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should so long have escaped the many cul- he hastened to consummate with the most rious inquirers as to the events of that pe- brutal violence. Insanity alone could have riod. It is certain, at any rate, that if the excused this revolting transgression of all Highland chieftains experienced the mo- laws but Lord Lovat liad not this excuse to mentary feeling of loyalty expressed in this plead. He had a purpose in view, a purstrange document, it speedily evaporated: pose of the most vindictive depravity, to For no sooner was the fated expedition of which he sacrificed every feeling of nature, the Earl of Marr undertaken, than it was and every law of honour. The unhappy keenly supported by their credulous and lady who could not become the victim of unwary enthusiasm. The character and his lust, was made the instrument of his reconduct of this unhappy enterprise, have venge. She was of the Athole family, already been criticised by a master in such against whom this youthful adventurer especulations:* and the events to which it tertained a dee; grudge, which was exalted gave birth, have been detailed in different to the most desperate fury by their resistforms with great minuteness. The utter in- ance to his union with their young kins. capacity of Marr for the daring enterprise woman. By his barbarous treatinent of which he had undertaker, soon became the douager Lady Lovat, he exuited in bemanifest to his adherents, who had staked lieving that he had offered a deep and inextheir fortunes upon the result of his under piable insult to her kindred. The quality taking; and posterity has confirmed the of tbis unparalleled outrage, stamps the judgment which was then pronounced. The character, and developes the in most recessen olistinate, but indecisive battle of Sheriffs of this dark and crally spirit. The baud moor, was fatal to the spirit of the clans, passions not only predominated in his cha. who required success to sustain them in the racter, but they absorbed liis every sense perilous adventure in which they had em- and faculty. lie who could for a purpose barked, against a power which delay was of revenge not only subdue, liut torture the ever strengthening, and which, if it was to manliest of passions, must indeed have be overthrown at all, must have been struck reached the dark sublime of depravity, and to the ground by a single blow. The enthu- had already given a sure pledge of the way. siasm of the Highland levies, unnsed to dis- waru tepor of his future life. cipline, and impetuous in all their move. " It has been contended in palliation of ments, was not to be sustained through the this frightful outrage, that the forcible abprotracted course of a doubtful warfare ; duction, as it is called, of women, was in and their spirit, as usual, melted away be- these times a crime of alınost daily occur. fore obstacles upon which their ardour bad rence; and that the records of Scottish never calculated, and with which their re- criminal jurisprudence are filled with dia. sources were inadequate to contend." cussions on this odious breach of the laws.

Even were this apology supported by the We extract the notice of Lord Lovat, fact, it seems rather to be a libel on the not only as an interesting account of the country which it pretends to characterise,

than a justification of the individual whom enterprises in which that profligate cha- it feelily essays to defend. The allegedl freracter was concerned, but also as fur- quency of such legal discussions, while is bishing much information respecting the may show the turbulent and unprincipica

character of a part of the population, causes which stimulated his deluded coun- proves no less distinctly the horror with trymen in the rebellion of 1745.

which thicir crimes were viewed, and the

jealousy nith which they were avenged by “ This too notorious person had been the laws.--Bit is Lord Lovat's a case of compelled many years before, to expatriate ordinary abduction? Was his incitement to himself on account of offences which were the act a generous and romantic passion, scarcely less ridiculous than detestable spurning obstacles and braving persecution, which mingled the black ingredients of and which, even in the reckless generosity crime with ibe lighter elements of insanity, of its guilt, claims our sympathy, and conin such curious and whimsical proportiori

, mands our respect? This sordid transgressor that the force of either species of satire stands forward in all the harshness of unwould be exhausted in describing them. mitigated crime, without one alleviating He had professed bimself an admirer of the circumstance to soften resentment, or prodanghter of his kinsman and predecessor pitiate regard; he appears the spoiler of the former Lord Lovat;—but when he found virtue, witliout the incitement of passion, that obstacles occurred to the accomplish- the profaner of a hallowed intercourse, with: ment of his design, he turned round at once out taste or relish for its enjoyments, the with gay inconstancy to her mother, who cold and callous sacrificer of all that was chanced to be in his power, and, in spite of respectable in the houour of the other sex, ber wrinkles and resistance, forced ber into and all that ought to have been dear to his au involuntary marriage with him, which best feelings--Q an uunitigable, insutiate,

and remorseless spirit of revenge. *" See Lord Bolingbroke's later io Sir Wil- " The laws of his country did not look Jam Wyndham.

upon his oftener, irhich included the guilloi VOL. IV.No. 1.


rapr and relellioit, with a mill and for- and canningly cluded by the discontented giving eye. He was tugitated for et pa chans, against whom, alone, it was intended pearing to take his trial, and compelled to to operate. What other consequence could expairiate himself and take refuge in France. les expected from an attempt to inflict the Suine memoirs oi this portion of his history last penalty and degradation of conquest have been preserved, and they are really upon an unexplored territory, which had Valuable', as in:licating the depth of human never been actually subdued, and which, dle pravity.---Put be still looked for ard to a

even at the monient when this inconsiderate return to his native country--and as a fugi- loir was enacted, would have boldly refused, tive from its laws, he could expect this op to the pretended victor, the slightest tribute prortunity only from their subversion. He ur loker of luis achievement? iherefore emburked in the callse of this - The Ilichanders saw clearly enough Stuarts with landable alacrity, devoted to the determination of government io destroy it the whole force of his talent for intrigue, every vestige of their peculiar usages and and even ventured so far as to return to institutions, and to reduce them (and this Scotland in disguise, to prepare the way for was deep humiliation in their eyes) to an an insurrection. But as he had neither equality with the people of the low counhcart nor principle in this or any other try, whom they despised; but they did not cause, it was easy to purchase his treason to discover, in the means employed, either the it. The intelligent and sagacious agents of sagacity or the power which was to accomthe government in Scotland, perceiving the plish this fatal revolution. They continued use which in a momers, of emergency they accordingly to adhere to their ancient manrould make of his daring character, and his ners, and their jealousy of all intrusion influence over his clao, yet unestinguished within their ancient limits; and still indulgeven by the multitude of his crimes, opened ing a hope, that better days were approacha negotiation with him, and this whimsical ing:---hat their fortunes were again to prerenegade was, in the year 1715, sound vail,--and that the destiny of the Stuart supporting the lawful government, and family, with which they had united their taking possession in its name of the town of own, was ultimately to regain its ascendant, Inverness.

they remained in a shy and suspicious es6. The rebellion was soon suppressed. trangement from the government, politics, The government, however, felt disposed to laws, and manners of their country. To 1ake measures for preventing the recurrence confirin them in this course, the exiled faof such an event; and, as the spirit of clan, mily employed all the zeal of their adhersbip appeared to form the source of the ents, and all the activity of their emissaries ; universal disallection which pervaded thc and it was during this quiet and frowning Highlands, every effort was made to weaken interval, betwixt the rebellions of 1716 and and subdue it. The measures adopted for 1745, that the spirit of the clans was maturthis purpose, in the first instance, were not ing itself for the unhappy adventure, in the indeed the most politic or effectual. The failure of which the fortunes of the family cian act, which rewarded the loyalty of the whom they so much cherished, were for vassal with the forfeiled right of his supe- ever broken and overtlırown. rior, and, on the other hand, conferred apon “ During the sullen period which interThe superior the property of the rebellious vened betwixt the two rebellions, and vassal, was but a poor contrivance, because which discovered the anomalous spectacle the superior, or chief of the clan, was not of a large body of the British people, peither likely to embark in any enterprise which thoroughly reconciled to tbe government, was not encouraged by the majority of his nor daring openly to dispute its authority, dependants. The maxim dirixe et impera, the Scottish Hghlands exhibited many ex how powerful soever in its application to amples of that untamed violence which, the politics of a sordid and degenerate race, without implying an open rebellion against was inisapplied to the rude candour and in the laws, indicates a sad relaxation of their stinctive fidelity of the Highlanders; and a power. It was impossible during the period law which offered temptations only to the referred to, for any adventurer from the inost despicable renegade, from the system Lowlands to attempt a settlement in a of their social institutions, could noi have Highland district, and instances occurred great influence among a people who existed of the most atrocious ontrages, committed only in union, and whose every enterprise to prevent, or to chastise such an intrusion. was a conspiracy. It is acknowledged, also, But the Highlanders were not contented that the atiempi of the legislature to terini- with repelling their countrymen of the nate, by an abrupt and sullen enactment, south from their own ancient habitations : the homage which the vassals had uniformly for they insisted on making the most uncepaid to their chiets in the shape of services, remonious visits to the low country, for both civil and military, was followed only the purposes of plunder. They abandoned by the most contemptuous disobedience. — themselves to a system of depredation The mandate for disarming the clans, was, upon that part of the low country adjoining if possible, still more impolitic, for it was the Highland border; and among the noted obeyed only by the adherents of govern- characters who engaged in adventures of ment, whoin it was noi intended to affect, this sort, no one makes a more conspicuous figure than the celebrated Rob Roy, whose of Parisian refinement. Yet his various unfortunate offspring gave occasion to the qualities were not well mixed or subordicriminal proceedings of which an account nated; they counteracted each other in a follows in this volume. But of him, and of manner which secured his victims against his family, we shall have more to say in the the absolute consummation of his projects, sequel.

and at last involved his ardent, but reckless « The predatory exploits of the border daring, in utter perdition lie tyrannise : Highlanders, did not escape the notice of over his clan, he insulted and oppressed his government. A sort of militia was raised to neighbours, he enacted the most ferocious suppress them; and as this force was com- despotism in his family, and ineditated the posed of native Highlanders, it was be- deepest duplicity towards the government lieved that they would be able to explore of his country. The honours heaped upon the recesses of the banditti; and from their him for his services in 171.5, had no effect knowledge of the country and its inhabit- in securing his aliachment, and be quickly ants, to defeat their schemes, and bring engaged in courses which roused the strong. them speedily to justice. The sort of po- est suspicion of his fidelity: He was aclice levy which was thus raised, was deno. cordingly degraded and punished, by taking minated the “ Black Watch," and the come from him his independent company and mand of the different companies was given pension. There was no length, of course, to Highland gentlemen, whose attachment which he was not prepared to go in revenge. to the established government could be re. The pretender promised hiin a dukedom, lied upon. Out of this institution, the ce. and other bonours calculated to seduce both lebrated 42d Regiment arose, which bas bis avarice and his ambition ; but he was rerdered itself famous by so many brilliant too politic at once to coinmit himself, and exploits, and associated with its name what it was not till after the battle of Prestonever is gallant or splendid in modern war- pans, when success promised to legalize the fare. Under the original organization, the cause of rebellion, that he gave a loose to Black Watch did not escape the reproach his cherished partialities, in a form which of sharing sometimes in the spoils of the well sustained the atrocious consistency oi freebooters, whom they were destined to the ravisher of the dowager Lady Lovat. intimidate. Their conspicuous valor, bow. He did not choose to embark personally, or ever, soon recommended them to the em- to give his ostensible countenance to an enployment of government in its more im- terprise which he still considered as critical portant operations abroad; and the effect and hazardons; but he urged his son to the of the institution upon the whole, was fatal undertaking, and wantonly drove himu rather to cherish the military spirit of the on to sustain the guilt and the shame of this people than to subdue their excesses. desperate enterprise. But all his arts were

“Lord Lovat, of whose youthful cele. unavailing to screen himself from that venbrity, we have already had occasion to geance which was fast overtaking the mul. speak, was one of those chieftains to whom titude of his crimes; and after the fatal eu. the recent measures of government, with gagement at Culloden he had the sad mortirespect to the guardian military force of the fication to meet the ruined chief, in whose Highlands, was most obnoxious. In his rash undertaking he had embarked his forsubsequent career, this singular person did tunes, and to mingle with bim the accents not forfeit the reputation which he had ac- of despair. He was doomed at last to terquired almost at his entrance on the world. minate a life, protracted in infamy, upon the Under pretence of obedience to the will of scaffold; and be closed it in a characteristic government, he had contrived to train his manner by a cold and sullen sneer over a whole clan in rotation to the use of arms; catastrophe which signalized even his last and had availed himself of his influence moments, and seemed to show that there and power in such a manner as to show was no period of his carcer, which was not that he meditated the universal oppression dooined to be in one way or other fatal to of the neighbouring clans. He bad the his species." haughtiness, without the honour of a Highland chieftain the vices, without any of

The remarks on the virtues and ac. the redeeming virtues of that mixed cha- complishments attributed to the Higliracter. He had the daring enterprise wbich landers are exccllent. belonged to bis race and to his country,but so completely spoiled by the taint of “ If the Highlanders have, in recent times, bad associations, and the alloy of foreign been without political supporters of their inmanners, that it became difficult to deter- terest, they have not wanted enthusiastic mine whether cunning or ferocity most advocates of their fame. Several fearless predominated in his character. He bad the attempts bave been made to confer upon faculty of appropriating, by a sort of un. them a superiority over their southern erring attraction, all that was bad in the neighbours, not only as to the qualities in nature which he inherited, and in the habits which they decidedly excel, but as to variwith which he was conversant;--lie was a ous other points in which their pre-etniMachiavel in a region noted for its simpli- nence is far more doubtful. Mrs. Grant, in city, and a courtly barbarian in the centre her “ Essays on the Superstitions of the Highlanders," and in her other publications, both will have their peculiarities-their has distinguished herself by an amiable comparative ignorance-their grosser selquixotism in the cause of lier

favourits peo- fishness—and all the other disagreeable ple,--and she has been powerfully seconded qualities which make them appear mean by her ingenious critic in the Edinburgh Re- and vulgar, when compared with their su. view, to whose paper the reader is referred, periors. We do not, indeed, perceive the as containing a more striking and compen- vulgarity of those whose manners are dious view of all the paradoxes that have strange to us, and whose very aspect has been uttered on this subject, than is any something novel and characteristic in it, where to be found.*

with the same acuteness with which we “ These ingenious writers have not hesi- discover kindred qualities in the lower ranks tated to maintain, that the Highlanders are of that population with which we are famore polished in their manners and senti- miliar. The most offensive customs of the ments than the people of any other country, lowest classes of the Greeks and Romans --that they are skilled in all the graces of have in them little that is repulsive, when polite conversation,--and almost universal- transmitted to us through the representaly possessed of a decp knowledge of poetry, tions of learned and ingenious men, and and great sensibility to its beauties.-It re- consecrated as it were by the reverence paid quired a certain extravagance of thought, no to antiquity ;-and we may venture to asdoubt, to have made such assertions,—and sert, that the notion of vulgarity was never still greater ingenuity to render them plausi- attached in the mind of a modern schola to ble for a moment.

any part of the population of the ancient " The key to the whole theory is,--that world. But can we doubt that it was kon. the Highlander is, or was, a sort of savage, spicuous and offensive to those who scere or at least a being little removed from a compelled to come into immediate contact state of primitive barbarism,—and that vul- with it?- That awful distance of time which... garily is the vice, not of the savage state, now dignifies the meanest usages of jan but of an imperfect condition of refinement. tiquity, has been supplied in the case of the It is the vice, say the apologists of the High- Scottish mountaineer, by a distinction of landers, not of extreme indigence, but of an language, manners and institutions, which uncultivated opulence ;-the disease, not of long separated him from the rest of hisa band of savages, but of a crowd of con- countrymen—and gave an impression: of ceited and luxurious manufacturers. The novelty and wildness to his whole characprogress of national prosperity, therefore, ter and aspect, that effectually shielded him is, according to this theory, unpropitious to from the reproach of vulgarity. the refinement of mariners ;-and the gene- “ To talk of the superior knowledge and rous feeling and polished spirit of a gentle. talents for society of an ordinary Highman are to be found in the mass of society lander of the lower classes, appears a startonly, at that humble stage of improvement ling paradox. Where were his means for which philosophy would pronounce to lie acquiring knowledge in his rude and seupon the very confines of barbarism. questcred state, without communication,

“ The error of this theory, which ascribes but with the narrow circle of his kinsmen ; to the rude inhabitants of the mountains, and compelled by the precariousness of his virtues which they could never possess, may supply of food, to exhaust his whole thoughts, be easily exposed. A rude tribe may boast and to exercise a constant activity in quest its warlike virtues ; but it can never excel of the means of subsistence, and of the in the arts of prace, or in the accomplish slender comforts which his condition afments of society. To say that the ligh- forded, or his habits required ? It has often landers were not rulgar in their sentiments, been remarked, that the era of knowledge or their manners ; nay, that they were pe. and refinement begins only after immediate culiarly distinguished tiom their neighbours physical wants have been supplied, and a by an exquisite refinement, is to construct a surplus bas been created to secure the sopoor soplism upon an abusc of language. cieiy against the recurrence of any imThe term vulgarity, is uniforinly referred to minent casualty ;-in short, after the semithe usages and manners with which we are barbarous state has terminated. But at what conversant. The vulgarity which is abhor- period had the Highlanders reached this red in polite society, is the aggregate of the condition before they were assimilated to distinguishing qualities which predoininate the manners and usages of the low country, in the lower ranks of that species of life --when their peculiarities were almost which is known to us by itp inediate obser: wholly effaced? If the fanciful picture vation; of course, the term is not applica- which has been drawn of their superior ble to savage or semi-barbarian manners, knowledge and politeness in a state of which are known only from description. primitive seclusion had any foundation in But rank and subordination are not un- nature, they would form the single exkuown in rude, more than they are in ci- ception on record to the general maximvilized societies ;—and the lower classes in That knowledge and refinement have their

growth only in the security of opulence, ** Edin. Revicw, vol. 18 p. 484. et seq. and the stability of political ins:iiutions."

The author proceeds to show how com- mily. Our purpose, indeed, in taking up pletely hostile to human improvement and the volume, did not include the discussion happiness were almost the whole of their of individual character. To exhibit the ancient institutions, and very successfully manners and babits of a whole populacombats the positions advanced by their tion, and their effect upon their moral admirers in favour of a state of society and political condition, was the principal which could subsist only among a barba- ohject we had in view : and we conclude rous people, and whom, as long as it pre- with observing that in our opinion the vailed among them, it would keep bar. author has completely succeeded in debarous.

monstrating the ancient character and We have already devoted too many of institutions of the Highlanders to have our pages to this pleasing essay, to have been in diametrical opposition to every it in our power to say any thing on the thing which renders society cultivated, anecdotes connected with the magnani- refined, and ainiable. mous freebooter, Rob Roy, and his fa


ART. 2. Rhododaphne ; or the Thessalian Spell. A Poem. 18mo. pr. 194. Phila

delphia. M. Carey & Sons. 1818.

us dodaphne” among the higher produc- poets whose works were the pride of an tions of genius, or regard it as a poem of age at least as refined as our own. sufficient merit to establish for its author The scene is laid in Thessaly, a couna brilliant and enduring reputation, we yet try celebrated almost from time immemothink it possesses claims upon our atten- rial as the birth-place of magic; Horace, tion which it would be scarcely charitable Ovid, and Apuleius have established its neto disregard. To the rich fancy, gor- cromantic farne; and Lucan's Erictho is geous diction, and exuberant imagery of alone sufficient to stamp it as a region dehis contemporaries, he makes no preten- voted to the arts of sorcery and divination. sion. The story, though founded on Menander is reported to have written a magic, is simple, and the language by no drama, in which he introduced the “inmeans ambitious or overwrought; but the cantations and magic ceremonies of wofeelings it brings into play are of that men drawing down the moon.” Pliny sweet and pure description which, ex. attributes the belief in magic to the isting, perhaps, only in a state of society united influence of three potent causesequally removed from the extremes of in- “medicine, superstition, and the mathecivilization and refinement, will always matical arts,” excluding music, generally delight us as the attributes of the innocent supposed by the ancients to possess powers and happy condition of man, before he of the most extraordinary description. The 'congregated in cities, and surrendered belief, indeed, in the magical influence the genuine pleasures of the pastoral life of music and pharmacy may be traced to for the bustle and intrigues of crowded the earliest ages of poetry, and the Circe society: while, without having recourse of Homer and the Medea of Apollonius to any aids but those afforded by a fine are beautiful exemplifications of their sense of the soft, melodious, and correct combined influence. in versification, the author has contrived But to the poem. It opens with a deto show how perfectly possible it is to scription of the Temple of Love at Theswrite with vigour and' animation without pia, a town of Bæotia, at the foot of violating the laws of grammar, or depart- mount Helicon :--a few introductory lines, ing, in any considerable ineasure, from and the author proceeds in the following

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