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horses were so much jaded from the long slope of the Anti-Lebanon towards the and toilsome passage through the copse- Buka’a is steep, and in some places precipwood, that we encamped beneath the trees itous. The eastern, on the contrary, forms at a short distance from the ruinous and a succession of narrow plateaus, which are abandoned village of Yafufeh. The whole furrowed by fertile valleys, and descend distance from the plateau of Sorgheia down gradually down to the plain of Damascus, to the Buka'a is uninhabited, and we did the last terrace, whose numerous streams not meet a single human being on the road. lose themselves in the desert.
In the afternoon we climbed the steep The Lebanon, on the contrary, has quite ascent on our right. The path ran in a different physiognomy. Throughout its sharp and short turns to a considerable full length from north to south, it preheight. The summit was bleak and bare, sents a high barrier, terminating in a narappeared as if rent by an earthquake, and row and sharp ridge of a grayish limewas strewn over with immense detached stone, which on both sides, towards the rocks, between which a most lovely view plain of the Buka'a and the Mediterranean, opened upon the broad valley of the Buka'a has a very steep descent. All its lateral and the more distant Lebanon. Light valleys are deeper and more narrow than fleecy clouds were covering the summits of those of the Anti-Lebanon, and its culmiJebel-Sunnin; yet, far off in the north- nating point, Jebel-Makmel, having an elewest, the huge Jebel-Makmel pierced bold-vation of seven thousand feet, is situated ly through the vapors hanging round its near its northern boundary, while the JebelHanks, and pointed out to us the direction es-Sheik rises on the south ; and the whole of our route to the cedar-forest and the ridge of the Anti-Lebanon gradually sinks city of Tripolis. The nearer offsets of down northward to the sandy plain of the Anti-Lebanon cut off the prospect Homs, where it disappears altogether. towards Ba'albek, but the lower plain, with While contemplating this grand and the silver stripe of the river Litany wind- beautiful landscape from the heights of the ing along its verdant fields, was distinctly Jebel-es-Zebdany, a thunder-storm had visible for many miles.
gathered on the opposite heights of Mount There is a highly remarkable difference Lebanon. The thunder began to roll, and in the aspect of these two parallel moun- the blue lightning flashed incessantly tain-ridges. Some of the higher regions through the sombre clouds, which had now of the Anti-Lebanon are covered with gathered in heavy masses around the snowforests, while those of Lebanon are totally capped peaks of Jebel-Makmel. The tembare. The general outline of the former pest moved across the valley and threatened is nearly uniform, except on the south, every moment to burst against the precipwhere the gigantic Jebel-es-Sheik, forming itous rocks of the Anti-Lebanon, on which in reality the central mass of both ridges, we were standing. We therefore hastened rises high above the loftiest summits of the our descent along a zigzag path, conductLebanon, being elevated more than nine ing us in a quarter of an hour to Nebythousand feet above the level of the Medi- Sheet, a small village, inhabited by Metaterranean. Its huge dome is covered with wileh Muslims, situated on the slope of the snow during the greater part of the year, mountain, immediately above the plain of and in its chasms this never disappears. Ba'albek. The thunder-storm had now This mountain forms the most striking reached the side of the mountain ; one object in the scenery of Syria. It is seen clap followed another, and the rain began far off on the sea and from Mount Garizim to pour down like a deluge, when we arin Samaria, at a distance of more than rived at the door of the Arab sheik. The eighty miles. It appears as an immense poor man seemed quite embarrassed at our giant, stretching forth towards the north sudden appearance, as his house was occuboth his mighty arms, the Lebanon and pied by some Turkish officers, who were Anti-Lebanon. The direct breadth of the going to Damascus. But all difficulties latter is only one day's journey on the car were instantly removed. The Ottoman avan route by Demas, though the more Bimbashis politely offered us their room circuitous road along the Burradá to Ba'al- during our short halt, and while the storm bek is double that length. The western was raging outside, drenching our mules
and baggage, we were quite comfortably / pendent as the chiefs of Mount Lebanon. reposing on the divans among the arms and Mar-Kandjar is a venerable-looking man, accoutrements of the Turks. The inde with a flowing white beard and a shrewd fatigable Mustapha, in the mean time, pre-countenance. He enjoys the reputation of pared our dinner; and when the thunder- being a brave warrior. The followers of shower had passed over, we, in the refresh- Ali were defeated and almost annihilated ing coolness of the evening, continued our during their bloody feuds with the Druzes descent to the plain. Yet sunset overtook of Mount Lebanon, as I mentioned in anus at two hours' distance from Ba'albek; other place. Their beautiful plain was we therefore took up our quarters for the afterwards ravaged by the army of Ibranight at the village of Bereitan, situated him-Pasha, who had quartered the wild on a spur of the Anti-Lebanon, command-tribes of his Bedouin cavalry in the environs ing a beautiful view towards the plain and of Ba'albek. At last, in 1840, when the the opposite range of the Lebanon. This Anglo-Austrian fleet appeared on the coast, village is likewise inhabited by Metawileh, and
Turkish proclamations called on all the whose low, mud-walled houses were clus- mountaineers to revolt against the Egyptering on the steep sides of the hill in such
tians, Emir Mar-Kandjar again armed the a manner, that the flat roofs of one range bands of his daring horsemen, who were formed the street of that above. The vil still dispersed among the villages of the lagers, men, women, and children, came Anti-Lebanon, and uniting with the Druzes thronging around, and followed us to the and Maronites, attacked the retreating sheik, who assigned us one of the best Egyptian army and contributed his part to houses in the village. The inquisitiveness of expel it from the country. the crowds around became now very trou It seemed to me as if those handsome blesome, when a handsome young Arab, young horsemen, the sons of the Emir, gaily dressed, and accompanied by some were the last of that enterprising people, well-equipped horsemen, came galloping up who with thousands of warriors had swept to us, announcing himself as Sidi-Mahmudh, the plain and extended their conquests the son of the Emir of Ba'albek. When he to the coasts of the sea. I wondered saw the despair of Mustapha at not being that the old Emir offered me coffee, a pipe, able to pitch the tents and arrange the and a seat on his divan, which are rather baggage, owing to the vexatious curiosity unusual compliments with the fanatic of the idlers around, and the impertinence Metawileh, as all travellers assert that they of the urchins of the village, even beginning never invite strangers of another belief, to fling stones at the Frank travellers, he nor think it proper even to touch vessels threw
himself from his horse, and with his or utensils used by them. But the late whip soon cleared the avenues. He then war and the continual intermixture with politely told me that the Emir, his father, European travellers have done away with invited me to see him at the Kúla'at-the many prejudices, and begun essentially to castle. Taking Mustapha with me, I went change the manners of the East. Narto the outskirts of the village, where I Kandjar bade us welcome to his country, found the Emir sitting on a carpet before and told me that we might at our leisure an old tower, smoking his nargiles. He and with perfect safety visit the monuments was surrounded by four or five handsome of Ba'albek. He then drew forth from his Arabs, whose glittering arms and splendid girdle an English telescope, a present which dress contrasted most strikingly with the he had received during the war from his squalidness and misery of the rest of the British allies, and requested me to put the in habitants. The young warriors wore glasses in order. large white turbans, light blue jackets, Early next morning, the 26th of May, and trousers richly laced with gold; and we departed from Bereitan, and descending their beautiful steeds, as gaudily accou to the plain, took a northern direction to tred as their riders, were picketed in the Ba'albek. Ridges of swelling hills, the adjoining court-yard. The present Emir last undulations of the Anti-Lebanon on of Ba'albek is Mar-Kandjar, of the old our right, still for a while cut off our view family of Harfush, who were the feudal in front; but on our crossing the last height, lords of the Buka'a, and nearly as inde- | the stately temple-ruins in their command
ing elevation, like a Gothic castle of the of the Orientals, Christians as well as middle ages, and the white dwellings of Mohammedans, of their having been a Ba'albek, with its shattered mosques and work of the times of Solomon, King of broken minarets, now appeared above the Judah and Israel, who built Hamath and surrounding grove at a distance of three Tadmor in the desert. The outer wall miles. Nearer, on our left, was seen a on the north is admirably preserved ; it is circular ruin supported by columns on thirty feet in height. It runs parallel a hill behind the village of Duris. We with the platform of the temples, and inthen arrived at the ancient quarries, where closes a deep court or moat, two hundred the immense blocks of hard limestone feet in length, and forty-five in breadth, had formerly been excavated for the foun- which is supposed to have served as a vivadations of the temples. Many stones lie rium or inclosure for the wild beasts, who perfectly formed for use; others are half were kept for the worship of Ba'al, the cut out from the mountain ; and a huge sun-god, and even in later times for the cruel rock, seventy feet in length, though not yet combats of the sight-loving Romans. * detached from the quarry, is shaped offin These lions' dens remind us of those kept an oblong form, and seems to have been by the kings of Media and Babylonia in the designed for the substructure of the larger times of the prophets. The Saracens, after temple. The city of Ba'albek now lay the conquest of Damascus in 636, strongly before us at a short distance. The ancient fortified the temples of Ba'albek. The outer city walls, which were defended by large walls were raised higher and strengthened square towers, are demolished; but large by battlements; on the east, the principal hcaps of stones and dilapidated turrets entrance and portico were walled up and still indicate their direction along the east- flanked by square towers. During the cruern heights, and their northward curve in- sades, Ba'albek was bravely defended by closing the town. A clear, purling brook, the Saracens, and the Christian knights descending from the fountain-head of Ras never succeeded in permanently establishel-Ain, a couple of miles north of the city, ing themselves in the Buka’a. It is therepasses around the base of the castle, and fore very probable that these early fortifitaking a south-western course through the cations, and their elevated and strong posiplain, discharges itself in the Litany. This tion, may have saved the temples from that rivulet and a scattered grove of walnuts, destruction to which other more exposed willows, poplars, and plantains covering its monuments have so frequently been subbanks and the environs of the temples, jected. Indeed this Saracenic military arhighly contributed to enhance the beauty chitecture of square and octagonal towers, of the scenery; nor is it possible to de- with pointed arches and battlemented pinscribe the pleasant sensations it at once nacles, though in opposition to the more called forth. Here we instantly dismounted, gigantic and graver monuments of Imperial and ordering Mustapha to take our horses Rome, do not a little contribute to the and attendants to the Greek convent in the inexpressibly picturesque and romantic town, we crossed the rivulet, and ascended effect which the castle, as a whole, makes to the temples.
on the beholder on his first approach. They form, together with the spacious The principal entrance was from the courts, sanctuaries and porticoes, an entire city on the east, but it is at present obacropolis, elevated on an oblong platform, structed and closed up by the more which extends twelve hundred feet in its modern walls. In front of it was the first longest diameter from east to west. The or hexagonal court which is now very foundations of this platform consist, in some ruinous ; but the larger quadrangular or places, of gigantic freestones, between inner court is in better preservation. From sixty and seventy feet in length. In their thence the prospect opens upon the reenormous dimensions and the similarity of their workmanship, they have a striking resemblance to the substructions of the polis, says: "In the court of the temple are kept a
* Lucian, describing the temple of Jugo in Hierogreat platform of the ancient Jewish tem greai number of bears and lions, which feed tople on Mount Moriah at Jerusalem, and gether, and are never known 10 attack or hurt any thus seem to corroborate the old tradition always tame." Lucian, de Dea Syr.
one ; being set apart for the sacred rites, they are
maining columns of the immense Pantheon, of the temple now remains. Only six beaudirectly in front, and the smaller but won tiful columns of the rich Corinthian order, derfully preserved temple of Ba'al farther forming part of the southern peristyle, are off to the left, while the distant snow-clad still standing. The others were thrown ridge of Jebel-Makmel forms a glorious down by an earthquake in 1759; their background to this beautiful picture. Both bases may be seen on the platform, while courts present a series of large recesses, the shafts have rolled down below. The alternately square and circular, which columns have not only preserved their seem to have been designed for sanctua- Corinthian capitals, but even their archiries, and schools of the philosophers and trave and a highly elaborate cornice. They priests, who perhaps had their dwellings in consist of two or three blocks of a red and the chambers which are distributed at the black granulous granite, and are so perfectangles of the courts.* They are all en ly joined together that their junction riched with architectural decorations, with can scarcely be discovered. These giganporticoes of four or six columns, taber- tic ruins stand on an elevated platform on nacles for busts and elegantly ornamented the north-western angle of the castle-wall, niches for statues, while a beautiful frieze where three immense blocks of sixty-five of bull's heads and wreaths of flowers and feet in length seem to have excited the adfruits, with a boldly projecting cornice miration of ancient as well as modern above, gives union and firmness to the writers. * whole structure.
At the distance of fifty yards stands the Over heaps of rubbish and broken second temple, supposed to be that of Ba'al, columns, nearly hid among luxuriant the sun-god. It was not inclosed within shrubs and flowers, we forced our way to the great court, and forms now the souththe great Pantheon, which according to an western corner of the castle; the Saracens inscription on the exterior portico was dedi- having fortified it like the courts and porticated to Jove and the great gods-diis coes with towers and battlements, and a magnis. This then was the magnificent strong traverse, which obstructs the view temple built by Antoninus Pius about the to the elegant door-way on the eastern middle of the second century of our era. front. This temple is still in excellent John of Antioch says, that it was dedicated preservation. It had sixteen Corinthian to Jove and considered one of the wonders columns, forming a double row on its of the world. It appears to have been a eastern and western façades, and a peridecastyle, with ten columns in the pronaos style of fifteen on each side, making in all and posticum, and nineteen in each of its fifty-four, of which twenty-three with their flanks, after the Roman manner; the whole epistylia are standing at the present day ; number being fifty-four. The height of while the bases and lower frusta of many the columns is sixty feet, exclusive of the others are either indicating their place or architrave, and with it seventy-two; their lying in wild confusion around the platdiameter seven feet; and the dimensions of form. the temple were two hundred and ninety The outer row of six Corinthian columns feet in length by one hundred and sixty in on the eastern portico, the principal enbreadth. No vestige of the cell or body trance, is demolished, and its fragments
cover the broad staircase leading up to the
temple. But the second colonnade is “A great number of priests wait in the temple, some of whom slay the victims, others pour oui the libations; some are called fire-bearers, others attendants on the altar. When I was there above
* These blocks are sixteen feet in breadth and a hundred of them assisted at the sacrifice. Their
thirteen feet in height. Such an enormous mass garments were white, and they had hats on their contains, according to Professor Russegger, fourheads, except the high priest, who is clothed in
teen thousand five hundred and twenty cubic feet, purple and wears a tiara : he changes every year."
and weighs about one million two hundred Lucian de Dea Syr.
thousand pounds. + The Olympeion at Athens was larger, being that Theodosius converted the great and renowned
The Chronicon Alexandrinum, page 303, says a dipteros decastylos, with one hundred and twenty-eight columns of the Corinthian order. It
sanctuary at Heliopolis, that of the Three Stones, measured three hundred and fifty-four by one Tò spiridov, into a Christian Church. This epithet hundred and seventy-two feet; the shaft of ihe re no doubt had reference to the immense substrucmaining columns is sixty feet, and their diameter tions of the great Pantheon, thus distinguishing it seven and a half feet.
from the smaller temple of Ba’al.
entire, and presents the highly remarkable mense pilasters of the corners and the feature, that the corner columns on the twelve fluted three-quarter Corinthian sides are fluted, while the six central shafts columns, with the intervening niches and are plain. One column, perhaps overturned tabernacles, surmounted by a rich and eleby an earthquake, is still leaning unbroken gant entablature adorning the inner wall, against the southern wall of the cell, thus give a more distinct idea of the interior cell proving the extraordinary solidity and skill of an ancient heathen temple; while at the with which the ancient architects united the western extremity, the adyton, is seen the shafts of their columns. The elevation of raised stage with its arch or canopy, supcolumn and capital is fifty-one feet, eight ported by two Corinthian columns, which inches; the diameter five feet. The temple seem to indicate the marble couch—the is two hundred and thirty feet in length sacred thalamos—in which the symbol of and one hundred and sixty in breadth. Ba'al was screened from the gaze of the
It is composed of a glossy white lime- adoring multitude. stone, quite resembling marble, which in the The worshippers of the Sun-god, who course of time has assumed that beautiful | from all parts of the eastern world flocked golden hue, so well suited to enhance the by thousands to Emesa and Ba'albek to picturesque effect of ancient architecture offer their precious oblations at the shrine in the warm coloring of a Syrian sky. of Ba'al, says Herodian, the historian, had
The roof of the temple has fallen in; no engraven image, Xipotointov sixóva, no but the coffers of the peristyle—the lacu- statue of a human form representing their naria—are still lying in their places, and deity, like the Greeks and Romans. Ba'al are ornamented with quite a variety of por was worshipped under the name Helatraits of Roman Emperors and entire gabal, the procreating god, in the form of a figures from the Grecian mythology, such black conical stone, which it was believed as Leda caressing the swan, Jove with had fallen from heaven into the sanctuary of Ganymede, and Diana armed with bow the great temple at Emesa. The color and and arrows. The high door-way on the general appearance of this stone, and the eastern front leading into the body of the tradition of its having fallen from heaven, temple is twenty-five feet high by twenty evidently proved it to have been a meteofeet broad. Its mouldings and ornaments rolite. The Emperor Heliogabalus afterare of an exquisite and exuberant work wards carried it with him to Rome. manship, representing beautiful genii Grecian architecture had been my among wreaths of fruits and flowers. On favorite study during a residence of several the lintel, in excellent bas-relief, is seen years at Athens ; and my conceptions, an eagle with expanded wings grasping a therefore, of the monuments of Syria were caduceus in his talons, and holding in his not very great. Yet, summoning up the beak the joined ends of two rich garlands, different impressions left on my mind from each of which at the other end is held the contemplation of the gigantic architecby a winged victory. At the tremendous ture of Ba'albek, I must confess that it by earthquake in 1759, the keystone of the far exceeded my expectations in the compalintel forming the eagle gave way, and sink ratively pure taste and excellent workmaning down eight inches it again became fixed, ship of the ornaments and the imposing and is still seen hanging in this threatening grandeur of the masses; though it would be position.
improper of course to compare monuments The interior of the cell is in better of the age of the Antonines, when the preservation than that of any temple I saw Roman architecture was fast verging to its in Greece or Italy. It is well known that decline, with the master-pieces of the glothe only Greek temples which have pre rious days of Greece. The noble monuserved their cells are those of the Olym- ments of the Periclean era stand to this pian Jove at Akragas, in Sicily, of the The day alike unrivalled in their different seum and Parthenon at Athens, and of the characters of varied excellence—the most A pollo Epicurius in Arcadia, in which tasteful, elegance combined with the most latter we still admire the beautiful half-pleasing simplicity--and the vast superioricolumns in the interior. But in the temple ty of the Pentelic marble to the limestone of the Sun in Ba'albek, the four im- of the Anti-Lebanon! I will nevertheless