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are surrendering one by one, if M. Witte is not using the and to-day not even ambassa- Press to conceal his real purdors can exclude the encroach- pose, the Conference of Portsing enemy from their walls. In mouth will end, as it began, in old times a frivolous crowd of farce. One thing is perfectly courtiers gave an air of gaiety certain, which is, that Japan to the deliberations of states- will sacrifice none of the admen, and while they relieved vantages she has gained for the the tedium of discussion, they sake of a premature peace. were incapable of surprising Russia is beaten by land and secrets or of betraying their at sea; her Baltic fleet, which friends. “Le Congrès

was to retrieve the disasters marche pas," said the Prince of her army, is destroyed ; de Ligne at Vienna, “il danse.

and Japan, strong in the skill And is not a thousand times and courage of her soldiers, better to dance than to listen strong in the support and affecat doors or to hang upon the tion of her people, has no indiscretions of a secretary? motive to sign a peace, except

M. Witte, though trained in upon her own terms. the strictest school of diplomacy, does not assume the digni. But the Conference at Portsfied attitude of Baron Komura. mouth has not been held in From the very beginning he vain. It has proved that the has made what use he might old world may pay too high a of the 120 Press representa- price for the gratification of tives. He has encouraged them Mr Roosevelt's vanity, and to play his own game of bluff, it has raised the question and they have had no difficulty once again of the part which in picking up the rules. In the Press should play in peace the first place, they announced and war. During the last half to the whole world, “on the century the power of the newshighest authority,” that Russia paper has enormously in would neither pay a kopeck creased, and it is as well that, nor cede an inch of territory. from time to time, we should If this were true, it is difficult realise the risks that we to see why M. Witte crossed running. Once upon a time the the Atlantic-unless, indeed, he Press was the servant of the wished to pay a delicate com- people. It sold the news which pliment to Mr Roosevelt, who, it collected, and was content. by inviting the plenipoten- Now it aspires to be our master, tiaries to America, has stolen and, as we have pointed out, a long march upon William II., openly boasts that it will his one and only rival. For favour those who give it in. if Russia declines to acknow- formation. Japan, then, deledge herself beaten, then she serves the gratitude of the will assuredly obtain no peace whole civilised world for exat the hands of Japan; and if cluding war correspondents she wants no peace, she might from her camps, and for foras well have kept her repre- bidding her journalists at home sentatives at home. In truth, to give any other than official


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news. She has shown that war legislation. With one voice may be conducted without the the country is demanding a intervention of inexperienced reformed army. reporters and the other camp- will be of small profit to us if followers of falsehood. And our journals inform the enemy she has spared her soldiers the how large it is, and where it risk of being sacrificed to the may be most readily surprised. enemy through information To legislate in a hurry upon supplied by her own journal- so grave a question will not be ists. Of Japan's wisdom there easy, and we trust that memcan be no doubt. It would be bers of Parliament will be better that every newspaper in found disinterested enough to the country should perish for press it consistently upon our lack of copy than that one sol- Ministers. It will not be a dier should fall into the hands popular enterprise, for the of the enemy through informa- journals have a simple method tion hastily gathered and in- of revenge upon those who discreetly printed. The Russ- would curtail their privileges. ians, in their desire to be the But we are sanguine enough friends of all men, have not to believe that the example of matched the Japanese in dis- Japan has not been set in vain, cretion. The disposition of and we have every confidence their army in Manchuria, its that the wiser of our journals strength and its weakness, will act in good faith, when have recently been described once their editors understand by a French correspondent the impending danger. with a minuteness that was Not long since Lord Ellensurely of the greatest service borough called attention in the to Japan, and it is difficult to House of Lords to this risk exaggerate the wickedness of of disseminating news in time such outspoken criticism. War- of war, but his warning fell fare is not a game of cricket. upon deaf ears. Lord Selborne, It is a serious pursuit, upon admitting that the problem which depend the lives of men was of the greatest difficulty, and the existence of empires. declared that it could only be What, then, shall we say of solved with the collaboration the levity, the curiosity, or the of the Press. We might just as greed of those who, for the well undertake a revision of our sake of an exclusive telegram, criminal law on the advice of will endanger the lives of their the professional housebreaker, fellows and the supremacy of If penalties are to be imposed their fatherland?

upon the Press, the GovernThe warning which we re- ment must discover those ceived in South Africa should which it deems suitable, and range us upon the side of not ask the possible culprit Japan. But it is not enough what punishment he would to hold a strong opinion; we prefer. Moreover, the case must insist that, if ever we go against the journals is overto war again, the Government whelming. Ever since the shall safeguard our soldiers by Napoleonic wars our British



armies have suffered from the the advantages it gives to the
recklessness of the Press. enemy in all their operations.”
They have been forced to That is excellent sense, If
meet not only the open enemy the people insists upon news
in the field but the subtler to which it has no right, let
foe of curiosity at home. it know what it pays in blood
The examples of indiscretion, and money for the ill-omened
collected with praiseworthy privilege.
candour by · The Times, In Wellington's time jour-
itself an old offender, should nalism, as know it to-
make us blush for our news- day, did not exist, and he
papers. Nelson and Welling- never knew its full possibilities
ton were both victims, and of evil. It was the Crimean
had the Press had its way War which first discovered the
the battle of Trafalgar would danger in all its naked horror.
never have been fought. In Sebastopol was fortified in
a letter written in September obedience to the French and
1805, Nelson urged that the English Press, and all the
publisher of The Gibraltar hardships of that heroic siege
Gazette’ should be forbidden may be put down to the levity
to mention his force. “I of newspapers. But it is idle
much fear,” said he, “that if to multiply examples. At
the enemy know of our in- Sedan, as in South Africa,
creased numbers, shall there is the same story to tell
never see them out of Cadiz." of recklessness and indiscretion.
But the harm was done,- Blood is spilt and lives are
"The Gibraltar Gazette' had wantonly sacrificed for this
babbled; and but for the per- miserable itch of curiosity.
emptory orders of Napoleon, The aid of telegraphy has
the French Admiral would not increased the danger twenty-
have risked the battle. Wel- fold, and we trust that when
lington complained yet more the affairs of the army are
bitterly and with better reason. next considered by Parliament,
While he was fighting in the our soldiers will be protected
Peninsula he sent a newspaper against the well-meant treach-
to Lord Liverpool, which gave ery of our journals.
an account of his works, "the have said, the example of Japan
number of men and guns in is of first-rate importance. In
each, and for what purpose war, as in peace, she has de-
constructed.” Lord Liverpool fended herself against babblers
does not seem to have taken and eavesdroppers. And nobly
a sufficiently grave view of is she justifed of her caution.
the outrage, and Wellington At Portsmouth she has saved
protested again with some herself from a farce; in Man-



churia her wisdom has avoided right,” said he, "to give the a tragedy. It is not enough

" British public this informa. to praise her prudence and tion; but if they choose to fortitude. Let us take courhave it, they ought to know age ourselves and follow her the price they pay for it, and example.

As we





ECCE ITERUM are not forward as originating the conreferring to Crispinus, but troversy. (2) The reply of the only to Mr Brodrick, who has Government of India, dated appeared a second time in his March 23, 1905. (3) A minute favourite role of Army Re- by his Excellency the Comformer. This time his field of mander-in-Chief, dated January action is in India. At the 1, 1905, in which Lord Kitchinstance of Lord Kitchener the ener narrates his griefs and Governor - General - in- Council sets forth his proposals. (4) A has been summarily overruled, minute by the Military Member and a serious, and, as we believe, of Council, Major-General Sir dangerous change made in the E. R. Elles, dated January 24, Constitution of the Indian 1905, answering Lord Kitchener. Government. The indifference (5) A minute by Lord Curzon, with which the matter has dated February 6, 1905, conbeen passed by in the House demning Lord Kitchener's of Commons has been almost scheme. (6) A minute of disequalled by the perfunctory sent by his Excellency the Comconsideration given to it by mander-in-Chief, expressing his most of the public journals in disagreement with the Governthis country. This is hardly ment of India's letter, of March to be wondered at. Lord 23, 1905. (7) The Secretary Kitchener's is a name to con- of State's orders, dated May jure by; and to understand 31, 1905, giving the decision of the effect of Mr Brodrick’s his Majesty's Government on reforms, one ought to know the case. To these have now something of the Constitution been added the reports of the of the Government of India and Committee appointed in May its working. Notwithstanding last, at which the Secretary of Lord Curzon's resignation we State for India presided. cannot, however, regard the We asked, we question as finally disposed of. hardly be expected, in the face It is sure to be opened up again of Lord Bath's statement in the before long. It may be useful, House of Lords on the first of therefore, to explain the case to August and of the telegraphic our readers as fully and clearly correspondence between Lord as our space will permit. Curzon and Mr Brodrick re

The correspondence as laid cently made public, to believe originally before the Houses of that the question was raised Parliament contains the follow- for discussion by the Secretary ing papers : (1) The despatch of State of his own motion, from the Secretary of State for on December 2, 1904. An atIndia to the Governor-General tempt is made to connect it of India in Council, dated De- with the correspondence which cember 2, 1904, which is put led to the transfer of the con


can as



trol of the Supply and Trans- Minute of 1st January 1905, port Corps from the Military paragraph 26), had scarcely Department of the Government taken up his office in India to the Commander-in-Chief. before he made proposals for It is pretended that the Secre- reorganising the system of tary of State had become aware army administration. There by an incidental disclosure can be little doubt that these in this correspondence of the proposals, as well failure of the Government of vised minute which he wrote India to have fully prepared in April 1904, were known to for mobilising the four divi- the Secretary of State, if not sions which until recently to the Secretary of State in have been accepted, with the Council. It is rumoured, approval of the Home Govern- moreover, that while Lord ment, as the force to be held Curzon was in England in ready for an emergency on the 1904, trusted agents of Lord North-West frontier of India. Kitchener were pressing his It is suggested that this failure views on army questions on is due to a system of “dual Mr Brodrick and other memcontrol,” which Mr Brodrick_bers of the Government; and assumes to have existed hitherto the Press, which repeatedly in the administration of the announced the Commander-inIndian Army. It is matter Chief's intention to resign unof common knowledge that fin- less he got his own way, was ancial reasons alone prevented utilised for the same purpose. the full preparations for mobil. Hence we find Mr Brodrick, ising these four divisions. The in this despatch which purSecretary of State in Council ports to ask the Government knew this better than any of India to review the present one else, and was responsible system, begging the question for it. (See Sir E. R. Elles's at issue, and assuming from Minute of January 24, para- the outset that the Indian graphs 2, 3, 4, &c.) To bring organisation involved dual conit up now, as if it were a lâches trol, and was bad. on the part of the Government Readers of Maga' will have of India due to organic defects acquired a sufficient knowin the administration, is not ledge of the constitution of quite ingenuous.

the Government of India to It is evident, from a careful enable them to appreciate the perusal of the “initiating issues in the controversy from despatch of December 2, 1904, the able article by Mr G. in the light of the correspond- Forrest in our number for ence now published, that the August. They will have obSecretary of State was moved served that in the Military to action not by these or any Department the system is exoriginal discoveries, but by actly the same as in any other some motive power in the back- department of the Government. ground. Lord Kitchener, it The Governor-General-in-Counappears (Commander-in-Chief's cil is the supreme authority in

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