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FOREIGN MISCELLANY.

"The close of a long and laborious session A new society has been formed in Dublin, of the British Parliament, has been succeeded with Lord William Fitzgerald, brother of the by a complete stagnation in political affairs. Duke of Leinster, at its head, having for its The Court is rusticating in Scotland, and the object to procure an arrangement by which the ministers and legislators, taking advantage of Imperial Parliament shall hold its sittings in the season, have retired into various parts of Dublin during such convenient portions of each the country to recruit. Some Chartist trials year, as may be sufficient for the transaction have ended in the conviction of the accused, of business more particularly relating to Irish and other cases are still under investigation; affairs. This project is creating some little but that body, partaking of the general languor, excitement in political circles. appear to have ceased from all active exertion. On the 6th Sept. intelligence of a disposition

The death of Lord George Bentinck, at the to renew the recent disturbances, was received age of 46, has created a great public sensa in Dublin. The peasantry of Tipperary, in a tion. He was a man of remarkable energy body of about 4,000, had encamped on Aubrey and determination of character, which, until | Hill, many being armed with pikes and ritles, the last three years, had been principally di- while the hills around Carrick swarmed with rected to field sports. He entered Parliament armed men, levying contributions on the in the year 1828 on conservative principles, neighboring farmers, and forcing others to join and was one of Sir Robert Peel's silent support the movement. The police stationed in small ers, taking little active part in politics, but divisions in the neighborhood were compelled devoting himself with ardor to the turf and the to leave their posts and seek refuge in the chase. The events of 1846 gave the energies towns, and a military force was found necesof his mind a different turn, and from that pe- sary to quell the rising. No great alarm apriod his attention was almost exclusively devo-pears to have been felt in the towns, as the ted to politics. The free trade doctrines then success of repressive measures on previous brought forward by Sir Robert Peel, converted occasions had imparted to the inhabitants a his former supporter into his most bitter oppo- feeling of confidence, warranted by the result. nent, and viewing the conduct of the Premier Troops were immediately dispatched to the as an apostacy from his former principles, his scene of the disturbance, and soon succeeded opposition was personal as well as bitter. He in breaking up the organized bands, and forat once assumed, in the House of Commons, cing the insurgents to return to their homes. the leadership of that portion of the conserva Some arrests were made, and the country tives who adhere to the high Tory principles, became again tranquil. The disturbance apand astonished his friends, as well as the pub- pears to have been of an agrarian and not of lic, by his aptitude for debate, and great polit- a political character. ical knowledge. From his previous life he The Special Commission for the trial of was unacquainted with many of the details O'Brien, Meagher, and several others, accused necessary to be mastered by one who should of high treason, was opened at Clonmel on try his skill in debate with his able opponent; the 21st Sept., by Lord chief justice Blackbut nothing daunted, he set about their ac burne of the Queen's Bench, chief justice quirement with a vigor and determination, tru- Doherty of the Common Pleas, and justice ly characteristic. He was known to be clos- Moore. After a charge from the foreman, eted with reports and official documents for ten the Grand Jury returned true bills against and twelve hours previous to a debate; and to O'Brien, and four others, and on the following this great change in his habits is attributed his day true bills were found against six other sudden death. In entering what may be call persons, but Meagher's name does not appear ed his political career, he still retained his love in either list. Each of the prisoners having for the field, and is reputed to have been a had a copy of the indictment delivered to him, winner of a very large sum at the Doncaster they were informed by the Court that five days Races which took place a few days before his were allowed them for pleading. decease. He was found dead on the 21st Sept. France still continues the great object of from spasm of the heart, in a field near Wel European interest. The Assembly has repealbeck Abbey, Nottinghamshire, the seat of his ed the decree of the provisional government, father, the Duke of Portland.

abolishing arrest for debt; and it has been de

cided by a Committee, that in trials by jury | tagnards has been established, which is regilthe verdict shall be given by a majority, and larly attended three times a week by about that unanimity shall not be required.

two thousand operatives, and at Lille, numbers On the 2nd of September there was an ani- have paraded the town denianding work. inated discussion on a proposition demanding

The election of three members of the National that the state of siege should be raised, pend- Assembly, for the department of the Seine, ing the discussions on the Constitution ; the which took place on the 20th September, was object being, apparently, to get rid of the the cause of considerable previous excitement. shackles in which the Parisian press is bound. The friends of Louis Bonaparte, who declared Ledru-Rollin declared the debate on the Con- bis determination to serve if elected, were strenstitution could not proceed during the state of uous in their exertions for his success, and it siege. General Cavaignac, on the other hand, was said the government was determined, either declared his belief of its necessity, but that he and by an exclusion law or an alteration of that his colleagues left the matter entirely in the part of the Constitution which relates to the hands of the Assembly, and were content to election of President of the Republic, to preconduct the government without it, but relieved vent the possibility of the prince arriving at from the responsibility of any consequences that station. The clubs of the Red Repubwhich night ensue, if the assembly, with the lic” were also on the alert, and put forward state of Paris before its eyes, should differ from the notorious Communists, Cabet, Raspail and him in opinion; and he insisted that the power Thoré, as their candidates. On the returns over the press was indispensable to the main- being made known, the three following were tenance of order. Ilis views were sustained declared elected :-Louis Bonaparte, 111,192 by the Assembly on division, by 529 votes votes; Fould, (moderate,) 78,518; and Raspail, against 140.

66,815; Cabet and Thoré stood next on the General Cavagnac thereupon took an op- list. Louis Bonaparte likewise headed the list portunity of declaring the principles on which at the elections in Moselle, Yonne and Charente he had acted, and would continue to act, in sus Inférieure, and his name appears in the lists of pending the journals. He would instantly sus. several other electoral districts. In some plapend any journal which should call in question ces only one half or one third of the electors the Republican principle. All discussion in deposited their votes. the press relative to the advantages of a Repub Louis Bonaparte arrived privately in the lic and a constitutional monarchy was forbid- French capital on the 230 September, and no den under pain of suppression, but otherwise, impediment was offered to his taking his seat discussion was free! The sense of security in the Assembly; but all necessary military felt under martial law, appears to have influ measures had been taken by General Cavaigenced many of the Representatives in giving nac to suppress, on the instant, any demontheir votes.

stration which might be made; and in the From oilicial returns, it appears that the de- event of any disturbance, the Prince and his cree issued by the Provisional Government on relatives were to have been immediately, put the 16th March last, imposing an addition of under arrest. All, however, passed off quietly, 45 per cent. in the assessed taxes, was expected and his first effort in the Assembly was a to have produced 191,728,445 fr., but the speech expressing his deep and sincere affecamount yet realized has only reached 96,231,777 tion for the Republic. Raspail issued an adfr., leaving the balance to be collected. The dress, stating that he awaited the moment of the French army, actually on foot, amounts, ac recognition of his election as a member of the cording to the declaration of General Lamori- | Assembly, to leave his dungeon ; but in this he cière, the minister of war, to 548,000 men. was disappointed, for immediately on its being The estimated expense of the war department officially inade known, leave was demanded for the year, is 425,233,224 sr. Portions of the from that body to prosecute him for his part in army have been engaged in quelling insurrec- the outbreak of May 15th, which was promptly tionary disturbances caused by attempts to col- | granted. lect the 45 per cent. tax, which is resisted in On the 24th September, Ledru-Rollin delivmany departments, particularly in the South. ered an inflammatory speech at a public dinIn the department of l’Herault, troops have been ner, in which he declared the Republic to be called out to expel a number of laborers who in a weakly condition ; recommended socialism, entered on the lands of some wealthy proprie- and declared that nothing had been done for the tors, with the intention of appropriating them people since February, and that the excuse to their own use. Several journalists have was want of money. He then asked how the been fined and imprisoned, for publishing their old Republicans obtained money? By taxing papers without having given the required secu the emigrant aristocracy, and issuing assigrity, and for disobeying other laws relative to nats, he replied ; and these, he binted, would the press. The number of unemployed opera- be proper remedies at the present time. He tives in different parts of France, is a subject of was also clamorous about what he termed" the great uneasiness. In Lyons, a club of Mon- | abandonment of Italy."

The military commission under General an workmen who left Paris after the French Bertrand, charged with the 'examination and Revolution in February, for the purpose of classification of the insurgents of June, have revolutionizing their native country, have been concluded their labors, aster sitting eight hours tried, and seventeen men are condemned to on each day, for two months, without except- death. ing Sundays or holidays. They had to decide Disturbances have taken place at Frankfort the cases of 10,838 individuals ; of these, 6,276 in consequence of the national Constituent Ashave been set at liberty; 4,346 condemned to sembly having rescinded a vote previously transportation, and 255 sent before courts mar passed respecting the armistice with Denmark, tial. Two thousand seven hundred of the con- and which would have led to a continuance of demned have already been sent away, and the the war. The Radical representatives adrest are in the forts waiting to be forwarded to dressed inflammatory speeches to the mob, who their destination.

then attacked the hotel in which the rest of the The National Assembly is daily engaged in members were in the habit of meeting. The discussing the details of the Constitution, which military were called out, and some lives lost. will not be completed for a considerable time. The Archduke John has issued a proclamaThe special committee appointed on the sub- tion denouncing the outbreak, which he says ject of the indemnity to be paid to the French was made by a party whose object is to involve colonists in consequence of the abolition of sla- the country in civil war. An insurrectionary very, have fixed the amount at 120,000,000 fr., outbreak has occurred at Baden, to quell which two thirds to be paid in cash, and the remainder a military force has been dispatched. The in government stocks. Their decision is warm movement is headed by Heinzen and Struve, ly opposed by the Minister of Finance on be the latter having gone into Baden in consehalf of the government, who had previously quence of a political prosecution pending against stated the amount of indemnity at 90,000,000 fr. him. They were said to have a force of 3000, A credit of a million of francs has been granted composed of German, French, Italian and other for the relief of necessitous citizens of Paris, refugees. The public monies were plundered, and a like sum for the use of the charitable in- and the authorities put in prison. Struve has stitutions throughout France, together with a published an address calling on the Germans to credit of fifty millions for establishing agricultu- arm and resist the reaction at Frankfort. ral colonies in Algeria.

The state of Prussia is unsettled. A change An armistice has been established between of ministry has taken place. Radical assemthe Austrians and Piedmontese, for the purpose blies were meeting in various parts of the kingof putting an end to the war in Lombardy, dom, and it appeared as if that body were prethrough the m diation of the French and Eng- paring for some great attempt. Ten thousand lish governments, but both parties are increasing met at Breslau, where they were addressed in their military resources in case of failure of the the most exciting language. Riots also occurnegotiations.

red at Cologne in consequence of the arrest of Affairs at Rome are in a very unsettled state. some persons accused of conspiracy, who were The Pope is in great political embarrassment, liberated from the hands of the police by the with an empty treasury, and without means to mob. The ferment was increased at Berlin by supply its wants. In Bologna energetic move. a report of the King's intended flight to Köments were necessary for the suppression of | nigsburg. The difficulties in Hungary still sedition; Cardinal Amato had issued an edict continue. On the 18th a deputation from there forbidding the carrying arms, and fears were arrived at Vienna, charged with a mission, not entertained lest he should be overawed by the for the Emperor, but for the people—that is, military malcontents lately disbanded by the the National Assembly. It was decided by the government.

Assembly that the deputation could not be reThe war in Schleswig-Holstein is suspended ceived, but that the demands should be taken by an armistice of seven months. The Belgi- | into consideration.

CRITICAL NOTICES.

ings.

The Architect, a series of Original Designs, for, wages," or the protection of American labor

domestic and ornamental Collages and Villas, against foreign operations; but he shows that connected with Landscape Gardening, adapted the farmer cannot become wealthy until he has to the United States. Illustrated by drawings the manufacturer within reach, and that so far of ground plots, planes, perspectives, views, | from being rivals or enemies, the farmer and elevations, sections and details. Vol. I., quarto. handicraftsman are natural allies and brothers, By William. H. RANLETT, Architect. New and cannot prosper apart. How, and by what York: Dewitt & Davenport, Tribune Build- induction, thi demonstrated, with what con

vincing proofs, not of mathematics, but of the

logic of common sense and of philosophy, by This elegant and valuable work, of great which every farmer and miner may discover use to such as are building country seats, or where his true interest lies, not in the mere laying out grounds in the country, and also to production of a surplus of bread stuffs, to bring landscape artists and builders, continues to be the price of his labor ruinously low, so that published in numbers, each containing beauti- | nothing can help him but a famine in Europe, ful lithographic drawings of villas, cottages, but rather by the creation of a market at his and gardens, with ground plans of each for the own door—by the encouragement of domestic use of builders, and for those persons of taste industry-to develope these arguments, would who wish to plan an elegant and convenient require a full review of Mr Carey's book. country house or cottage. The work must The author is a thorough republican, and also be of value to carpenters in the country; I though an economist, is jealous for the inte many of them being their own designers and rest and honor of his country. His work, architects. Mr. Ranlett's work will much

taken as a whole, combines more points of assist them. We have examined it, and read

value than any we have read. The method of portions of the text appended to the drawings, it is new and singular; it proceeds directly in with great interest. It is full of important mat the face of Ricardo and Malthus, and begins ter to be known by all builders and planners. by putting their premises in the limbo of “false

facts." We venture to predict that this work, which has now been before the public a year

or more, with very little appreciation of its The Past, the Present, and the Future. By value, will eventually occupy the first rank in

H. C. Carey, author of “ Principles of Po- its class as a “primary treatise ” on the wealth litical Economy,” &c. Philadelphia : Carey and economy of nations. Its line of argument & Hart. 1818.

is quite distinct from that of the valuable work

of Mr. Colton on “Public Economy," and of From the title only of this work no reasona the statistical work of Seaman on the “ Proble conjecture could be given of its scope and

gress of Nations." contents, a defect by which the small atten To enable the reader to form some idea of tion it has attracted may perhaps be in part the style and sentiments of this admirable accounted for. It is an investigation and ex work of Mr. Carey's, we subjoin the following position of the true sources of national and

extracts:-private wealth-of that economy and polity which should be used to make both individuals and nations rich and powerful. The facts

"Why is it that men are everywhere seen flywhich the author uses to establish his views, I ing from their fellow men: from those destined are the great facts of history, known to every

by the Deity to be their helpmates : from pa

rents and relations : from old houses, and old sensible reader. The inferences are those of

churches, and old school-houses: old comforts, common sense, and require only a cool head,

and old feelings : and from all the conveniences free of theory and mysticism, to understand

and advantages that tend so largely to promote them to their entire consequences.

their happiness and their respectability, and to The author is not what is usually styled a increase their powers of exertion : to seek in “ protectionist ;" he does not advocate a protec- Texas and Iowa, Oregon' and California, new tive policy as good in itself or in the abstract; homes and new relations, amidst woods that they he says very little about the effects of „ high cannot fell, and swamps that they cannot drain"

and upon the poor soils that yield, invariably, , deal of land, where a dozen bushels to the acre the smallest return to labor ?

are considered a good crop. Why does he not These things would seem almost impossible: clear some of the meadow-land? It is because yet if we turn to India, we may see the poor there is no demand for milk, or for fresh meat: Hindoo cultivating the poorest soils, and then for hay, or turnips, or potatoes : or for any of laboring almost in vain, to drive through the rich those things of which the earth yields largely, and black clay that lies between him and his market, which from their bulk will not bear carriage. He the half-starved cattle that bear his miserable knows that when the great machine yields by crop. Here we have the same state of things ; tons, the product is worth little unless there be and both here and there it may be traced to the mouths on the spot to eat; but that when he same cause : necessity. In neither can man ex restricts it to bushels the product may be transercise power over the rich soils, because in neither ported to the mouths. There is no demand for have men power over themselves ; and until they timber; for all the young men fly to the west, shall have it, they must continue to fly from rich and new houses are not needed. The timber is soils capable of yielding tons, by aid of whose valueless ; and the land is not worth clearing to manure poor soils might be enriched, to poor raise wheat, almost the only product of the earth soils becoming daily poorer, because to them that will bear carriage. To clear an acre would even the manure yielded by their own little pro cost as much as would buy a dozen in Iowa ; and duct cannot be returned. They borrow from the the product of four acres, at ten bushels each, earth, and they do not repay : and therefore it is would be equal to one of forty. He therefore that they find an empty exchequer: performing goes to the west to raise more wheat; and his thus the process that farmers are enabled to friend goes to raise more wool ; and his sister re. avoid, when, as in England and New England, mains at home unmarried. Why does she not the consumer takes his place by the side of the marry, and accompany her lover It is because producer. Therefore it is that the average pro she has found no demand for her labor, and has duce of New York is but fourteen bnshels of earned no wages to enable her to contribute to wheat to the acre, while that of Ohio is even less, the expense of furnishing the house. altho ugh acres may readily be made to yield “Here, then, we have labor, male and female, forty or tifty bushels : and therefore it is that the

superabundant for want of wages with which to average produce of Indian corn is but twenty buy food, and clothing, and houses: food superafive, when it should be a hundred bushels, and bundant, for want of mouths to eat it: clothing that of potatoes but ninety when it might be material superabundant, for want of people to four hundred bushels.

wear it: timber superabundant, for want of peo“ If we desire to understand the cause of these ple desiring to build houses : fertile land superaextraordinary facts, we may, perhaps, obtain what bundant, for want of people to drink milk and eat we want by taking a bird's-eye view of a farm butter and veal: and poor land superabundant, house of western Pennsylvania, near neighbor to for want of the manure that has for ages accumuthe rich meadow-land above described. The lated in the river bottom; while the men who farmer is reading the newspaper, anxious to might eat the veal and drink the milk produced know what are the crops of England, and whether on rich lands, are flying to the west to waste their or not the rot has destroyed the potato crop in labor on poor ones; those who should be consu Ireland. Last year many of the people of Eu mers of food becoming producers of food. rope starved: but he sold

his crop at a good price, Why is this? It is because they want a marand paid off his debts. This year he wishes to ket at which the labor, male and female, the purchase a new wagon, and to add to his stock of food and the wool, can be exchanged for each horses: but unhappily for him, the farmers of other. They want a woollens mill, and had they England have had a favorable season, and the this, the sons would stay at home and eat food, rot has not appeared in Ireland. Starvation will instead of going abroad to produce more. The not sweep off its thousands, and he will get nei daughters would marry, and would want houses. ther horses nor wagon.

The timber would be cleared, and the fertile “ His eldest son is preparing to remove to lands would be cultivated. The manure would the west, to raise wheat on dry lands in Wiscon- be made, and the poor lands would be made rich. sin or Iowa, and to send to the already over The milk would be drunk, and the veal would stocked markets increased supplies of food. His be eaten, and the swamps would be drained to daughter is grieving for the approaching loss of make meadows. The saw-mill would come, and her brother; and of her sweetheart, the son of the sawyer would eat corn. The blacksmith, the the neighboring wool-grower: who is about to tailor, the hatter, and the printer would come, leave for Michigan to raise wool, that he may and all would eat corn. The town would grow compete with his father, who is studying carefully up, and acres would become lots. The farms the newspapers hoping to see that the sheep of would be divided, and the fencing of each diAustralia have rotted off and thus diminished the minished. The railroad would be made, and the supply of wool. He wants to pay off his debts : coal and iron would come: and with each step but this he cannot do, unless the price of wool in this progress, the farmer would obtain a better should rise, and thus increase the difficulty of ob- price for his corn and his wool, enabling him from taining clothing. Why do these sons move off? year to year to appropriate more and more labor It is because there is no demand for labor. All to the development of the vast treasures of the the land is held in large farms, because the poor earth; to building up the great machine, whose soils alone are cultivated; and farmers that value would increase in the precise ratio of the would live at all must farm and fence in a great l increase in the return to his Labor."

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