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President of the nation? Do we want him | taken place in the ranks of the “ Democratto be less modest and distrustful of him- ic” party. Of this there does not remain a self than he appears? Do we want a vin- doubt. The only question is whether the dictive party chief in the Presidential of proper Whig strength of the country is to fice, rather than one who has “no enemies be given to General Taylor, or whether a to punish-nothing to serve but his coun- portion of it--any considerable portion of try?" Is it not enough that he has a great it--is to be withheld from him, and carried cardinal principles which will regulate his over to what is called the

“ Free Soil political life," and those principles held in party.” The Free Soil party of 1844 seexact accordance with our own ? Must we cured the election of Mr. Polk, the annexexact in the way of pledges from our candi-ation of Texas, the war with Mexico, and date, be he who he may, "impressions upon the acquisition by conquest of other vast matters of policy, which may be right to regions, much of which slavery now claims day and wrong tomorrow ?"° Do we want for her own. The Free Soil party, under a President who will go into office armed its new auspices, may render another like with the imperial power of the veto, and service to the country by the election of resolved to exercise it as a part of the General Cass, if it can find Whigs enough ordinary legislative authority of the Gov- to help them. We can understand and ernment; or are we content to have one entertain some respect for those quondam who regards the veto as “ a high conser

“Democrats” who, professing to plant vative power,” to be employed only on themselves on a new issue, in which high and extraordinary occasions ? Can Hunkerism is their strongest and worst we not be satisfied with a President who enemy, make up a third party, and present proposes to allow Congress to do its own a third candidate, with a present, specific, work, in its own way, without the exercise practical design in view—namely, the cerof any “undue and injurious influence” lain defeat of the regular or Hunker canfrom him? What can we ask more than didate, not through their own success, (of that “the will of the people, as expressed which they have not the most distant through their representatives in Congress,” idea,) but through the success of the on the subjects of the Tariff, the Cur- Whigs. But what shall we say of Whigs rency, and the improvement of our great who join themselves to this movement at highways, rivers, lakes, and harbors,” shall this time, with the absolute certainty “be respected and carried out by the Ex- staring them in the face, that every

vote ecutive ?” Can we ask for a better man given by them to this third party is just so of peace than Gen. Taylor, who, soldier much done towards securing the election, though he be, “looks upon war, at all not of the third party candidate, but of Gentimes, and under all circumstances, as a eral Cass? We suppose we may say withnational calamity, to be avoided if compat- out offence, that Whigs who prefer General ible with national honor ?” And if we Cass for President to General Taylor, for are “opposed to the subjugation of other any reason whatever, are certainly no Whigs nations, and the dismemberment of other at all. Their associates in the third party, countries by conquest,” if we are opposed the “Barnburners,” and perhaps all the to the policy which would teach us to rest, prefer General Taylor, and go ex“quit our own soil to stand on foreign pressly for the defeat of Cass. And cerground,” can we have a better or safer tainly they are right, if “Free Soil" is man to stand at the helm of government really what they are after. It is Congress than Gen. Taylor ?

that is to be looked to to keep slavery out Beyond all reasonable doubt, either of the new territories, in the provisions General Taylor or General Cass must be it shall make on the subject of Terriour next President. And those who have torial Government. General Cass will veto looked carefully over the whole field can any law of Congress which provides for not fail to see, that the proper Whig the authoritative exclusion of slavery from strength of the country is abundantly suf- these territories. To this he is committed. ficient to secure General Taylor's election General Taylor, by the express terms of over bis “ Democratic” competitor, at least his letter to Captain Allison, is pledged since the irreconcilable division which has not to interpose objections—if he should

have any-to deliberate acts of legislation, of them, in regard to the admission of “where questions of constitutional power slavery into it, at least they will expect have been settled by the various depart- every Northern Whig to stand up stoutly ments of Government and acquiesced in against it, and they will honor him for by the people.” And precedents are doing so. Let the great national party scattered through the whole history of the of Whigs have the sway in this country, Government, of legislation by Congress on and the Nroth will have nothing to fear the subject of slavery in the territories, from the encroachments of slavery. with the acquiescence of every department North and South, it is common sentiof the Government and of the people. ment with Whigs that slavery is a great We may conclude, unless all present in- evil, political and moral : they have never dications are delusive, that no enactment done, and never will do, anything to exwill be made by the American Congress tend and perpetuate it. . They endure for establishing governments in the new slavery where the Constitution endures it; territories, which are now free, without but they do not nourish and nurse it as a some express provision to keep them free. benefit and a blessing. Zachary Taylor It is probable that these territories will be is a slaveholder, and so was Washington; sooner left to take care of themselves, in | but Washington had no love for slavery, their own way, until ready to knock at and Taylor has as little. And we believe our doors for admission into our Union as religiously, that the powers of this Governfree States. Every indication shows this ment are as little likely to be employed, or to be the resolution of the North. Gener- perverted, to extend or favor slavery in the al Taylor as President cannot and will not hands of Gen. Taylor, as they were in the stand in the way of this policy. He will hands of the father of his country. We have nothing to do with it, because it is one believe Gen. Taylor will do all things well of those subjects that belong exclusively in the presidential office. His character is to the legislative department, and he will that of a sensible, just, honest, and humane exercise no “ undue and injurious influ- m The elements of his composition are ence that department. Oregon has all good; he has good instincts and a solid been taking care of itself, and we suppose judgment. There is nothing in his nature that New Mexico and California may take or in his disposition to make him go wrong; care of themselves in like manner. At neither envy, nor malice, nor revenge, nor any rate, Congress will look after the ter- meanness, nor low cunning, nor a spirit of ritories if any body, and not General Tay- intrigue, nor a wicked ambition. He is a lor, if he is President. What do Whigs-man very difficult to deceive or to mislead. what do Northern Whigs want more than He is apt to be right, he knows when he this? What will they gain, those of them is right, and he is as iron-willed when he who are wedded to this one idea of Free is right as Gen. Jackson was when he was Soil, by aiding to elect General Cass ? for wrong. Such are all accounts of his that is the effect of their adherence to the character. We look to see him supported, Free Soil party, in preference to their own. not by Whigs only, but by sober men On all this subject of slavery, and especial all sides, irrespective of party. We did ly in reference to the new territories, the not advise bis nomination, but now that he Whigs of the North have only to stand by is nominated, we advocate his election. the compromises of the Constitution, and We believe his election will prove a blessstand on just national ground, and the ing to the country, and to the whole counWhigs of the South will meet them fairly try; and it will be a double blessing, for and generously. Southern Whigs in both it will keep out Gen. Cass, whose policy is houses of Congress, with a single excep- that of Spoils at home, and War, Conquest, tion in each, went with Northern Whigs to and extended Dominion abroad. It will a man, against the policy of acquiring an- stanch the bleeding wounds, and heal the other inch of territory from Mexico. And putrefying sores and bruises of this battered whatever Whigs of the South may feel Republic, and bring back to us peace, recompelled to do, on their part, now that pose, a good name, and an honest prossuch territory has been acquired in spite 1 derity.

D. D. B.

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AN EXCURSION TO DAMASCUS AND BA’ALBEK.

PART SECOND,

Now call unto me all the prophets of Ba'al, all his servants, and all his priests; let none be wanting: for I have a great sacrifice to do to Ba'al. And all the worshippers of Ba'al came, and the house of Ba'al was full from one end to another. And Jehu said to the captains and the guard : Go in and slay them; let none come forth! And they smote them with the edge of the sword, and cast them out, and brought forth the images from the house of Ba'al and burned them, and brake down the temple, and made it a draught-house to this day.—2 KINGS x. 19–27.

The distance between Damascus and those astonishing transitions in temperature Ba'albek is eighteen hours, or forty-five from the Egyptian heat of the valley, to miles, and is generally accomplished in the Alpine chilliness of the plateau. We two days. The road winds through the were surrounded by distant mountains. valleys and plateaus of Jebel-Zebdany, North-west the high ruddy peaks of Nebythe northern part of the Anti-Lebanon, a Abel gradually rose on our sight, as we in country more fertile and interesting than four hours approached the village el-Huthat through which the traveller passes on seiniyeh, lying on the steep offset of the the caravan route by Demas. The morning mountain, in an elevated position above of the 24th of May was cool and agreeable. the valley of the Burradá. On its opposite We left the Italian hotel at an early hour, bank, amidst groves of fruit-trees, appeared and following the road through the sub- the convent el-Kanun and several villages. urbs and gardens, we, on the height of Sa- This place is celebrated in Arab tradition. lahieh, took our last farewell of the happy Cain, say the Arabs, having slain his brother, plain of Damascus. The ascent above at the altar of Kashioun, in the Ghutah, Salahieh is rough and deeply furrowed north of Damascus, where the first parents through the limestone rock. On our left then dwelt, took the corpse on his shoulwas the pass of Rabalı, through which ders, and not knowing what to do with his the foaming Burradá forces its passage brother, whose profound sleep did not yield towards the Ghutah. A frightful precipice, to his exertions to awaken him, he wanseveral hundred feet high, here overhangs dered lamenting along the banks of the the glen, to which we descended by a cir river. There he saw a raven scraping, cuitous road ; and in an hour we arrived at with his beak, a hole in the earth, in which the large village of Dummar, where we he buried one of his own species ; and this crossed the river on stone bridge. The suggested to Cain the idea, that the rigid abundance of water which is led off sleep of his brother required a different through the gardens by numberless chan- couch from usual. He then dug a grave nels, the rich, loamy soil, and the deep on the mountain as a resting place for the indenture of the valley, protected on the dead. A monument on the top of the north and west by ridges of the Anti-Leb- mountain was supposed to be the tomb of anon, give a tropical luxuriance to the Abel. vegetation. Immense plantains, poplars, After an hour's delay at the mill of eland fig, walnut, and chestnut trees, in- | Huseiniyeh, we continued our route between terlaced with vines, overhang the banks of the mountain and the steep bank of the the river, and continue for miles to form a river, and soon arrived at the highly rodense and beautiful grove along the road. mantic pass of Suk-Wady-Burradá. In But instead of following the sinuosities of the very mouth of the defile are situated Wady-Burradá, we once more crossed the two villages in an elevated position above stream, and ascended to the barren and the river, which runs between them. The dreary table-land el-Jedid. The wind blew houses on both sides stand grouped on terfreshly down from the snow-topped Mount races descending rapidly to the channel of Hermon, and we again experienced one of the boiling and foaming river below. VOL. II. NO, III, NEW SERIES.

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Through a dark and narrow street, the better quarters among the hospitable Chrisonly passage, we turned to the left and ar tians of the pretty little town of Zebdany rived at the strait of the pass Suk-Burradá, further on in the plain. where an arched stone bridge crosses over We now arrived at the northern opening to the left bank. Bare and cleft rocks of the pass; the mountains at once receof an immense altitude inclosed us on all ded, and a verdant, well-cultivated plain sides, and only a narrow path on the river extended before us. Here the Burrada, side, where a few resolute men might stop flowing in a broad and quiet bed from the a whole army, led northward through the upper plain, forms a beautiful waterfall, defile to the open plain of Zebdany: On and rushes chafing and roaring into the the precipitous flanks of the mountains are deep, rocky channel of the glen. many sepulchral chambers excavated in the

We now left the muleteers with the lug. rock, which seem inaccessible without the gage behind, and pressed on at full speed application of ropes and scaling ladders. on a broad, level road, which appeared to The portals of these sepulchres or Tro- be in as good a condition as any on the glodytic dwellings are ornamented with continent of Europe. It runs among fields columns and mutilated statues in relief. of maize, dhurra, and wheat, inclosed with Near the bridge is a staircase cut in the hedges of briar-roses, hawthorn, or sycarock, and many fragments of columns mores, often interspersed with poplars and and square blocks are scattered about. fruit-trees. This sight is so rare in the This appears to have been the necropolis East, and so contrary to the usages of its or cemetery of the ancient city of Abila, indolent inhabitants, that I almost fancied which in antiquity defended the pass of myself transported back to the rural the Chrysorrhoas. It was the residence of scenery of England or Germany. The the tetrarchs or princes of Abilene, a prin- landscape became more and more cheerful cipality extending over the Anti-Lebanon, and animated; herds of cattle and sheep and the north-eastern parts of Palestine, were grazing on the banks of the Burrada; together with the Auranitis (Hauran) and Mudaya, Ba'a-ain, and other hamlets were the plain of Damascus. Herod the Great here and there situated on the distant afterwards took possession of the southern heights of Jebel-Zebdany. Nowhere in districts of Abilene, while Lysanias, the the Anti-Lebanon does the traveller meet tetrarch, was circumscribed to the northern with so much industry and prosperity as part of the Anti-Lebanon. Abila was a in this happy plain, wbich forms, as it strong fortress in a nearly impregnable po- were, an oasis of verdure among its bleak sition. *

Interesting ruins of the castle, of and desert regions. The inhabitants till an ancient temple, and other large struc- their fields by oxen; they stable their cattures, are still to be seen on the summit of tle during winter, and irrigate their orthe mountain above the pass, and have, no chards by artificial ditches, which they

lead doubt, given rise to the Arabian name and across the fields with much labor and extradition of Neby-Abel.

pense. The gardens now thickened to a It was a pleasant afternoon. The deep forest, and beneath a canopy of

pear shadows of the barren, reddish-brown pre- walnut trees, we entered es-Zebdany, the cipices in the depth of the defile, and the principal town of the plain.

It has a debrilliantly illuminated heights, rearing lightful situation on the banks of the small their peaks in strange and fantastic forms river Zebdany, which a few miles below against the azure sky above, rendered the unites with the Burradá. Our Arabs told Suk-Burradá the most sombre and wild us that there was no caravan-serai in the looking, but at the same time the most village. Since the destruction of Ba'albek, picturesque spot we had yet seen in the there is but little communication between whole range of the Anti-Lebanon ; and we Damascus and the northern coast of Syria, would have been glad to stop in the vil by the valley of Zebdany. We therefore lage, if we had not expected to find still stopped at the house of the Sheik Heby

Tall, a kind-looking old man, with a snow* St. Luke ii. 1 ; Joseph. Antiq. Jud. xx. 7; xvii. white beard floating over his bosom. He 11; xix.5. The city was called Abila of Lysanias, received us with the courteous “ Marashto distinguish it from another of the same name, | ba-bik, Hawadjes!"—Welcome to you, gen

in

and

tlemen !—and presently offered us a small, on the south. On our return, Mustapha dark, but clean room, opening on the court had served our excellent breakfast, conand garden in the rear of the house. Our sisting of coffee, fresh milk, eggs, and hot drivers soon came up with the sumpters, cakes, beneath the fruit-trees of the garand all was now bustle and activity in the den, while the muleteers were preparing quiet house of the old sheik. According for departure. to my custom, I ordered my own tent to Taking leave of our hospitable landlord, be pitched beneath the peach-trees in the we continued our route in a northern digarden, because I always preferred to spend rection towards the last ridge of the Antithe cool and fragrant nights á la belle étoile. Lebanon and the valley of Ba'albek. We The sheik's house stood near the bank of followed the banks of the Zebdany river, the rivulet, which winds through the vil which we at the time supposed to be the lage, and is led off through the gardens Burradá; but we learned on the road that around. In front of the house the stream this river has its head-source in the westforms a small cove, overhung by immense ern mountains, at a distance of three miles knotty and far-spreading plantains, where from the village. We then approached a wooden platform, covered with carpets the rugged Kurun-es-Zebdany, where a and cushions in the Oriental style, has been stream forms a fine waterfall, descends raised in the river on piles fixed in its bed. foaming and splashing into the valley beThis is a charming place, where the worthy low, drives several water-mills, and joins sheik would often pass the sultry hours of its more quiet companion in the plain, In the day, smoking his nargilés, and enjoy- an hour we ascended to the high tableing the refreshing coolness and pleasant land of el-Sorgheia, and passed another murmurs of the brook. Here, too, we well-built village, surrounded, like Zebdany, received the visits of the well-dressed and by mulberry groves, orchards, and cultigood-natured villagers, who were as inqui- vated fields. It lies on the water-shed of sitive as the Maronites of Mount Lebanon, the Anti-Lebanon, four thousand feet above but less ignorant and troublesome. the level of the Mediterranean, though ac

Heby-Tall was an intelligent and talka- cording to appearance, several ridges seem tive man. He told me that his family for to divide it from the plain of Ba'albek. many years had ruled this village, contain- Before us on the north lay the blooming ing six hundred souls, and some other dis- valley of Yafufeh, to which we now detricts of the plain. He bitterly complained scended through a steep and romantic of the exactions of the Turkish Governor pass. Another copious brook here forms of Damascus, though he appeared to have a cascade ; and following the sinuosities of suffered still more during the military oc the mountains, it forces its passage through cupation of Ibrahim-Pasha, by the contin a gap in the western ridge, and discharges ual forays of his troops, quartered in the itself in the Litany, (Leontes,) near elneighboring plain of Ba'albek. The morn- Merdj, on the caravan route to Beirut. ing of the 25th of May was fresh and The Wady-Yafufeh soon straitened to a lovely. The atmosphere was filled with narrow dell, encompassed by precipitous, the perfume of the small yellow flowers dark-colored rocks. The river flowed of the oleaster or zizyphia, as the Greeks through a thicket of plantains, willows, and call it, which fences the gardens all around poplars, which often blocked up our pasthe village. The sheik took me to the ter- sage, and forced us in many places to ford race of the house where the silk-worms are the stream. In an hour and a half, we at kept, the raw silk of which is a principal last emerged from the forest on a small source of revenue to the inhabitants of and verdant plain, in front of the last high Zebdany. The view over the plain and and rocky barrier of the Anti-Lebanon, distant mountain was most delightful. overhanging the plain of Ba'albek. This The sun had just risen above the steep last mountain-belt burst upon us quite unand rugged Kurun-es-Zebdany, or the expectedly, as we had anticipated an easy horns,” and skirting the broad valley on descent to the Buka’a, but now, to our the east, glowed on the huge snow- astonishment, found another barren and eapped crest of the majestic Hermon, rugged ridge before us. The sun was exsoaring high above all the nearer ridges | tremely hot in this cul-de-sac, and our

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