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have given it as our opinion On March 10 the Japanese that, in spite of the assurances officially entered Mukden.

On from correspondents in Japan, the same date Kawamura, inin spite of the fact that the stead of falling from the skies Japanese have held funeral and overwhelming Linievitch, rites for a specified number of entered Fu-shun. With the departed souls, we cannot be- occupation of Mukden, the lieve that an organisation so ancient capital of the Manchu crafty and careful in its dissem- dynasty, it may be said that ination of military news would the military campaign ended, have gratuitously handed to its since the recent conclusion of enemy a correct statement of peace has rendered it impossible its losses. We will refer the either for the Russians to rereader, who may be sceptical establish their military prestige of the truth of our assertions, or for the Japanese to add to to the quotation which we have their laurels on land. This used from the Japanese officer being the case, it will not be who was with Nogi on Kuro- necessary to follow in much patkin's right flank. You will detail the events which followed note that he states that the the battle of Mukden. On battalions in his division were March 16 the Japanese, after reduced to the strength of one unsuccessful attempt, occompanies. There is one point cupied Tieling, the Russians that we notice in a consecutive having evacuated before them. study of Japan's methods of On the following day Kuroconducting operations which is patkin relieved of his here worthy of comment. It command, and his place taken is the remarkable manner in by General Linievitch, and on which their staff manages to March 21 the Japanese occuequally distribute the stress of pied Chang-tu-fu. This latter battle through every unit in occupation, to all military inthe army. Therefore we may tents and purposes, marks the take it as granted that the limit of the Japanese military officer whom we have already occupation in Manchuria. quoted did not belong to a From the moment that they division which during the lost Mukden, the whole of the battle of Mukden was engaged Russian hopes for the time to a degree out of proportion being centred in their fleet, to other units in the entire which, under Rojdestvensky, army. This reflection, coupled had arrived on March 17 at with the verbatim expression Nossé Bay. The history of of opinion of expert European this fleet and its disastrous soldiers who were present at the voyage

to the Far East, battle, leads us to believe that culminating

its total the success at Mukden cost the annihilation in the Straits of Japanese in casualties at least Tsushima, have already been as much as it cost their enemy. dealt with in these pages.


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It may be accepted as be well fitted to hold the general truth that the states- highest office, whenever the man, like the poet, is born and opportunity should arrive. not made. When Wolsey left Born in 1759, that year of

, Ipswich for Oxford, he had stress and glory, which saw neither thought nor prospect the triumph of our English of governing his country and arms in Canada, which boasted his king. It was native genius, the victories of Clive and Coote not training, which placed in India, which witnessed the Oliver Cromwell at the head splendid achievement of Hawke of affairs; and Chatham him- in Quiberon Bay, William Pitt self was cornet of horse grew up an ardent, acquisitive before he found his true career boy, in an atmosphere of learnin politics. But William Pitting and patriotism. Not even the Younger was made as well ill-health availed to check his as born

Minister. From progress, and he gained so easy his earliest childhood he was a mastery over Greek and educated to achieve a certain Latin that, in the words of end, to fulfil a definite purpose. his earliest tutor, “he never His natural gifts for literature seemed to learn, but only to and politics were assiduously recollect.” The method which encouraged by his ambitious his father persuaded him to father, who was determined follow in his studies was far that his favourite son should in advance of his time. He



2 T



read the classics, not as exer- “The tragedy is bad, of course," cises in philology, but as ex- said Lord Macaulay, who was amples of the greatest poetry fortunate enough to have seen and the loftiest eloquence; and it, “but not worse than the the epics and histories of old tragedies of Hayley. This piece were as real to him, from his is still preserved at Chevening, youth upwards, as they were and is in some respects highly to Montaigne. But in his curious. There is no love. The father's eyes it was not enough whole plot is political; and it for the boy to understand is remarkable that the interest, Virgil and Thucydides; he such as it is, turns on a contest must their works as about a regency. On one side means to acquire readiness of is a faithful servant of the speech and a quick faculty of Crown; on the other an amselection in his own tongue; bitious and unprincipled conand Lord Chatham would urgespirator. At length the King, him to turn passages from who had been missing, rewhatever book he was study- appears, resumes his power, ing into English, without pre- and rewards the faithful demeditation. That he might fender of his rights. A reader learn to declaim, he was set to who should judge only by recite pages from Milton and internal evidence, would have Shakespeare; and, when yet a no hesitation in pronouncing child, he was trained to act that the play was written by upon the stage of the drawing- some Pittite poetaster, at the room, though all the training time of the rejoicing for the in the world could never endue recovery of George the Third him with his father's histrionic in 1789.” In a brief fifteen talent. It is not strange, years Pitt was asked to enact therefore, that his first, and the same play in grim earnest, almost his only, experiment in and it is among the strangest literature was a tragedy in ironies of history that he thus five acts, called "Laurentius, rehearsed in sport a most diffiKing of Clarinium”; nor was cult crisis of his life. he content to write it — he William Pitt was played a part and spoke the boy, but had he been, the stern prologue. The earliest attempts instruction of his father would of great men to express them- surely have checked the careselves in words are not in- less rapture of boyhood. frequently prophetic of their seems to have been part of

The essay which Chatham's design to treat him Napoleon wrote at school is always as a grown man. When an eloquent denunciation of he was no more than eleven we ambition, "a violent, unreflect- find Chatham sending him a ing madness”; and Pitt's play, letter by Junius," as a specimen composed when he was thirteen of oratory”; and with the same years

of age, seems to have purpose he recommended him been written with an eye fixed to study the works of Barrow, intently upon


future. a copious author by whose ex

never a



the son.



ample the father was far better

Such as he is,” says

his fitted by nature to profit than father, and he was such as no

It is not remarkable, other boy was before or since therefore, that when Pitt was has been. Precocity in the entered at Pembroke Hall in arts which are nourished at 1773 he was superior in wisdom the fire of genius, is less unand attainments to the most common than in those pursuits of his older contemporaries. A whose success demands study child in years, he was already and patience.

We are

not a man in judgment, and pre- surprised that Pope lisped in pared to take advantage of all numbers ; confess the scholarship which the Uni. amazement that Rancé should versity could afford. What have published an edition of manner of boy he was his father Anacreon at twelve years of has himself set down in a letter age. Pitt's achievement readdressed to Mr Turner, senior sembles Rance's more nearly tutor of Pembroke Hall, which than Pope's. At fourteen he in no way exaggerates Pitt's was already something of a marvellous qualities. It is dated scholar, and very much of a at Burton Pynsent, October 3, politician. During the seven 1773, and thus it runs :

years which he spent at Cam

bridge, he devoted himself to “SIR, -- Apprehensions of gout, the study of the Classics with about this Season, forbid my under- an ardour which not even illtaking a journey to Cambridge with

health could abate. He read my Son. I regret this more particularly, as it deprives me of an oc. everything in Greek or Latin casion of being introduced to your

that he could lay hands upon, Personal Acquaintance, and that of and he translated Lycophon at the gentlemen of your Society, a loss, first sight with an ease, says I shall much wish to repair, at some other time. Mr Wilson, whose ad- Pretyman, “which, if I had mirable instruction and affectionate not witnessed it, I should have Care have brought my Son, early, to thought beyond the compass receive such further advantages, as of human intellect.” The only he cannot fail to find, under your eye, will present Him to you. He is of

encouragement that ever be a tender age, and of a health not yet

needed was an encouragement firm enough to be indulged, to the to idleness, and this his father full, in the strong desire he has to

gave him in his own magniloacquire useful knowledge. An in- quent style. “All you want genious mind and docility of temper will, I know, render him conformable

at present,” wrote he, “is to your discipline, in all points. Too quiet; with this, if your ardour young for the irregularities of a man, ápotetelv can be kept in till

αριστεύειν I trust he will not, on the other

you stronger, you will hand, prove troublesome by the

make noise enough,

How Puerile sallies of a Boy. Such as he is, I am happy to place him at Pem- happy the task, my noble, broke ; and I need not say how much amiable boy, to caution you of his Parents

' Hearts goes along with only against pursuing too much him.-I am, with great esteem and all those liberal and praiseregard, Sir, your most faithful and worthy things, to which less most obedient humble servant,

, “CHATHAM." happy natures are perpetually


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to be spurred and driven! temporaries. Yet party spirit, You have time to spare; con- eager to conceal the truth, sider there is but the Encyclo- has declared that Pitt pedia, and when you have ill-versed in Greek and Latin. mastered all that what will The evidence on the other side remain ? You will want, like is overwhelming, and the libel Alexander, another world to may fittingly be refuted here. conquer." It was not long, “Lord Grenville (himself an exindeed, before he wanted this cellent Grecian) has often told other world, and he found it, me," wrote Wellesley to Croker, where his father had bade him " that he considered Mr Pitt seek, in politics.

to be the best Greek scholar But it was not merely for (not professional) of his time. their own sakes that Pit de- Mr Pitt was perfect master of voted himself to the study of Demosthenes, of whose orations Greek and Latin. In his time I have repeatedly heard him the Classics were regarded as recite whole pages, dwelling the highway to statesmanship. on all the grand bursts of The historians and orators of thunder and lightning.” PretyAthens and Rome were wisely man, whose testimony on such thought to contain the best a point is above suspicion, is inspiration for the modern in perfect agreement with politician, and, since no speech Wellesley. He tells us that was perfect without a classical Pitt had an intuitive quickness quotation, Virgil and Horace in the interpretation of difficult were added to the simple cur- passages. “I am persuaded," riculum. In the latter half of said he, “if a play of Menander the eighteenth century few or Æschylus, or an ode of men rose to eminence in Par- Pindar, had been suddenly liament who were not deeply found, he would have undertinctured with learning. The stood it as soon as any prothird Duke of Grafton found a fessed scholar." That which yet better solace in the Classics his friends assert receives an than in the society of Nancy efficient corroboration from his Parsons. Fox beguiled the own speeches; and though the enforced leisure of opposition exigent demands of practical by reading Porson's editions life perforce diminished Pitt's of Euripides' “Orestes” and interest in literature, he carried “Hecuba." Our universities away from Cambridge a better knew no more elegant or more knowledge of Greek and Latin finely polished scholar than than belonged to many whose Lord Mornington. And Wil- scholarship was their career, liam Pitt was in no way in- and he could meet even such referior to the best of his con- doubtable opponents as Charles


Among the papers preserved at Dropmore is a letter from Lord Mornington to William Grenville, perfectly characteristic of the men and the time. “I am glad you have returned to Latin and Greek,” writes Mornington. “I hope when I come to London to form some plan with you in that way which may be pleasant and serviceable to us both."

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