an inferior manner to the death of Richard III., called Glossarium Archæologicum, the object of which by John Trussel, an alderman of Winchester. Like is the explanation of obsolete words occurring in Speed, Daniel was cautious in giving credit to narthe laws of England. Another of his produc- ratives of remote events, as will appear from his tions is A History of the English Councils, pub remarks, here subjoined, on the lished partly in 1639, and partly after his death, which took place in 1641. The writings of this [Uncertainty of the Early History of Nations.] author have furnished valuable materials to English historians, and he is considered as the restorer of kingdom, I had a desire to have deduced the same Undertaking to collect the principal affairs of this Saxon literature, both by means of his own studies, from the beginning of the first British kings, as they and by founding a Saxon professorship at Camare registered in their catalogue; but finding no bridge. SIR ROBERT COTTON (1570-1631) is cele-authentical warrant how they came there, I did put brated as an industrious collector of records, chart- off that desire with these considerations: That a ers, and writings of every kind relative to the an- lesser part of time, and better known (which was cient history of England. In the prosecution of his from William I., surnamed the Bastard), was more object he enjoyed unusual facilities, the recent sup- than enough for my ability; and how it was but our pression of monasteries having thrown many valuable curiosity to search further back into times past than books and written documents into private hands. we might discern, and whereof we could neither have In 1600, he accompanied his friend Camden on an proof nor profit; how the beginnings of all people and excursion to Carlisle, for the purpose of examining states were as uncertain as the heads of great rivers, the Picts' wall and other relics of former times. It and could not add to our virtue, and, peradventure, was principally on his suggestion that James I. re-little to our reputation to know them, considering how sorted to the scheme of creating baronets, as a means of supplying the treasury; and he himself was one of those who purchased the distinction. Sir Robert Cotton was the author of various historical, political, and antiquarian works, which are now of little interest, except to men of kindred tastes. His name is remembered chiefly for the benefit which he conferred upon literature, by saving his valuable library of manuscripts from dispersion. After being considerably augmented by his son and grandson, it became, in 1706, the property of the public, and in 1757 was deposited in the British Museum. One hundred and eleven of the manuscripts, many of

commonly they rise from the springs of poverty, piracy,
robbery, and violence; howsoever fabulous writers (to
glorify their nations) strive to abuse the credulity of
after-ages with heroical or miraculous beginnings.
For states, as men, are ever best seen when they are
up, and as they are, not as they were. Besides, it
seems, God in his providence, to check our presump-
tuous inquisition, wraps up all things in uncertainty,
bars us out from long antiquity, and bounds our
searches within the compass of a few ages, as if the
same were sufficient, both for example and instruc-
tion, to the government of men.
For had we the par-
ticular occurrents of all ages and all nations, it might

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