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composed with such care, that in general it was not till he had transcribed his sermons three or four times, that their language satisfied him. The length of his discourses was unusually great, seldom less than an hour and a half being occupied in the delivery. It is recorded, that having occasion to preach a charity sermon before the lord mayor and aldermen of London, he spoke for three hours and ahalf; and that when asked, on coming down from the pulpit, whether he was not tired, he replied, Yes, indeed, I began to be weary with standing so long. The influence of the intellectual fertility which this anecdote strikingly illustrates, is seen in the composition of his sermons; for the copiousness of his thoughts seems to overpower him in giving them expression, and in this way is apt to render his sentences parenthetical and involved. Barrow's style is less poetical than that of Jeremy Taylor.

[The Excellency of the Christian Religion.]

deeds. It commands us to be quiet in our stations
diligent in our callings, true in our words, upright in
our dealings, observant of our relations, cbedient and
respectful to our superiors, meek and gentle to our in-
feriors, modest and lowly, ingenuous and condescend-
ing in our conversation, candid in our censures, and
innocent, inoffensive, and obliging in our behaviour
towards all persons. It enjoins us to root out of our
hearts all envy and malice, all pride and haughtiness;
to restrain our tongues from all slander, detraction,
reviling, bitter and harsh language; not to injure,
hurt, or needlessly trouble our neighbour. It engages
us to prefer the public good before our own opinion,
And would men
humour, advantage, or convenience.
observe and practise what this excellent doctrine
teaches, how sociable, secure, and pleasant a life we
might lead! what a paradise would this world then
become, in comparison to what it now is?

If we further survey the laws and directions of our religion, with regard to the management of our souls and bodies, we shall also find that nothing could be * Another peculiar excellency of our religion is, devised more worthy of us, more agreeable to reason, that it prescribes an accurate rule of life, most agree- or more productive of our welfare. It obliges us to able to reason and to our nature, most conducive to preserve unto our reason its natural prerogative and our welfare and content, tending to procure each man's due empire; not to suffer the brutish part to usurp private good, and to promote the public benefit of all, and domineer over us; not to be enslaved to bodily by the strict observance whereof we bring our human temper, or deluded by vain fancy, to commit that nature to a resemblance of the divine; and we shall which is unworthy of, or mischievous to us. It enjoins also thereby obtain God's favour, oblige and benefit us to have sober and moderate thoughts concerning men, and procure to ourselves the conveniences of a ourselves, suitable to our total dependence on God, to sober life, and the pleasure of a good conscience. For our natural meanness, weakness, and sinful inclinaif we examine the precepts which respect our duty to tions; and that we should not be puffed up with selfGod, what can be more just, pleasant, or beneficial to conceit, or vain confidence in our wealth, honour, and us, than are those duties of piety which our religion prosperity. It directs us to compose our minds into enjoins? What is more fit and reasonable, than that a calm, serene, and cheerful state; that we should not we should most highly esteem and honour him, who is easily be moved with anger, distracted with care of most excellent? that we should bear the sincerest affec- trouble, nor disturbed with any accident; but that tion for him, who is perfect goodness himself, and most we should learn to be content in every condition, and beneficial to us? that we should have the most awful patiently bear all events that may happen to us. It dread of him, that is infinitely powerful, holy, and commands us to restrain our appetites, to be temperate just that we should be very grateful to him, from in our enjoyments; to abstain from all irregular pleawhom we received our being, with all the comforts and sures which may corrupt our minds, impair our health, conveniences of it? that we should entirely trust and lessen our estate, stain our good namie, or prejudice hope in him, who can and will do whatever we may our repose. It doth not prohibit us the use of any in reason expect from his goodness, nor can he ever creature that is innocent, convenient, or delightful; fail to perform his promises? that we should render but indulgeth us a prudent and sober use of them, so all due obedience to him, whose children, servants, as we are thankful to God, whose goodness bestows and subjects we are? Can there be a higher privilege them. It orders us to sequester our minds from the than to have liberty of access to him, who will favour-fading glories, unstable possessions, and vanishing deably hear, and is fully able to supply our wants? Can lights of this world; things which are unworthy the we desire to receive benefits on easier terms than the attention and affection of an immortal spirit; and asking for them? Can a more gentle satisfaction for that we should fix our thoughts, desires, and endeaour offences be required than confessing of them, re- vours on heavenly and spiritual objects, which are pentance, and strong resolutions to amend them? The infinitely pure, stable, and durable; not to love the practice of such a piety, of a service so reasonable, world and the things therein, but to cast all our care cannot but be of vast advantage to us, as it procures on God's providence; not to trust in uncertain riches, peace of conscience, a comfortable hope, a freedom but to have our treasure, our heart, hope, and conver from all terrors and scruples of mind, from all tor-sation in heaven. And as our religion delivers a most menting cares and anxieties.

And if we consider the precepts by which our religion regulates our carriage and behaviour towards our neighbours and brethren, what can be imagined so good and useful as those which the gospel affords? It enjoins us sincerely and tenderly to love one another; earnestly to desire and delight in each other's good; heartily to sympathise with all the evils and sorrows of our brethren, readily affording them all the help and comfort we are able; willingly to part with our substance, ease, and pleasure, for their benefit and relief; not confining this our charity to particular friends and relations, but, in conformity to the boundless goodness of Almighty God, extending it to all. It requires us mutually to bear with one another's infirmities, mildly to resent and freely remit all injuries; retaining no grudge, nor executing no revenge, but requiting our enemies with good wishes and goed

excellent and perfect rule of life, so it chiefly requires from us a rational and spiritual service. The ritual observances it enjoins are in number few, in nature easy to perform, also very reasonable, decent, and useful; apt to instruct us in, and excite us to the practice of our duty. And our religion hath this farther peculiar advantage, that it sets before us a living copy of good practice. Example yields the most compendious instruction, the most efficacious incitement to action; and never was there any example so perfect in itself, so fit for our imitation, as that of our blessed Saviour; intended by him to conduct us through all the parts of duty, especially in those most high and difficult ones, that of charity, self-denial, humility, and patience. His practice was suited to all degrees and capacities of men, and so tempered, that persons of all callings might easily follow him in the paths of righteousness, in the performance of all substantial duties towards

God and man. It is also an example attended with the greatest obligations and inducements to follow it, whether we consider the great excellency and dignity of the person (who was the most holy Son of God), or our manifold relations to him, being our lord and master, our best friend and most gracious redeemer; or the inestimable benefits we have received from him, even redemption from extreme misery, and being put into a capacity of the most perfect happiness; all which are so many potent arguments engaging us to imitate him.

Again, our religion doth not only fully acquaint us with our duty, but, which is another peculiar virtue thereof, it builds the same on the most solid foundation. Indeed, ancient philosophers have highly commended virtue, and earnestly recommended the practice of it; but the grounds on which they laid its praise, and the arguments used to enforce its practice, were very weak; also the principles from whence it was deduced, and the ends they proposed, were poor and mean, if compared with ours. But the Christian doctrine recommends goodness to us not only as agreeable to man's imperfect and fallible reason, but as conformable to the perfect goodness, infallible wisdom, and most holy will of God; and which is enjoined us by this unquestionable authority, as our indispensable duty, and the only way to happiness. The principles from whence it directs our actions are love, reverence, and gratitude to God, good-will to men, and a due regard to our own welfare. The ends which it prescribes are God's honour and the salvation of men; it excites us to the practice of virtue, by reminding us that we shall thereby resemble the supreme goodness, express our gratitude to our great benefactor, discharge our duty to our almighty lord and king; that we shall thereby avoid the wrath and displeasure of God, and certainly obtain his favour, mercy, and every blessing necessary for us; that we shall escape not only the terrors of conscience here, but future endless misery and torment; that we shall procure not only present comfort and peace of mind, but acquire crowns of everlasting glory and bliss. These are the firmest grounds on which virtue can subsist, and the most effectual motives to the embracing of it.

Another peculiar advantage of Christianity, and which no other law or doctrine could ever pretend to, is, that as it clearly teaches and strongly persuades us to so excellent a way of life, so it sufficiently enables us to practise it; without which, such is the frailty of our nature, that all instruction, exhortation, and encouragement would little avail. The Christian law is no dead letter, but hath a quickening spirit attending it. It sounds the ear and strikes the heart of him who sincerely embraces it. To all good men it is a sure guide, and safety from all evil. If our minds are dark or doubtful, it directs us to a faithful oracle, where we may receive counsel and information; if our passions and appetites are unruly and outrageous, if temptations are violent and threaten to overbear us, it leads us to a full magazine, where we may supply ourselves with all proper arms to withstand and subdue them. If our condition is disconsolate or desperate, here we may apply for relief and assistance; for on our earnest seeking and asking, it offers us the wisdom and power of God himself to direct, assist, support, and comfort us in all exigencies. To them who with due fervency and constancy ask it, God hath promised in the gospel to grant his Holy Spirit' to direct them in their ways, to admonish them of their duty, to strengthen them in obedience, to secure them from temptations, to support them in affliction. As this is peculiar to our religion, so it is of considerable advantage. For what would the more perfect rule signify, without power to observe, and knowledge to discern it? and how can a creature so ignorant, impotent, and inconstant as man, who is so easily

deluded by false appearances, and transported with disorderly passions, know how to conduct himself, without some guide and assistance; or how to prosecute what is good for him, especially in cases of intricacy and difficulty? how can such an one continue in a good state, or recover himself from a bad one, or attain any virtuous habit, did he not apprehend such a friendly power ready on all occasions to guard and defend him? It is this consideration only that can nourish our hope, excite our courage, and quicken our endeavours in religious practice, as it assures us that there is no duty so hard, which, by God's grace, we may not perform, and no enemy so mighty, which, by his help, we cannot conquer; for though we are not able to do anything of ourselves, yet we can do all things by Christ that strengthens us.'

Our religion doth further declare, that God is not only reconcilable, but desirous to be our friend, making overtures of grace to us, and offering a full pardon for all crimes we have committed. It assures us, that if we are careful to amend, God will not be extreme to mark what is done amiss; that by our infirmity we often fall, yet by our repentance we may rise again; that our endeavours to please God, though imperfect and defective, yet if serious and sincere, will be accepted by him. This is the tenor of that great covenant between heaven and earth, which the Son of God procured by his intercession, purchased by his wonderful patience and meritorious obedience, ratified and sealed by his blood, published to mankind, and confirmed the truth thereof by many wonderful miracles. Thus is our religion an inestimable benefit and unspeakable comfort to all who sincerely embrace and firmly adhere to it; because it gives ease to their conscience, and encourages them in the practice of their duty.

The last advantage I shall mention, peculiar to the Christian doctrine, is the style and manner of its speech, which is properly accommodated to the capacity of all persons, and worthy the majesty and sincerity of divine truth. It expresseth itself plainly and simply, without any affectation or artifice, ostentation of wit or cloquence. It speaks with an imperious awful confidence, in the strain of a king; its words carrying with them authority and power divine, commanding attention, assent, and obedience; as this you are to believe, this you are to do, on pain of our high displeasure, and at your utmost peril, for even your life and salvation depend thereon. Such is the style and tenor of the Scripture, such as plainly becomes the sovereign Lord of all to use, when he is pleased to proclaim his mind and will to us his creatures.

As God is in himself invisible, and that we could not bear the lustre and glory of his immediate presence, if ever he would convincingly signify his will and pleasure to us, it must be by effects of his incommunicable power, by works extraordinary and supernatural; and innumerable such hath God afforded in favour and countenance of our religion; as his clearly predicting the future revelation of this doctrine, by express voices and manifest apparitions from heaven; by frequently suspending the course of natural causes; by remarkable instances of providence; by internal attestations on the minds and consciences of men; by such wonderful means doth God demonstrate that the Christian religion came from him; an advantage peculiar to it, and such as no other institution, except that of the Jews, which was a prelude to it, could ever reasonably pretend to. I hope these considerations will be sufficient to vindicate our religion from all aspersions cast on it by inconsiderate, vain, and dissolute persons, as also to confirm us in the esteem, and excite us to the practice thereof.

And if men of wit would lay aside their prejudices, reason would compel them to confess, that the heavenly

doctrines and laws of Christ, established by innumerable miracles, his completely holy and pure life, his meekness, charity, and entire submission to the will of God in his death, and his wonderful resurrection from the state of the dead, are most unquestionable evidences of the divinity of his person, of the truth of his gospel, and of the obligation that lies upon us thankfully to accept him for our Redeemer and Saviour, on the gracious terms he has proposed. To love God with all our souls, who is the maker of our beings, and to love our neighbours as ourselves, who bear his image, as they are the sum and substance of the Christian religion, so are they duties fitted to our nature, and most agreeable to our reason. And, therefore, as the obtaining the love, favour, and kindness of God should be the chief and ruling principle in our hearts, the first thing in our consideration, as what ought to govern all the purposes and actions of our lives; so we cannot possibly have more powerful motives to goodness, righteousness, justice, equity, meekness, humility, temperance, and chastity, or greater dissuasives and discouragement from all kinds of sin, than what the Holy Scriptures afford us. If we will fear and reverence God, love our enemies who despitefully use us, and do good in all our capacities, we are promised that our reward shall be very great; that we shall be the children of the Most High, that we shall be inhabitants of the everlasting kingdom of heaven, where there is laid up for us a crown of righteousness, of life, and glory.

[What is Wit?]

hension, a special felicity of invention, a vivacity of spirit and reach of wit more than vulgar. It seemeth to argue a rare quickness of parts, that one can fetch in remote conceits applicable; a notable skill, that he can dexterously accommodate them to the purpose before him; together with a lively briskness of humour, not apt to damp those sportful flashes of imagination. Whence in Aristotle such persons are termed epidexioi, dexterous men; and cutropoi, men of facile or versatile manners, who can easily turn themselves to all things, or turn all things to themselves. It also procureth delight, by gratifying curiosity with its rareness or semblance of difficulty; as monsters, not for their beauty, but their rarity; as juggling tricks, not for their use, but their abstruseness, are beheld with pleasure, by diverting the mind from its road of serious thoughts; by instilling gaiety and airiness of spirit; by provoking to such dispositions of spirit in way of emulation or complaisance; and by seasoning matters, otherwise distasteful or insipid, with an unusual and thence grateful tang.

[Wise Selection of Pleasures.]

Wisdom is exceedingly pleasant and peaceable; the good delight and happiness we are capable of; in general, by disposing us to acquire and to enjoy all and by freeing us from all the inconveniences, mischiefs, and infelicities our condition is subject to. For whatever good from clear understanding, deliberate advice, sagacious foresight, stable resolution, dexterous address, right intention, and orderly proceeding, doth naturally result, wisdom confers: whatever evil blind ignorance, false presumption, unwary credulity, precipitate rashness, unsteady purpose, ill contrivance, backwardness, inability, unwieldiness and confusion of thought beget, wisdom prevents. From a thousand snares and treacherous allurements, from innumerable

rocks and dangerous surprises, from exceedingly many needless incumbrances and vexatious toils of fruitless endeavours, she redeems and secures us.

First it may be demanded what the thing is we speak of is, or what this facetiousness doth import? To which question I might reply as Democritus did to him that asked the definition of a man; "Tis that which we all see and know.' Any one better apprehends what it is by acquaintance than I can inform him by description. It is indeed a thing so versatile and multiform, appearing in so many shapes, so many Wisdom instructs us to examine, compare, and postures, so many garbs, so variously apprehended by several eyes and judgments, that it seemeth no less rightly to value the objects that court our affections hard to settle a clear and certain notion thereof, than and challenge our care; and thereby regulates our to make a portrait of Proteus, or to define the figure passions and moderates our endeavours, which begets of the fleeting air. Sometimes it lieth in pat allusion mind. For when, being deluded with false shows, and a pleasant serenity and peaceable tranquillity of to a known story, or in seasonable application of a trivial saying, or in forging an apposite tale: somerelying upon ill-grounded presumptions, we highly times it playeth in words and phrases, taking advan-esteem, passionately affect, and eagerly pursue things tage from the ambiguity of their sense, or the affinity of little worth in themselves or concernment to us; of their sound. Sometimes it is wrapped in a dress as we unhandsomely prostitute our affections, and of humorous expression; sometimes it lurketh under prodigally mispend our time, and vainly lose our an odd similitude; sometimes it is lodged in a sly labour, so the event not answering our expectation, question, in a smart answer, in a quirkish reason, in distempered. But when, guided by right reason, we our minds thereby are confounded, disturbed, and a shrewd intimation, in cunningly diverting or cleverly conceive great esteem of, and zealously are enamoured retorting an objection: sometimes it is couched in a bold scheme of speech, in a tart irony, in a lusty with, and vigorously strive to attain, things of excelhyperbole, in a startling metaphor, in a plausible of having well placed our affections and well employed lent worth and weighty consequence, the conscience our pains, and the experience of fruits corresponding to our hopes, ravishes our minds with unexpressible content.

reconciling of contradictions, or in acute nonsense: sometimes a scenical representation of persons or things, a counterfeit speech, a mimical look or gesture passeth for it: sometimes an affected simplicity, sometimes a presumptuous bluntness, giveth it being: sometimes it riseth only from a lucky hitting upon what is strange; sometimes from a crafty wresting obvious matter to the purpose; often it consists in one knows not what, and springeth up one can hardly tell how. Its ways are unaccountable and inexplicable, being answerable to the numberless rovings of fancy and windings of language. It is, in short, a manner of speaking out of the simple and plain way (such as reason teacheth and proveth things by), which by a pretty surprising uncouthness in conceit or expression doth affect and amuse the fancy, stirring in it some wonder, and breeding some delight thereto. It raiseth admiration, as signifying a nimble sagacity of appre

And so it is present appearance and vulgar conceit ordinarily impose upon our fancies, dissenting those that are vainest with the greatest guising things with a deceitful varnish, and repreadvantage; whilst the noblest objects, being of a enclosed in a homely box, avoid the notice of gross more subtle and spiritual nature, like fairest jewels sense, and pass undiscerned by us. But the light of wisdom, as it unmasks specious imposture, and beretirements of true excellency, and reveals its genuine reaves it of its false colours, so it penetrates into the


[Grief Controlled by Wisdom.]

Wisdom makes all the troubles, griefs, and pains

incident to life, whether casual adversities or natural afflictions, easy and supportable, by rightly valuing the importance and moderating the influence of them. It suffers not busy fancy to alter the nature, amplify the degree, or extend the duration of them, by representing them more sad, heavy, and remediless than they truly are. It allows them no force beyond what naturally and necessarily they have, nor contributes nourishment to their increase. It keeps them at a due distance, not permitting them to encroach upon the soul, or to propagate their influence beyond their proper sphere.

[Honour to God.]

God is honoured by a willing and careful practice of all piety and virtue for conscience' sake, or an avowed obedience to his holy will. This is the most natural expression of our reverence towards him, and the most effectual way of promoting the same in others. A subject cannot better demonstrate the reverence he bears towards his prince, than by (with a cheerful diligence) observing his laws; for by so doing, he declares that he acknowledgeth the authority and revereth the majesty which enacted them; that he approves the wisdom which devised them, and the goodness which designed them for public benefit; that he dreads his prince's power, which can maintain them, and his justice, which will vindicate them; that he relies upon his fidelity in making good what of protection or of recompense he propounds to the observers of them. No less pregnant a signification of our reverence towards God do we yield in our gladly and strictly obeying his laws, thereby evidencing our submission to God's sovereign authority, our esteem of his wisdom and goodness, our awful regard to his power and justice, our confidence in him, and dependence upon his word. The goodliness to the sight, the pleasantness to the taste, which is ever perceptible in those fruits which genuine piety beareth, the beauty men see in a calm mind and a sober conversation, the sweetness they taste from works of justice and charity, will certainly produce veneration to the doctrine that teacheth such things, and to the authority which enjoins them. We shall especially honour God by discharging faithfully those offices which God hath intrusted us with; by improving diligently those talents which God hath committed to us; by using carefully those means and opportunities which God hath vouchsafed us of doing him service and promoting his glory. Thus, he to whom God hath given wealth, if he expend it, not to the nourishment of pride and luxury, not only to the gratifying his own pleasure or humour, but to the furtherance of God's honour, or to the succour of his indigent neighbour, in any pious or charitable way, he doth thereby in a special manner honour God. He also on whom God hath bestowed wit and parts, if he employ them not so much in contriving projects to advance his own petty interests, or in procuring vain applause to himself, as in advantageously setting forth God's praise, handsomely recommending goodness, dexterously engaging men in ways of virtue, he doth thereby remarkably honour God. He likewise that hath honour conferred upon him, if he subordinate it to God's honour, if he use his own credit as an instrument of bringing credit to goodness, thereby adorning and illustrating piety, he by so doing doth eminently practise this duty.

[The Goodness of God.]

Wherever we direct our eyes, whether we reflect them inward upon ourselves, we behold his goodness to occupy and penetrate the very root and centre of our beings; or extend them abroad towards the things about us, we may perceive ourselves enclosed wholly,

and surrounded with his benefits. At home, we find a comely body framed by his curious artifice, various organs fitly proportioned, situated and tempered for strength, ornament, and motion, actuated by a gentle heat, and invigorated with lively spirits, disposed to health, and qualified for a long endurance; subservient to a soul endued with divers senses, faculties, and powers, apt to inquire after, pursue, and perceive various delights and contents. Or when we contemplate the wonderful works of nature, and, walking about at our leisure, gaze upon this ample theatre of the world, considering the stately beauty, constant order, and sumptuous furniture thereof, the glorious splendour and uniform motion of the heavens, the pleasant fertility of the earth, the curious figure and fragrant sweetness of plants, the exquisite frame of animals, and all other amazing miracles of nature, wherein the glorious attributes of God (especially his transcendent goodness) are most conspicuously displayed (so that by them not only large acknowledg ments, but even congratulatory hymns, as it were, of praise, have been extorted from the mouths of Aristotle, Pliny, Galen, and such like men, never suspected guilty of an excessive devotion), then should our hearts be affected with thankful sense, and our lips break forth into his praise.


Is any man fallen into disgrace? charity doth hold down its head, is abashed and out of countenance, partaking of his shame. Is any man disappointed of his hopes or endeavours? charity crieth out, alas! as if it were itself defeated. Is any man afflicted with pain or sickness? charity looketh sadly, it sigheth and groaneth, it fainteth and languisheth with him. Is any man pinched with hard want? charity, if it cannot succour, it will condole. Doth ill news arrive? charity doth hear it with an unwilling ear and a sad heart, although not particularly concerned in it. The sight of a wreck at sea, of a field spread with carcasses, of a country desolated, of houses burnt and cities ruined, and of the like calamities incident to mankind, would touch the bowels of any man, but the very report of them would affect the heart of charity.

[Concord and Discord.]

saith) for brethren (and so we are all at least by How good and pleasant a thing it is (as David nature) to live together in unity. How that (as Solomon saith) better is a dry morsel, and quietness therewith, than a house full of sacrifices with strife. panied with mutual confidence, freedom, courtesy, the affections, how serene the countenance, how meloand complaisance; how calm the mind, how composed dious the voice, how sweet the sleep, how contentful the whole life is of him that neither deviseth mischief against others, nor suspects any to be contrived against himself! And contrariwise, how ungrateful and loathsome a thing it is to abide in a state of enmity, wrath, dissension: having the thoughts distracted with solicitous care, anxious suspicion, envious regret; the heart boiling with choler, the face over-clouded with discontent, the tongue jarring and out of tune, the clamour, and reproach; the whole frame of body and ears filled with discordant noises of contradiction, soul distempered and disturbed with the worst of passions! How much more comfortable it is to walk in smooth and even paths, than to wander in rugged ways overgrown with briers, obstructed with rubs, and beset with snares; to sail steadily in a quiet, than to be tossed in a tempestuous sea; to behold the lovely face of heaven smiling with a cheerful serenity, than to see it frowning with clouds, or raging with storms; to hear harmonious consents than dissonant janglings;

How delicious that conversation is which is accom

not easily kept in a constant attention to the same
thing; and the spirits employed in thought are prone
to flutter and fly away, so that it is hard to fix them;
and the corporeal instruments of action being strained
to a high pitch, or detained in a tone, will soon feel
a lassitude somewhat offensive to nature; whence
labour or pain is commonly reckoned an ingredient of
industry, and laboriousness is a name signifying it;
upon which account this virtue, as involving labour,
deserveth a peculiar commendation; it being then
most laudable to follow the dictates of reason, when
so doing is attended with difficulty and trouble.
Such, in general, I conceive to be the nature of in-
dustry, to the practice whereof the following conside-
rations may induce.

to see objects correspondent in graceful symmetry, than lying disorderly in confused heaps; to be in health, and have the natural humours consent in moderate temper, than (as it happens in diseases) agitated with tumultuous commotions: how all senses and faculties of man unanimously rejoice in those emblems of peace, order, harmony, and proportion. Yea, how nature universally delights in a quiet stability or undisturbed progress of motion; the beauty, strength, and vigour of everything requires a concurrence of force, co-operation, and contribution of help; all things thrive and flourish by communicating reciprocal aid; and the world subsists by a friendly conspiracy of its parts; and especially that political society of men chiefly aims at peace as its end, depends on it as its cause, relies on it for its support. 1. We may consider that industry doth befit the How much a peaceful state resembles heaven, into constitution and frame of our nature, all the faculties which neither complaint, pain, nor clamour (oute of our soul and organs of our body being adapted in penthos, oute ponos, oute kraugé, as it is in the Apo- a congruity and tendency thereto : our hands are calypse) do ever enter; but blessed souls converse suited for work, our feet for travel, our senses to together in perfect love, and in perpetual concord; watch for occasion of pursuing good and eschewing and how a condition of enmity represents the state of evil, our reason to plod and contrive ways of employhell, that black and dismal region of dark hatred, ing the other parts and powers; all these, I say, are fiery wrath, and horrible tumult. How like a para- formed for action, and that not in a loose and gaddise the world would be, flourishing in joy and rest, ding way, or in a slack and remiss degree, but in reif men would cheerfully conspire in affection, and gard to determinate ends, with vigour requisite to helpfully contribute to each other's content: and how attain them; and especially our appetites do prompt like a savage wilderness now it is, when, like wild to industry, as inclining to things not attainable withbeasts, they vex and persecute, worry and devour each out it; according to that aphorism of the wise man, other. How not only philosophy hath placed theThe desire of the slothful killeth him, for his hands supreme pitch of happiness in a calmness of mind refuse to labour;' that is, he is apt to desire things and tranquillity of life, void of care and trouble, of which he cannot attain without pains; and not enirregular passions and perturbations; but that Holy during them, he for want thereof doth feel a deadly Scripture itself, in that one term of peace, most usu- smart and anguish: wherefore, in not being industrially comprehends all joy and content, all felicity and ous, we defeat the intent of our Maker, we pervert his prosperity: so that the heavenly consort of angels, work and gifts, we forfeit the use and benefit of our when they agree most highly to bless, and to wish the faculties, we are bad husbands of nature's stock. greatest happiness to mankind, could not better express their sense than by saying, Be on earth peace, and good-will among men.'

2. In consequence hereto, industry doth preserve and perfect our nature, keeping it in good tune and temper, improving and advancing it towards its best Almighty God, the most good and beneficent Maker, state. The labour of our mind in attentive meditagracious Lord, and merciful Preserver of all things, tion and study doth render it capable and patient of infuse into their hearts those heavenly graces of meek-thinking upon any object or occasion, doth polish and ness, patience, and benignity; grant us and his whole church, and all his creation, to serve him quietly here, and a blissful rest to praise and magnify him for



By industry we understand a serious and steady application of mind, joined with a vigorous exercise of our active faculties, in prosecution of any reasonable, honest, useful design, in order to the accomplishment or attainment of some considerable good; as, for instance, a merchant is industrious who continueth intent and active in driving on his trade for acquiring wealth; a soldier is industrious who is watchful for occasion, and earnest in action towards obtaining the victory; and a scholar is industrious who doth assiduously bend his mind to study for getting knowledge.

refine it by use, doth enlarge it by accession of habits, doth quicken and rouse our spirits, dilating and diffusing them into their proper channels. The very labour of our body doth keep the organs of action sound and clean, discussing fogs and superfluous humours, opening passages, distributing nourishment, exciting vital heat; barring the use of it, no good constitution of soul or body can subsist; but a foul rust, a dull numbness, a resty listlessness, a heavy unwieldiness, must seize on us; our spirits will be stifled and choked, our hearts will grow faint and languid, our parts will flag and decay; the vigour of our mind, and the health of our body, will be much impaired.

It is with us as with other things in nature, which by motion are preserved in their native purity and perfection, in their sweetness, in their lustre; rest corrupting, debasing, and defiling them. If the water runneth, it holdeth clear, sweet, and fresh; but stagnation turneth it into a noisome puddle: if the air

Industry doth not consist merely in action, for that is incessant in all persons, our mind being a rest-be fanned by winds, it is pure and wholesome; but less thing, never abiding in a total cessation from from being shut up, it groweth thick and putrid: if thought or from design; being like a ship in the sea, metals be employed, they abide smooth and splendid; if not steered to some good purpose by reason, yet but lay them up, and they soon contract rust: if the tossed by the waves of fancy, or driven by the winds earth be belaboured with culture, it yieldeth corn; of temptation somewhither. But the direction of our but lying neglected, it will be overgrown with brakes mind to some good end, without roving or flinching, and thistles; and the better its soil is, the ranker in a straight and steady course, drawing after it our weeds it will produce: all nature is upheld in its active powers in execution thereof, doth constitute being, order, and state, by constant agitation: every industry; the which therefore usually is attended creature is incessantly employed in action conformwith labour and pain; for our mind (which naturally able to its designed end and use: in like manner the doth affect variety and liberty, being apt to loathe preservation and improvement of our faculties defamiliar objects, and to be weary of any constraint) is | pend on their constant exercise.


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