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it differs especially from O.rycocus by its that received it; whoever shall not admit oxcite corolla.

this, can only act againt bis own convic71.' Why is not the genus Phyllodocetion of right, and must be influenced by mentioned and adopted ?

some secret motives. 72. Arbutus uva-ursi is a second spe 83. The American species of G. Lyo cies of the genus Mairania of Necker, thrrim, belong to at least four distinct gedifferent from the European plant of the nera, Lythrum, Parsonsia, Decodon, and

Philerin. 73. Four species of G. Andromeda are 84. Only eleven species of G. Rosa are separated, to form a N. G. Lyonia; but mentioned; we are acquainted with double this name was given to å previous genus, that number at least, native of the United in 1803, by Rafinesque; we shall there- States. fore call it Xolisma. The A. calyculata 85. For Befaria, read Bejaria; for Cauappears to form another genus or sub- linia, Cxvolinia, &c. genus, which may be called Erolepta. 86. Helianthemum is identical with He

74. The genus Flypopithys of Dillen is lianthus, it was proposed to change it into rightly re-established; and it is shown Anthelis, in having the same meaning, by that it forms, along with Monotropa, Ple- Rafinesque, in Chloris Etnensis, 1813. rospora, and Schweinitzia, a small natu 87. The first discoverer of the Taliniral family, next to the genera Pyrola, um teretifolium was Mr. Marshall, instead! Chimaphila, &c.

of Dr. Darlington, who detected it near 75. Why is not Lieophyllum of Per- Westchester, in Pennsylvania': Raf soon adopted?

nesque observed it there likewise in 1803, 76. Dionea is the type of a new natu- and-lie has made a peculiar genus of it in ral family, next to Monotropa, Drosera, 1808, by the name of Phemeranthus, the Aldrovanda, Roridula, Reseda, &c., have calyx and stigma being different from ing some affinities with all of them; but Talinium. scarcely any with Sarothra.

88. Podophyllum, Jeffersonia, Actea, 77. We doubt that the Cytisus rhom- Macrotrys, &c.'must form a new family, lifolius, P., belongs to the G. Thermop- Acleides next to Papaveraceous. ris, R. Br., (changed wrongly into Ther 89. Nymphed, Nuphar, Sarracenia, &c. rin by N.) but we rather think it a new will form another new family. Nympheides genus, next to Virgilia ; if so, it might next to the foregoing, differing by a mulbe called Scolobus.

tilocular fruit. 78. Dianthus armerioides, Raf., is 90. Lewisia is only allied to Semperagain given as D. armeria.

vivum in habit; it belongs to the family of 79. The species of G. Silene, with Portulaceous. one celled capsule, must belong to the 91. Macrotrys, Raf. (Actea racemosa, old genus Otites.

L.) belongs no more to Cimicifuga, than 80. Stellaria elongata. N. belongs to Consolida, Tournef., to Delphidium ! our genus Bigelowia, unnoticed by Nut 92. Calthaparnassifolia Raf. is adopt tall, and Arenaria pepleides forms our ed instead of C. ficaroides, Pursh, a postegenus Adenarium; it had been called rior name. It is noticed that Allium triformerly Stonckenya, but by the confusion forum and Asclepias viridiflora of Raf. which prevails at present in nomencla- and P. were first described by Rafinesque.' ture, that name has been applied to seve 93. Gaissenia verna, Raf. is however ral genera, and cannot be retained here. named Trollius lacus, without reference

81. Cerastium glutinosim, N., is the to the first and better pame. C. sulans, Raf., a previous name.

94. Ranunculus fascicularis, and R. 82. Bartonia of Pursh and Nattall, saniculeformis of Muhlenberg and Bigehas been called by us Nuttalla, the same low, are omitted, although common from of Bartonia must be left to the first genus Boston to the Missisippi.


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95. The wroug name Cyamus, Salisb., is 105. Arabis thaliana, N., not L., is our admitted instead of the good old name A. parviflora. Nelumbium! There is an anterior genus 106. Stanleya N. had been called PoCyrmus among the Crustacea established dolobus by us in Flora Missurica: the by Latreille. The wonderful N. codo- name was better. phylluin Fl. Lud. ; is unnoticed; we have 107. Atalanta, N., subgenus of Cleome, observed the real N. peniapetalus with is a real new genus, as well as our Polawhite flowers.

nysia, whose type in the Cl. dodecandra, 96. The American species of Styssopus, and of which no notice is taken. belong to a peculiar sub-genus or genus 108. Lobelia siphilitica, must form a Vleckia, Raf. 1808.

sub-genus; it may be called Siphilaria; 97. Synandra grandiflora, N., is our its characters are similar to those of the Torreya grandiflora, published before we Decemium and Legouzia, in the genera knew Mr. Nuttall's name, which may Hydrophyllum and Campanula. deserve the preference as more signifi

109. Malope malacoides of Carolina, cant, although not quite unexceptionable. must be different, in all probability, from But it is also the Lamium hispidulum of the Italian plant of the same name. Michaux, of which Nuttall was not aware,

110. Why is Cyrilla adopted, while since he has also enumerated this last Malacodendron and Franklinia are not? name under the genus Lamium.

They are all equally good genera. 98. Zapania nodiflora of Europe and

111. Diclytra is mentioned, but not adAfrica, is different from ours ; they both mitted, because Corydalis fungosa conbelong, with some other species, to the nects it with other species; but that spegenus Bertolonia, Raf., differing from Za- cies is the type of an intermediate genas, pania by the calyx and corolla.

called long ago Adlumia, by Rafinesque, 99. Collinia, N. or rather, Colliniana,

in Med. Repository. was first discovered by Dr. Muller in

112. Triclisperma, Raf., Mirror Sc. is Pennsylvania, and be detected two spe unnoticed, although its type Polygala cies, which Dr. Muhlenberg took for paucifolia is totally distinct from Polya Herpestis rotundifolia and H. cuneifolia.

gala. 100. Why are Gerardia maritima and 113. Pisum maritimum, N., is not that Amaranthus pumilus, Raf., marked as new of L. ; it must be called P. dasigynum. species, while he is acknowledged as the Vicia cracea. N., is in the same predicadiscoverer and publisher of them ? ment; we have called it V. craceoides. V.

101. Epifagus is an absurd name, half mitchelli is omitted. Greek and half Latin, with the name *114. Amphicarpa and Macbridea, of Fagus entire. It had been called Leptam. Elliott, are adopted : we had proposed nium by us long ago, in a monography of similar names before. the family of Orobancheous, where Gym- 115. Wistaria, N., bas been called nocaulis, N., was called Polyclonos, and Thyrsanthus, by Elliott; a much better the O., uniflora, Thalesia uniflora.

Dr. Wistar being neither a bota. 102. Cakile Americana, N., is not a pist, nor a naturalist, did not deserve the new species ; it was described in 1814 by dedication of a genus. Dr. Bigelow, and called by the better 116. Marshallia, Wild., is adopted ioname of Edentula.

stead of Trattenikia, Pers., and Persoonia, 103. Lepidium virginicum belongs to Mx., as being the anterior name. Why the genus Dileptium, Fl. Ludow. where pot do so in all instances ? several other species are described. 117. Many sp. of G. Artemisia belong

104. Why is Barbarea adopted, and to Absinthium, and Abrotanum, old genot Caprella of Ventenat ? Both genera nera of Tournefort, restablished by Venare equally good.

tenat, &c.


· 118. Gnaphålium plantagineum, form 134. Why admit yet Crotonopsis ! and aur G. Disynanthus.

Oryzopsis ; instead of Leplemon and Di119. Many sp. of Conyza belong to the lepyrum ? substituted by Rafinesque. G. Gynema, Fl. Lud.

135. Why change Purshia into Ptilo120. The sub-genus Chrysopsis, N., phyllum ? (Inula, L. and Aster, L.) was named 136. Carya, N., was named Hicorius, Diplogon in Fl. Missurica, and adopted by Raf. in 1808; in 1817, no notice is by us as a N. G. ; that name is preferable, taken of it. Carya is inadmissible, besince some species have white flowers ! ing a radical Greek name, cootained in

121. Most of the sp. of G. Senecio be- Caryocar, Eucarya, Tricharia, &c. long to the G. Jacobea : the S. hieracifo 137. latropha stimulosa is Bivonea, lius must form a sub-genus Plileris. N. G. Raf. Mirr. Sc. 1814.

122. Starkea-pinnata belongs to the . 138. Maclura, N., has been described genus Sideranthus of Fraser, unnoticed by us under the anterior and better pame by Nuttalt.

of loxylon, which must be retained. Two 123. Phaethusa, read Phaethusia; for fossil substances bave lately received the - Tetragonotheca, insert Gonotheca. name of Maclurite, a shell and a mineral; 124. Leptopoda, N., is a wrong name;

this last will probably retain the denomi. there is already a genus of fish of the nation, being more appropriate to the pursame name. Leptophora must be sub- suits of Mr. Maclure. stituted.

139. Sheperdia, N., was proposed by 125. Balduina, N., is in the same case;

us under the better and anterior name of we have proposed a genus of that name Lepargyrea ; and the gardener Sheperd already. Nuttall's genus must receive does not deserve the dedication of a genus, The new denomination of Endorima. by all accounts. 126. The natural group proposed un

140. Udora, N., (Elodea, Mx.) was der the name of Galardiae, must be styled named by us Philotria, a good significant TIelenides, from Helemium, the oldest and name: we do not know what Udoza most euphonous name.

means. 127. Rudbeckia columnaris is the type

141. To the unlucky names of Strulhiof our genus Ratibida ; R. purpurea, of opteris, Scolopendrium, and Pteris, we bur G. Lepachis : many other genera are

have substituted, long ago, Pterilis, Glosblended with Rudbeckia.

sopteris, and Phyllitis. 128. Actinomeris, N., ought to be

142. Nyosotis scabra, N., app. appears shortened into Actimeris, so as to pre- to be our Lithospermum tenellum, discoclude any collision with Actinia. vered in New Jersey in 1803. 129. Lislera convallarioides, is proba

We have pow concluded this elaborate bly the G. Diphryllum of Raf. in Med. survey of Mr. Nuttall's labours. We feel Rep. The sub-genus Microstylis is cer

an uncommon satisfaction in having pertainly his G. Achroanthes.

ceived that so much has been added by 130. Tipularià, N., is inadmissible, be. that worthy botanist, to our former knowing derived from T'ipula. We shall sub- ledge of our genera and species, while we stitute the name of Anthericlis.

regret that he has (through oversight pro131. Cypripedium arietinum, is our G. bably) left us so much to do yet. We Criosanthes.

advise every botanist that may altempt 132. Aristolochia sipho, must form a to follow his steps, to be very careful, lest peculiar gedus, with all the sp. baving they should fall into the same mistakes an uolabiate flower : we shall call it Iso- and inaccuracies which we have been trema, meaning equal opening.

compelled to correct. If they take the 133. The extensive genus Carex, must trouble of comparing attentively his laat least be divided, all the species baving bours, with those already published or three stigmas, will form our G. Triplimr. announced by all the American and Pų.

ropean botanists, they will probably de an unwarrantable conduct; and we shall tect a great number more, which have at all times deem ourselves at liberty to escaped our attention, or which we have stigmatise their proceedings with the apbeen obliged to omít, for sake of brevity. pellations that they will deserve. We repeat that we lay claim to all the We understand that Mr. Nuttall is now improvements and names which we have engaged in exploring some of our westnow, and at various former periods, pro- ern regions, particularly the Arkanzas riposed and published. We do not com yer, for botanical researches, in which pel any one to adopt them; when they do undertaking we heartily wish him all not, they prove merely their want of judg- the success imaginable. We bave no ment and liberality; but when they may doubt that he will continue to increase become convinced of the necessity of their our knowledge of plants, and if he should, adoption, let them give us the credit: to in some future work acknowledge and which we consider ourselves entitled; if correct the errors which we have pointthey should not, and should endeavour to ed out in this, we shall then consider hiş conceal them under different names, they ingenuousness equal to his knowledge. must abide by the consequences of such

C. S. R.


Art. 4. Musica Sacra : or, Springfield and Utica Collections uniled: consisting of

Psalm and Hymn Tunes, Anthems and Chants ; arranged for two, three, or four Voices, with a Figured Base for the Organ or Piano Forte. By THOMAS HAST. INGS and SOLOMON W ARRINER. 8vo.


276. Utica. William Williams. 1818. The Musical Reader, or, Practical Lessons for the Voice ; consisting of Phrases,

Sections, Periods, and entire movements of Melody in Score. To which are prefired, the Rudiments of Music. Compiled principally for the use of Schools, by one of the Edilors of the Musica Sacra.” 8vo. pp. 30. Utica. William Williams. 1818. HE design of the “ Musical Reader" sacred music. The plan of instruction

is sufficiently apparept from its title. unfolded in the Musical Reader is in some Although principally intended as an in respects new; and we think it decidedly troduction to the “ Musica Sacra,” it is preferable to that generally adopted by also bound in a separate form, for the ac our musical teachers and compilers, in commodation of schools and singing socie- which, after a few lessons for tuning the ties at large. The practical lessons, voice, the beginner is immediately carried which constitute three-fourths of the forward to a promiscuous collection of work, are judiciously selected, and ar. psalınody. In this way he prematurely ranged in such a manner as to conduct fancies himself an adept in musical notathe learner, by progressive steps, from tion; the idea of returning to his rudi. the simplest intervals of melody, through ments becomes irksome; and if he does all the varieties of time and modulation, not continue ever after in that stage of to those refinements in yocal execution musical childhood which requires the aid which complete the education of the cho. of leading strings, and can make its way ral perforiner. These lessons are inter- over a page only by spelling half the spersed with entire pieces of harmony, words, he at least remains ignorant of chiefly selected from the best authors, those nicer details, to the knowledge of which correspond in difficulty to the pro-, which music owes its highest effects. Congress made by the learner, and exemplify sidering how large a portion of the comsuccessively, whatever is requisite to the munity prize this art as the source of some correct and expressive of their most innocent and refined plea

sures, and its importance as an auxiliary of musical notation. These, as the work. to public and private devotion, the preva. is not designed to supersede oral instruclent neglect of musical rudiments is too tion, are given with brevity; yet, in geserious an evil to pass unnoticed. It neral, with sufficient clearness to be intel. places the most refined productions of ligible without such instruction. As it is foreign composers beyond the reach of intended for the use of those who are our vocal performers; it impairs the style merely desirous to qualify themselves for in which the rest is executed; and it oc- the correct performance of sacred music, casions a totally unnecessary waste of it cannot be expected to contain a comtime. As our singing societies are now plete account of the subject. We are generally managed, every new tune, if at not so unreasonable as to look for any all difficult, is either learned by rote from thing more, in a publication of this nature, the leader, or is decyphered at the ex- than corresponds with its original desigo ; pense of much time and labour. A fifth get there are several particulars in which part of the time frequently employed in we think, that without any sensible addithis way, if judiciously directed to the tion to its bulk, it is susceptible of consielements of musical notation, would ena: derable improvement; and we suggest ble the performer to read music al sight. them chiefly with the hope that a work

Mr. Hastings does not profess to have which is to circulate as extensively as we discovered any royal road to the art of trust this will, may be rendered as comsinging. He makes no pretensions to the plete as possible in a future edition. secret of those notable handicrafts-men, The subject of modulation is not treated who manufacture finished French scho- suficiently at length, and, we fear, in lars in thirty lessons--turn off fifty-two some respects, not with sufficient distinctsets of well-made penmen in a year-and ness. In the practice of singing by note, want but a process of six months standing the names become so closely associated to produce complete proficients in all the with the degrees which they denote, that arts and sciences. Far humbler than when accidental sharps or flats occur in these are the claims of our author. On the course of a strain, it becomes indispenthe contrary, it is the object of his lessons sable that the names should be changed, to keep the young musician in the atti- in order that such sharps or flats may be tude of a learner much longer than has correctly sounded. If, for example, in a been generally done. At the same time, strain on the natural key, major, a sharp he is willing to indulge the impatience occurs on the 4th above the key-note, the which learners naturally feel to become key now becomes that of one sharp, the performers, and to relieve the tedium of key-note is a 5th higher than before, and a dry series of lessons, in themselves un- the pote before called sol, now becomes meaning, by an occasional movement of faw. If the names are not shifted, it will harmony, adapted to their proficiency. be just as difficult to change the key with We do not mean to imply that in all this the voice, as to perform a piece which is there is any thing very original, or any wholly set to the key of one sharp, when thing which would not naturally enough the key-note is called sol, the note below occur to a person of ordinary experience it faw, &c. Let any one who wishes to and reflection. An analogous system has be satisfied of this, take a melody to the been long in use for teaching music on sounds of which he has not been familiarkeyed instruments. We only wonder ized, and attempt to sing it by shifting that the same plan has not been applied the names so as to make the key-note sol, more effectually to the teaching of vocal or mi. He will soon find himself involved music; and that a work as well adapted in inextricable confusion. The difficulty to the object as Mr. llastings' has not is preciscly the same in singing modulatearlier appeared.

ed passages of any length, if the names To the lessons, are prefixed rudiments are continued unchanged. It is impossi

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