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as before. Moreover, the new posals which will eat up the

Supply Member, who is to ad- revenues. Even with the safeMilit

vise the Governor-General-in- guards hitherto existing there Council on military matters, has been a growing tendency will not see the papers un- to treat India as a great outless the Viceroy marks them work of the Empire, to sub

to him. He will not ordinate her real interests to SAM

them in the course of busi- that view, and to make the Es Cou

the Military Mem- Indian people pay the whole ber saw them. If the Com- cost. "Whether the system

mander-in-Chief rebelled against thus modified," said Lord pply:

the criticism of the Military Curzon, “will be in any way of ou

Member, he will still more superior to that with which we nilite

keenly resent a call made by have been hitherto familiar,

the Viceroy for the opinion and whether it will possess any is 1

of the new Supply Member, permanent vitality, the future hross

whose position and prestige alone will show. We have seen

as a soldier Mr Brodrick has so many schemes for military f the

done his best to destroy. organisation rise and fall dursitix

On the other hand, Lord ing recent years (hard this on er-1

Kitchener has not got all he Mr Brodrick) that prophecy is Cous

wants. Lord Lansdowne is dangerous. The new scheme

quite proud of “our absolute is not of our creation. All we wi:

refusal to listen to Lord Kit- have been in a position to do is from chener's proposal to put an

to effect the removal of some of end to the Military Member its most apparent anomalies, of Council.” The cry of dual and to place its various parts

control will shortly be raised in more scientific relation to in

again, as the Military Member each other.”—(Speech at Simla, for

under his new name will cer- July 20.)
tainly be accused of needless We had hoped that the

criticism and unwarranted in- matter would have been arbe

terference with the head of ranged so as to enable Lord he

the army. Nevertheless, Lord Curzon to remain in India un

Kitchener has made a great til next April, and to see his d

step in advance. Instead of many large schemes of reform submitting his schemes to the brought to greater if not to head of a department, over full maturity. The difference whom he had no power, he will of opinion, however, between submit them to himself as the the Viceroy and the Secretary Member in charge of the Army of State was irreconcilable, alDepartment. He will be both though both men thought for author and critic, and will be a time that a modus vivendi in a much stronger position to had been found. It was hardly force his views on the Council. to have been expected that Lord From the Financial Depart. Curzon would have endured the ment alone can resistance be slight put upon him and his looked for to military pro- Council by the decision of the

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desire to his cherished because his opinions on the schemes placed on a safe foot- most important questions will ing induced him to continue in from lack of experience and office, in spite of his suffering standing carry no weight. On health and the additional work this question Lord Curzon has forced upon him of organising resigned. That the real intera great constitutional change ests of India have been sacriof which he was unable to ap- ficed to the Cabinet's ideas of prove. It would perhaps have military administration will be been better in many ways if he held by many as well as by us. had resigned then. As it is, With many of his great reit is open to his detractors to forms just ripening to complesay that he has thrown up tion, Lord Curzon's resignation office because the Secretary of at this time is a public misState would not accept his fortune. He has displayed in nomination of the new Member the government of India great of Council. The question, how- courage, stupendous industry, ever, is not a personal one. and a genius for administration The issue is whether the Gover- rarely equalled. His countrynor-General-in-Council is to

men will sympathise with him in have as colleague a soldier who the manner in which his resigis competent to give a sound nation has been brought about, opinion on all military matters, and will not forget those who or one who is to be chosen are responsible for it.

.

(P.S.-Saturday, Aug. 26, 1905.-As we go to press this morning the newspapers publish a telegraphio summary of a minute said to have been published at Simla by Lord Kitchener and of Lord Curzon's reply. It is not easy to understand from the summary the exact points of dispute between the Commander-in-Chief and the Viceroy, nor are we concerned with them at present. What we wish to emphasise is the fact that the constitutional changes ordered by the Cabinet have already had the effect of lowering the position of the Governor-Generalin-Council. Until the present time it would have been incredible that the Commander-in-Chief should have published or have asked for the publication of a minute criticising statements made by the Viceroy in a telegram to the Secretary of State for India, or that the Viceroy should have considered himself obliged to answer those criticisms in a public manner. Such a procedure seems to us to show the extent to which the position of the Governor-General-in-Council, as the supreme authority in India, has been impaired by the ill-advised action of the Home Government. All that has been said in our article is justified by these more recent and painful developments.]

Printed by William Blackwood and Sons.

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BY THE AUTHOR OF “A RETROGRADE ADMIRALTY."

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To the superficial mind no the wooden two-decker, and the two things can appear more Victory was as much a machine unlike than the sailing - ship as is the modern Edward VII. of the line and the armoured From the point of view of their battleship. They differ widely care, maintenance, and managein all that appeals to the eye- ment, the difference between in general appearance, in struc- the old machine and the new ture, in motive power, and in one lies in the source whence the material of which they are the motive power is derived, built. But to the thoughtful and in the mechanism by means seaman who regards both the of which that power communiwooden sailing - ship and the cates motion to the ship. The steel steam-ship as an instru- wind has yielded to steam as ment of war, these are differ- the motive power. The mechences of detail. In his view anism has changed from the they are alike in the funda- masts, yards, rigging, and sails mental fact that each is a of the past to the engines floating gun-carriage, and that and propellers of the present; each is not only a ship but it is of a different kind but a machine, differing in kind, it is equally complicated. The may be, but still a machine, network of ropes and blocks --the sailing-ship equally with aloft has been replaced by the steamer. The modern war- the labyrinth of pipes and vessel is as much a ship as was

valves below, but no great VOL. CLXXVIII. —NO. MLXXX.

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difference exists in the extent indicate in amount and extent and scope of the knowledge re- the needs of the officers of the quired to deal with these two steam navy in this direction. widely

unlike mechanisms. The naval officers of the past Each requires to be kept in were satisfied to possess a suffiorder. The marling-spike may cient knowledge of the ship, have made way for the file; her armament and equipment, knotting and splicing may have to ensure using her to the best given place to making joints advantage.

advantage. They concerned and packing glands; but the themselves with her working time, care, and attention re- and management rather than quired to keep the machines with her construction. They efficient are the same whether did not pretend to be proficient they are sails or engines. in knotting and splicing or in Again, each has to be worked. sail-making, but their knowReefing topsails in a gale of ledge was sufficient to enable wind on

à dark night may them to supervise the work, seem a very different operation and to see that it was properly from driving an engine, but the done by the boatswain and the skill and knowledge required able seamen whose business it are not unequal in degree, al- was. It is true that a few though they are totally differ- individual officers were skilful ent in kind, and can only be in these matters, but they were acquired at the expense of an exceptions, and such of these equal amount of time, care, as were in the front rank were and attention. Whether with not held to be so for that sails or steam, the skill and

Precisely the knowledge principally needed amount of knowledge is necesare of a practical order, and sary to naval officers if they can only be acquired by actual are to use the modern ship to contact and use. The best and the best advantage. They remost competent seamen and quire to concern themselves engineers have supplemented with the working and managetheir practical experience by ment of every part of her rather an exact knowledge of princi- than with construction and deples, but the great majority sign. It is no more their busiof steamers as of sailing-ships ness now to be skilled mechanics have been worked efficiently by and rival the engine-room artifimen with little beyond prac- cers, than it was in the past tical experience. It is not to to emulate the boatswain and be expected that the ordinary the able seamen, who were the practice will ever be otherwise. skilled mechanics of the sail

If the resemblance in aim or ing navy. Their business is a intention between the mechan- higher one. Their raison d'être isms of the sailing-ship and the is war. steamer is fundamentally 80 The ship of war is something close, the knowledge of its more than an ordinary ship. working possessed by the offi- She is primarily an instrument cers of the sailing navy may of war, and as such is a means

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to an end. The arrangements nor to the bravery of words, except
for moving her are important, it be corroborate by custom."
but less so than the way in After giving instances of the
which she is used. The work-
ing of the sails or machinery

predominancy and tyranny of is entirely secondary to ques

custom, he proceeds :tions which govern the fighting Therefore, since custom is the -to tactics, to strategy, to the principal magistrate of man's life, let discipline and spirit of the men by all means endeavour to ob. crews, and, in fact, to all that is most perfect when it beginneth in

tain good customs. Certainly custom is embraced under the general young years ; this we call education, term, “conduct of war.” In which is in effect but an early these fundamental matters the custom. So we see, in languages the change in the motive power has tongue is more pliant in all expresnot introduced any

sions and sounds, the joints are more alteration

supple to all feats of activity and in principles. To a complete motions in youth than afterwards.” practical knowledge of their ships, and of everything in Who can doubt the truth of them, officers must therefore these words ? The irksome add wide and thorough nature of a sea life to the knowledge of war.

majority of those who embark The foregoing arguments, if late is a notorious and welltrue, seem to indicate that the known fact. Nothing is more system of training which pro- pronounced and continuous on duced the Hawkes, Ansons, the part of such officers than Rodneys, St Vincents, and their anxiety to get shore Nelsons of the past, may be appointments. The difference a safe guide for the future. is very marked between EngThat system was based on

lish officers who go to sea early the idea that he who goes and those of other nationalities down to the sea in ships should who do not. Not long since become early accustomed to a

an international squadron was sea life, and should possess a

assembled in the same waters practical working knowledge for several months.

Foreign of a ship and everything it observers remarked of it that contains.

the British officers appeared The general importance of to be happy and contented, custom has never been more

whereas the others were quite forcibly put than by Francis the reverse, and were longing Bacon in the following passages to get home. The remark was from his

essay on Custom and just. The reason is believed to Education":

have been that the majority “Men's thoughts are much accord- of the former had become acing to their inclination ; their dis- customed to a sea life at an course and speeches according to early age. their learning and infused opinions ; It but their deeds are after as they are not as long at sea as were

may

be said that steamers have been accustomed. And there. fore, as Machiavelli well noteth, there sailing-ships, and that the disis no trusting to the force of nature comforts of a modern sea life

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