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are not great. The experience really an education in itself. of the Japanese navy during It is noteworthy that by such the present war has proved a competent observer as Prothat steam fleets in time of fessor Main of the Portsmouth war pass quite as much time College the men produced in at sea as did the sailing fleets. the past were considered to It is believed that the crews of have an extraordinary capacity certain ships did not set foot for hard mental work when on shore for months.

Ships a distinct object was to be may be somewhat less uncom- gained. fortable now than they were in the past, but life on land is It will be interesting and usenow more luxurious, so that ful to trace the gradual change the differences between life in naval education which has afloat and ashore are taken place during the last changed. It is this that tells— century. At the close of the the restraint and confinement French war in 1815 cadets especially-rather than the ab- were entered between the ages solute amount of discomfort. of 121 and 14.

Some were Another well - known and sent straight to sea, others to important advantage of going the college at Portsmouth

sea young is that boys where they underwent a course acquire quickly the habit of of instruction for two years. command and a knowledge of Between the two classes existed men and things, coupled with much antagonism, doubtless a quickness of eye and a readi- due to the diverging lines of ness of resource which do not thought produced

by difference come so easily later in life. of training, and not allayed by This argument only holds in the advantages accruing to the the case of those who are successful “Collegians. These allowed to take their proper advantages varied from time share in the duties of the ship, to time. At one period the as was the practice in the past. cadet who passed out first was Unfortunately there arose awarded a gold medal, which custom of abandoning this carried with it a lieutenant's practical training in favour of commission on passing in seamere book knowledge. This manship at the age of nineteen. was brought about largely by This was found to be too great the pressure of men who, hay- a prize to be won at the age ing little or no sea experience, of fourteen or fifteen, and was were unable to appreciate the abolished. In 1835 the maxivalue of practical training. mum reward to the most These argued that naval officers successful cadet was a silver were not taught to think under medal and

one year's time. the old system.

It was for- After serving six years at sea, gotten that they were trained including any sea time allowed to observe, and acquired habits for meritorious passing out of of order and a knowledge of the college, and being nineteen men and things which years of age, they were

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amined viva voce to ascertain fell the Crimean War, and the whether their practical know- changes from sail to steam, ledge was sufficient to qualify from smooth-bores to rifled them for the charge of a ship guns, from wooden ships of the at sea.

No other qualifications line to armoured battleships. were required. Beyond the If war had been studied, and above two years at the Ports- higher education of the right mouth College — which was kind properly encouraged, durabolished in 1837 -- and the ing the period 1839-59, the desultory instruction given by reader is asked to reflect on naval instructors to the limited the difference in

progress number of midshipmen borne in which might have resulted large ships, no further educa- during the eventful period tional facilities were given. 1859-85,-between 1859, when The officers produced were good the Warrior, the first ironclad, practical seamen, and the so- was laid down, and 1885, when called “Collegians” possessed the imminence of war with a grounding in mathematics, Russia exposed the backward navigation, and cognate sub- state of the navy and initijects; but the majority lacked ated the naval renaissance. the knowledge of the higher Quite twenty years are rebranches of their profession, quired to give full effect to including war, which their pre- radical changes in an educadecessors had acquired during tional system. Would minds the long struggles of the trained to deal with the fundaeighteenth century. War and mental principles of war have its requirements dropped more clung to sails quite so long? or and more out of sight during misreading the lessons of the the long peace.

The leading American Civil War, have sancmen were left to educate them- tioned the building of ships fit selves, and did so. The Admir- only for coast defence ? or have alty gave them no assistance failed to acquire a thorough or encouragement until 1839, knowledge of the new motive when men began to have a power? or have depreciated glimmering of the necessity the efforts of the late Admiral for a higher education. The Colomb to direct naval thought Portsmouth College was then to the study of tactics and reopened, not for cadets but strategy? It is a noteworthy for certain number of fact that the neglect to study officers and mates who were war systematically continued to be instructed for one year. until the year 1900, when the The education given was nar- Board of Admiralty directed row, and was limited chiefly a

to be started to mathematics, navigation, at Greenwich College. It is astronomy, steam, and fortifica- true that the Order of Jantion. War was not studied, uary 1873 establishing the Coland the importance of naval his- lege for the higher education tory was quite unappreciated. of naval officers contained this

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considerable Indian experience of State goes on to explain and of administrative capacity, that in the efforts to obtain and intimately acquainted with efficiency there will be an inthe characteristics of the Na- crease of strain on officers and tive Army. If the Commander- men, and that certain in-Chief is an Indian Army amount of self-sacrifice on the officer, the Supply Member part of all ranks may be need not apparently possess called for. In plain words, any of these qualifications, the constant hard work at not even the administrative manoeuvres and fatigue duties, capacity. But what is he to while it may be exacted from do with his experience and a conscript army, may render capacity? He is by no means the service unpopular and stop to advise the Government on recruiting. There are rumours military matters. The Indian already of this tendency. experience and knowledge of the Listen, therefore, to the words Native Army which the Com- of the India Office: “It is mander-in-Chief may lack is highly desirable, in an organto be supplied by the officers isation like the Indian Army,

the Headquarters Staff. that the measures which may “While it is desirable," the be necessary for this purpose Secretary of State says, “that [i.e., increased efficiency) should the Commander-in-Chief should not be undertaken, or even inbe the sole expert adviser of dicated, without careful expert the Government on purely consideration at headquarters; military questions, it appears and it is clear that the necesto be of great importance that sary precautions in carrying adequate experience and ad- out such measures should not vice should be ready to his depend on the foresight of one hand at the inception of all officer in the military hierarchy his proposals." Could any- alone.” Surely some mischievthing more fatuous have been ous devil, printer's or other, written? It “appears to be of must have inserted this paragreat importance” that a man graph in an otherwise feeble without any experience of the and confused despatch. For native soldiery should not be certainly nothing stronger has gin experimenting with the been advanced by Lord Curzon Indian Army without proper and his colleagues in proof of advioe. This is certainly & the necessity of retaining the

a great discovery. In view of Military Member of Council, it, it is difficult to justify the with the full power of critisubstitution of the advice of oising the Commander-in-Chief's subordinates, who will cer- proposals. tainly not oppose the omni- Mr Brodriok thinks that potent Commander, for the these measures will put an independent criticism ensured end to the present conflict of by the present system. In authorities. We believe, on a similar tone the Secretary the contrary, that there will

worse

be under this new arrangement couched in the most imperative more friction than before, only it tones, the Governor-Generalwill be higher up in the machine in-Council represented to the of Government. It will now Secretary of State that unless be between the Governor-Gen- the scheme was modified in imeral-in-Council and the Com- portant particulars it would mander-in-Chief; or,

be unworkable in operation, still, between the Commander- that it would imperil the conin-Chief and the Viceroy him- trol of the Governor-General-inself. The Commander-in-Chief Council, and impose an undue

will resent the performance burden on the Viceroy, while of his duty by the Secretary depriving him of indispensto Government in the Army able advice. Accordingly Lord Department, if it leads to the Curzon proposed the following criticism of his actions. The modifications : Firstly, that Secretary will be a soldier, the Supply Member should be and if he has any military a soldier. Secondly, that he ambition he will be severely should be available for official tried between his anxiety to consultation on all military please the Commander-in-Chief, questions without distinction, with whom his promotion will and not only upon questions rest, and his duty to the of general policy. Thirdly, Viceroy. The conversion of that he and the Commanderthe Commander-in-Chief into in-Chief should meet on a Member of Council in charge Committee, which is to conof a department is not likely sist apparently of the chief to work. The position, in our officers of the Headquarters opinion, will be very difficult Staff, to which all important for Lord Minto, the new Vice- changes in military organisaroy, whose tact and ability tion or conditions of service of will be tried to the utmost, all ranks, or in customs affectand to whom we wish every ing the Native Army, by whomsuccess in the arduous task he soever originated, shall be subhas undertaken.

mitted. Fourthly, that the It has been announced, how. Secretary to the Government ever, that certain modifications in the new Army Departof the Secretary of State's ment shall have the rank of orders have been conceded by major-general, and shall be Mr Brodrick, at Lord Curzon's subject to the

same

rules instance, and acquiesced in by and have the same position, Lord Kitchener. We have no independent of the Member in means of knowing the nature of charge, as in other departthese concessions except from ments

of the Government. the report of Lord Curzon's Finally, that there shall be speech in Council at Simla, on drawn up a definite schedule the 20th of July last. It ap- of all cases in the Army Depears that on the receipt of Mr partment, which the Secretary Brodrick's orders, which were must submit to the Viceroy

VOL CLXXVIII. —NO. MLXXIX.

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before orders can be passed. hardly understood the GoverThese proposals, which had nor-General's wishes. He is Lord Kitchener's concurrence, determined that the Military were accepted by the Secretary Supply Member shall not posof State, who affirmed in the sess the standing and reputaface of the solemn declaration tion which alone would give of the opinion of His Majesty's weight to his advice. Lord Government set forth in para- Curzon may have the Second graph 15 of the despatch of Military Adviser on his Coun31st May, already quoted, that cil, but he shall be a they were in accordance with more versed in the supply of the provisions of that despatch, stores and drafting of conand in some respects “were in tracts than in war and military exact fulfilment of his wishes." affairs. The ship is to have

. “We were very glad,” says a pilot, but the pilot is to Lord Curzon, “to make this know more of the highroads discovery." Mr Brodrick had than of the sea. laid down in paragraphs 15 Secondly, the essence of that and 25 of his despatch, that change is the new position in future the Commander-in- given to the Commander-inChief should be the sole expert Chief. As a Member of Counadviser of the Government on cil in charge of the Army Depurely military questions. He partment, he will deal with has now agreed that the new

the cases
that come up

from Supply Member may be con- Army Headquarters and presulted on all military questions pare them for the Council. . without distinction, and states He will make proposals as that this is quite in accord- Commander - in - Chief (to inance with his previous order. struct the native troops, for No wonder that the Govern- example, in hutting and carment of India received this pentering), and as the Govintimation with joyful aston- ernment of India he will be ishment. Their rejoicing, how- able to pass them. Unless the ever, was premature.

Secretary in the Army DeBut it would be a mistake to partment does his duty and suppose that these concessions submits the case to the Viceon the part of the Secretary roy, the matter may remain of State, even if they were unknown to the Governorthoroughly carried out, do General- in - Council until it more than diminish the danger appears in Army Orders. If involved in his scheme as it the Secretary discharges his stood. The change in the Con- duty, his relations with the stitution of the Government Commander-in-Chief as memof India effected by it is not ber in charge will be strained. less vital. In the first place, And if the proposal is negait is evident from the action tived by the Governor-Generalwhich has driven Lord Curzon in-Council, there will be the to resign that Mr Brodrick has

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