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scribe, because they have not procured a specimen. It is remarkable for the great breadth of its wings. The color is brown, except the tail, which is barred with white. He complains, that the red-tailed hawk is unfortunately named F. borealis, since it is rare in northern regions, and quite abundant in the southern ; he probably speaks comparatively, for in Massachusetts it is not uncommon in the depth of our woods. It now appears, that the bird to which he gave the name of little corporal (Falco temerarius), is the young of the pigeon-hawk, and was inistaken for a distinct species, on account of the difference of color and the great inferiority of
The black warrior, which was at first questioned, is now admitted to be a distinct species ; but Stanley's hawk is acknowledged to belong to the same species with that called Cooper's hawk by Bonaparte, who became first acquainted with it from Mr. Audubon's drawing. In his account of the rough-legged falcon, he makes some interesting remarks respecting the migration of birds. He had, like others, observed, that young birds, reared in high latitudes, seemed disposed to go further South than their parents, in order to secure climates suited to their tender age. The old birds of some species, after they have acquired full firmness and strength, never leave the countries in which they have fixed their residence; the old gyrfalcon seldom goes further South than Labrador, and its young are contented with the genial warmth of the winter of Maine. The old peregrine falcon goes as far South as Carolina, while its more effeminate young spend the winter in South America. He thinks it established, that the young of all those, which, in mature age, breed in the far North, will be found to remain, for the same purpose, at a greater or less distance from their own birthplace, according to their strength and age. Therefore the young of the gyrfalcon will breed in Labrador more than the adult, which is able to go to more northern regions. The same might be expected of the peregrine falcon ; and accordingly, he found the young birds of this species further South than the old ones ; very few of those patriarchs had stopped in Labrador, while it was not unusual to meet with the nests and young of more youthful housekeepers. In France, and the south of England, he has observed, that the nightingales heard in late and cold springs are the best singers, whereas, in mild seasons, there was a great variety in the richness of their song. It was explained by supposing, that only a few young birds appeared in cold seasons, the greater proportion remaining to breed in warmer countries. Should these remarks prove correct, it will explain why the old rough-legged falcon should never have been found in the south of Europe or America.
Mr. Audubon has also made general observations with respect to the colors of the plumage in birds of different ages, which, if confirmed by observation, may prevent our mistaking the same bird, at different periods of life, for two of distinct species, an error into which ornithologists have often fallen. As to the rough-legged falcon, he says, that the younger birds will be found of lighter tints than the old, and that these tints become, as is always the case, stronger and more decided, as they advance in age. In the hawk family, the younger the bird, the lighter are its markings, and when they either gain or lose bands on the tail, the prevailing color, whether barred or not, becomes firmer and clearer. The colors of an old bird may be either lighter or darker than those of the young, till the young have acquired their full plumage ; still the difference spoken of will appear ; the young of light-colored birds are generally of a different character, that is, darker, — while, in cases where the adult is dark-colored, the young are more nearly like their seniors. He has observed, that, in birds which are able to reach high latitudes for the purpose of breeding, the coloring is superior to that of others, which could not go so far.
We have here presented to us some new species of tern, one of which, shot by Mr. Audubon, near New Orleans, he has called Havells (Sterna Havelli), in compliment to bis engraver, who, he says, deserves it better than many to whom such honors have been paid. Trudeau's tern (S. Trudeaui) was procured at Great Egg Harbour, in New Jersey, by the gentleman whose name it bears. Mr. Audubon says, that, having taken several specimens of the marsh tern of America, and compared them with the gull-billed tern of Colonel Montagu's collection in the British Museum, which was procured in the South of England, there was no doubt of the identity of the two. The latter is said to resort, from preference, to lakes, marshes, and rivers ; and our tern, as its name denotes, rejoices in marshes likes those at the mouth of the Mississippi, where it arrives in spring, from Texas, flying over the borders of the sea.
Their flight is very graceful ; ihey swim lightly, but not fast, and, when taken, only attempt to bite the hand without trying to escape by diving. They live wholly on insects, and never on strand birds and their eggs. Sometimes they are beaten and pursued by the king-birds and martins, whose foraging ground they have happened to invade. If the male was killed by the gunner, the female would simply take warning and move out of the reach of shot ; but if the female dropped, the male, more chivalrous, would fly immediately to aid her escape, with so much indifference to his own exposure, that there was no difficulty in bringing him down.
Among the many valuable notices furnished to this work by Dr. Thomas M. Brewer, the suggestion re pecting the s ng-sparrow has peculiar interest, the bird being one of the sweetest heralds of the spring. He is persuaded that two distinct species are confounded under this name, one of which was figured by Wilson, the other and the more common, by Mr. Audubon. The former has its breast spotted, all over, while that of the other is less so, except in the centre, where the spots run together into a star. The former builds in bushes or trees, the other always on the ground; and, while the one chooses for this purpose orchards or pastures at a distance from habitations, the other comes familiarly into gardens and enclosures, as if to put itself under the protection
Mr. Audubon has thus completed a work, of which the country has reason to be proud ; and the spirit of adventure which he has manifested in undertaking, and the iron perseverance with which he has carried it through, have been rewarded, so far as fame can repay him, with the success which they well deserve. He is of such an age, that we may hope for many advances in his favorite science yet to be made by his energetic and inquiring mind ; meantime he has called forth many others by his spirit and example, who will follow out his researches with that enthusiastic interest which the study is sure to inspire. No one can pay the least attention to it without being led, almost unconsciously, onward ; and, though it is not given to all to be distinguished ornithologists, they may become lovers of nature, and thus secure to themselves a perpetual source of improvement and delight.
It is understood that Mr. Audubon is now engaged in preparing an edition of his work with illustrations reduced in size, the price being lessened in the same proportion. As taste and wealth are not always united, there are doubtless many who were utterly unable to possess the former magnificent work, but who would go to the full extent of their means for the sake of having a faithful representation of the birds which he has taught them to admire. There is no work of the kind now within their reach. Wilson's reputation will depend, not upon his drawings, but his eloquent descriptions, while his successor manages the pencil and the pen with equal spirit
The times, indeed, are not propitious to such enterprises ; but we rejoice to hear, that subscribers are not wanting ; and they need not be assured, that, if they themselves reap no benefit froin their investment, their children will learn to observe, to examine, and to love those works of nature, all of which awaken moral and religious feelings ; so that the same process will refine the taste, enlighten the mind, and purify the heart.
Art. V. - The Works of Lord CHESTERFIELD, includ
ing his Letters to his Son, fc. To which is prefixed, an Original * Life of the Author. First complete * American Edition.
New York: Harper & Brothers. 1838. One volume, 8vo. pp. Ixxviii and 647.
LORD Chesterfield's name is intimately connected with the subject of private education and the formation of manners ; and in many minds it is identified with hypocrisy, worldliness, and libertinism. These we suppose are his present distinctions, and the chief points for which he will be remembered. His brilliant accomplishments as a courtier and companion, his skill in diplomacy, his refined eloquence, bis liberal views and independent course as a statesman, his popularity as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, have passed from the minds of men. They occupy but a small place in general history, and there was nothing in his character or course of life to give them importance beyond the day, merely on account of himself. As a patron of literary men, which he certainly was, he might have promised himself a distant and honorable fame in the writings of poets and historians, whom he had assisted or courted ; and yet his connexion with authors would now be scarcely known, but for Johnson's celebrated letter, resenting the Earl's tardy recommendation of the English Dictionary, and some previous supposed slight of the author's application for his favor. Still further, Chesterfield would be scarcely known now as an author (in the usual sense of the term), bad not Johnson, in the same letter, designated two papers in “ The World,” in which his Lordship recommended the forthcoming Dictionary to the public.
* The title-page of this work may mislead the reader on two points. First, the Life is not original, since it consists mainly of selections in the very words, from Dr. Maly's Life of Chesterfield; and, secondly, the Edition is not complete, as it does not include the Correspondence and Mis. cellanies, which follow Dr. Maty's Memoir and fill two volumes. Perhaps the word “ American was intended to modify the meaning of the word “complete,” so that it might be better adapted to our republications of foreign works.
And it must be owned that Chesterfield himself, if we may take his word, made no pretension to a literary name. He writes thus on the subject, to Dr. Madden, in 1748, when he was past fifty and living in retirement, and apparently quite competent to give a fair opinion in his own case.
“The few light, trifling things that I have accidentally scribbled in my youth, in the cheerfulness of company, or sometimes, it may be, inspired by wine, do by no means entitle me to the compliments which you make me as an author ; and my own vanity is so far from deceiving me upon that subject, that I repent of what I have shown, and only value myself upon what I have had the prudence to burn.” — Miscellaneous Works, (Dublin, 1777,) Vol. 1. p. 330.
And, again, in his sixtieth year he writes to his friend Dayrolles ;
“I will confess to you, that I often scribble. What will finally come of it, I do not know ; nothing, I am sure, that shall appear while I am alive, except by chance some short, trifling essays, like the Spectators, upon some new folly or absurdity that may happen to strike me, as I have now and then No. 107.