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all. For convenience of busi- and to whose notice he is bound ness the work is distributed to bring any order or matter among the Members of Council. which he thinks requires conThe Viceroy takes the Foreign sideration. In addition to this Office portfolio. Another mem- safeguard there are rules of ber takes the Financial work. practice which ensure that Another the Home Office. An the heads of Provinces shall other the Public Works, and so not be overridden without the on. Finally the Military Mem- Governor-General's concurrence. ber, who has always been a Every Governor, Lieutenantsoldier, takes charge of matters Governor, and Chief Commisconnected with the Army. But sioner, moreover, and à fortiori there is another Extraordinary the Commander-in-Chief, has Member of the Council, the Com- immediate access to the Govermander-in-Chief, who hitherto nor-General by letter, or, if has had no special department possible, by word of mouth,assigned to him. He is the a privilege which, so far as the executive head of the Army, heads of Provinces are and his position on the Council cerned, is freely exercised. If has been rather for the pur- the Commander-in-Chief, who pose of advising the Govern- is constantly with the Goverment of India on military nor - General and sits on the matters and of adding to the Council, does not communicate dignity of his office, than for freely with his Excellency when the despatch of any particular he thinks his work is delayed business.

or impeded in the departments It is impossible, and it would of the Government with which be absurd to attempt, to bring he has to deal, it is entirely his every detail of the administra- own fault. It will be

seen, tion before the whole Council. then, that the relation of the Hence it follows that each Commander - in - Chief to the member in


own depart. Governor-General - in - Council ment, the Military Member has been hitherto identical with as well as the others, must that of any of the Provincial dispose of many smaller ques- Governors to the same supreme tions and matters of routine. authority-with this difference, But he does this not of his own however, that he is given a authority, but as representing seat on the Council, and can the Government of India. There speak and vote in support of are sufficient safeguards against his own proposals, which none any misuse of this power. In of them can do. the first place, the Secretary in

see what are each department is not the the faults which Lord Kitsecretary to the member in chener finds in the system he charge, but the secretary to the has found existing in India, Government of India, and in and what is the organisation that capacity has direct access he proposes to substitute for it. to the Governor-General, upon The bugbear of “dual control” whom he waits once a-week, stands in the forefront of Lord

Let us


Kitchener's attack, as it does in power of selection for appointthe Secretary of State's initia- ments and for promotion, subtory despatch. “A great deal ject only to the right which of foolish criticism has of late every man has to appeal to the been poured forth regarding Governor-General - in - Council divided responsibility. This against alleged injustice, a right remark of Mr Forrest, in the which few officers in the army article already referred to, is would care to exercise except apt to the controversy in the in very extreme cases. The present case. In every effici. Military Department of the Govent Government there must be ernment has disposed of all busia division of labour, and there ness which must come up from must be a controlling power to the Commander-in-Chief to the co-ordinate the work of the Governor - General-in - Council, separate divisions.

Unless a and has also been intrusted with man is to be an autocrat, re- the administration of the great sponsible to no one, every spending departments which official must be subject to that exist to supply the army with controlling power. This divi- all it needs-ordnance, commis

business, sometimes sariat, transport, remounts, necessary even within a great clothing, military buildings, department of the Government, and fortifications. The responso long as it is a real well- sibility of the Commander-indefined division, is not “dual Chief on the one hand and that control” in the sense implied of the Military Department of by Lord Kitchener and Mr the Government on the other Brodrick. The test of an has been clearly defined. An organisation is whether it con- examination of Lord Kitfounds or defines responsibility. chener's minute will show that If the man responsible for con- what aggrieves him is not ceiving any particular measure, “dual control,” but control of or for failing to carry out any any sort. If his proposals are particular measure, be modified, or criticised, or reimmediately marked down, jected by the Government, then there is no dual control in the he raises the cry of “dual conbad sense.

When things are trol.” He points to the other so mixed up, as they are in Members of Council and asks if nearly every branch of English it is unnecessary to have a deadministration, that mis- partment of Government to chievous order or a failure in control the Members in charge action cannot be laid to the of the Home, Finance, and account of any one in particu- other departments of civil adlar, that is “dual control.” ministration, why is it neces

Now, in the Indian War Office sary to control the Commanderthere has been nothing of the in-Chief? The analogy is unkind. The Commander-in-Chief sound to start with, as those is at the head of the command Members of Council have no and discipline of the troops, separate executive functions. and has practically uncontrolled They are controlled, moreover,



in the exercise of their powers of Council. He places himself by the Governor-General and by as Commander-in-Chief on the the collective Council, and are same footing as regards the checked, as Lord Curzon points Government of India as the out, by the power and influ- Military Member of Council, ence of the Local Governments whereas his functions as Comwhom they cannot ignore, and mander-in-Chief are altogether to which there can be nothing apart from his seat on the analogous in the case of the Council. On the other hand, army. The fact is that Lord he separates the Military MemKitchener confuses his posi- ber from the Government. tion as Commander - in - Chief Thus he represents the military with his extraordinary and system existing in India by a anomalous position as Member diagram of this kind


Military Member responsible

Commander-in-Chief responfor the administrative,

sible for command and work of the army.

executive work. So far as the Military Member Commander-in-Chief, but not is concerned this is a false quá Commander-in-Chief: Lord division, as he has no separate Kitchener seems unable to existence and is part and parcel grasp the distinction. He of the Governor-General-in- says an analogous position in Council. So, indeed, is the England would be

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“ The Army Council would adds, "that any one in England оссиру a separate building would consider this an ideal from the Secretary of State; system of army administrathey would be held to be re- tion.” Probably not, but they sponsible for the efficiency of would very soon have the the army for war; and their Army Councillor out of the spokesman would be a member Cabinet. of the Cabinet co-equal with When Lord Kitchener talks the Secretary of State, but yet of the Military Member of receiving the orders of the Council as omnipotent in miliGovernment through the tary matters he is, we medium of the Secretary of compelled to say, exaggeratState. . .. I do not think," he ing. The Governor-General-in

are a


entente mean to England and had her wisdom got the better to France. From the point of of her feelings, she might have view of amenity, its value can discovered that Paul Jones hardly be over-estimated. It was no better than a buccaneer, is far more agreeable to live who would have been far more on good terms than on evil honest had he flown the black with our nearest neighbour. flag, and plundered whatever At last France and England craft he met. Few men have are well enough acquainted to ever been so thickly cloaked in take their pleasures in common, fancy dress. His name was and to profit by a commercial not Jones; he was

not interchange. The Rue de la American; he was

a fearless Paix, no doubt, rivals Bond marauder, not a leader of men ; Street in satisfaction, and there and he founded nothing of is no one, either French or Eng- greater consequence than his lish, who will not cross the own fortune. His exploits off Channel with a livelier sym- the coast of Scotland were the pathy and a more comfortable exploits of a burglar, and they mind than heretofore. But we failed; he cared so little for need not incur the disappoint- the cause he espoused that he ment, which will be inevitable, if was as ready to fight for we attach too great an import- Robespierre as he had been to ance to what is, after all, noth- accept the favour of Louis XVI. ing else than a spontaneous ex- But France, carried away by pression of private friendship. her feeling, saw a hero in the The politics of feeling are ruffian, and once

more illusseldom permanent, and often trated the danger of mixing up misleading A sudden out

out- sentiment with public affairs. burst of sentiment may

distort In this instance no harm was the truth, or wrap the common- done. It is not of the smallest est object in an atmosphere of consequence where the ashes of

A few days before Paul Jones are laid, or what French and English met at opinion is held concerning his Brest, the whole of France was exploits. Nevertheless,

the bending her knee before the enthusiasm which his vague shrine of Paul Jones, whose memory evoked is characterashes have been sent back to istic, and we must not look America. She did not ask who with too grave an eye upon Paul Jones was, or what he an attachment in which the achieved. She was content to heart is more deeply engaged accept the value which the than the head. The internewspapers put upon him, and change of vows, the swapping to believe for the moment that of hats, the emptying of beerhe was a valiant hero, the pots, the chanting of national saviour of his country, and the anthems, all take their part in founder of the American navy. the drama of friendship. But So she permitted his bones to when it comes to the pinch, comenter the Invalides, and she munity of interest is of greater paid what is left of him the account than them all, and if highest honour she could. And France and England play a



strong hand together in the of war and peace are arranged.
Conference which will presently He made of the occasion what
discuss the affairs of Morocco, he would; and if he heard
it will do more to strengthen cheers where there were
our alliance than the friendly cheers, if he overcharged his
meetings of many squadrons. account with a too ready en-
There was, however, one thusiasm, he did but act after

, element in the Portsmouth his kind, and, fortunately, he fêtes which must not be for- was powerless to do harm. gotten. They have introduced a new character into English At the other Portsmouth, in diplomacy. The man in the New Hampshire, the journalist's street has been permitted to opportunity was greater and do his best to affect the fate more hazardous. In England of nations, and thus democracy we knew what would be the has advanced another step in result of the meeting before her triumphal progress.

Time Admiral Caillard set sail. The was when diplomacy was the representatives of Japan and most silent of the arts. Repre- Russia, on

Repre- Russia, on the other hand, sentatives of rival States met met in America to perform a in secret, and in secret dis- delicate and uncertain task, cussed the grave affairs of Their decision, had they arrived which none but they and their at one, would have affected the masters had cognisance. Now lives and fortunes of many and again a too pushing jour- thousands, and one might have nalist waylaid a document, as thought that dignity and sindid Blowitz at Berlin; but cerity should have been the breaches of confidence were essence of their proceedings. rare, and the world knew Unfortunately, the dignity and nothing of the deliberations sincerity have been all on one until their result was officially side. The demeanour of the Japannounced. This method of anese has been beyond praise. procedure was at once digni- They have shown in the Counfied and practical, and we can- cil the same energy, the same not but regret that the people reticence, which they have is attempting to usurp the hitherto displayed in the functions of diplomacy. But field. They have gravely at

. so long as the French Squadron tended to the serious question was in English waters, the of peace, which brought them Press and the sailors took to Portsmouth, without atthe matter in hand. At rare tempting to win over to their intervals, it is true, the dis- side the gentlemen of the Press. cussion was carried to a higher And let it not be supposed that level; but statesmen were easily the distinguished representaeclipsed by the crowd, and the tives of Russia and Japan are journalists had their own way. allowed to meet unnoticed. Portsmouth, indeed, was the When they arrived at Ports

, paradise of the special corre- mouth they found 120 special spondent, for whose benefit it correspondents waiting for seems that all the pageants them. Baron Komura was by

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