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shionists to the interests of her poor Irish ; It is almost needless to say, that Mrs. and she tells General Fitzwalter, that to Magillicuddy and Lady Clancare are one justify her frequent visits to the castle, that all the sighing, laughing, and singfor the promotion of her own purposes, ing, and all the mystical letters proceedshe has assumed the story of Florence ed from that lady, and that she was easily Macarthy, and tells Lady Duncre that she possessed of the intelligence she was at has found her lost husband. This pro- the trouble to communicate. The Spaceeding is rather ingenious than candid, nish Nun of Lord Fitzadelm was the Floand the prepossession that her good ac- rence Macarthy of the convent. tions awakens, is diminished by the in- The story of the murder for which trigue employed to accomplish them. General Fitzwalter was arrested the next

General Fitzwalter's letter was an- day, proved to originate in the death of swered only by a communication from a soldier killed in a conflict with some Lady Clancare. It refused him admit- Irishmen, in which the General had rainly tance to the convent without “special interfered to make peace the charge invitation;" and asserted, that contend- was at first supported by a man, who afing feelings must awhile delay the deci- terwards declared, that his instigator was sion of the lady. Upon the seal of this Bryan, the infamous agent of the Crawnote was the motto,

leys, who had given him fifty pounds.

All that remains to tell is, that General “ Sou utile aind a que Bricando."

Fitzwalter proved his claims to the title During General Fitzwalter's excursion, and estates of Dunore-that the Crawthe coterie at the castle prepared for a leys were degraded as they deserved great exhibition, assigned different parts that Counsellor Con got into Parliament of “ As you like it” among themselves, in place of Lord Adelm, and that Miss gave that of Rosalind to Lady Clancare, Crawley went to live with the Ex-Marand invited the neighbouring gentry to chioness—that it is highly probable the admire the display of talent and taste. The Marquis and Marchioness of Dunore are night came, and with it an apology from vastly happy, and are doing all manner Lady Clancare, that a sudden illness must of good in Ireland. prevent her from taking her allotted part.

This is a long story, written with a poliThis made great confusion, but excited tical object-a picture of British policy no concern for the absent suffererin these and Irish misery. That it exhibits any heartless people. Lord Rosbrin assumed thing new to the world we doubt; that the character of Rosalind, and in a stormy the lesson it teaches will reach the hearts night General Fitzwalter stole out to the of legislators, reform the measures of abode of Lady Clancare ; he was met at local magistrates, excite the generosity the entrance by Owny the Rabragh, of the bigher classes, or the humbler bearing a letter to him, giving informa- virtues of the lower, is equally problemation from Lady Clancare, that a charge tical. But that it is true, that it describes of murder was got up, and that his ac- justly a fine country debased by the accusers were prepared for his arrest on the cumulated miseries and oppressions of next dag: General Fitzwalter proceeds centuries ; that the abuses of office, and to the apartment of the Countess, who an honourable profession propagate and entertains him, as usual, with the passion augment these evils ; that property held of Florence Macarthy, and after this re- by'absentees and managed by sub-agency, peated experiment declares herself to be must keep residents in poverty and slathe identical lady-tbus putting an end very, and that this want and subjection to a struggle in the mind of a lover, must produce despair, neutralize physical which however gratifying it might be to a force, and destroy moral motives, is vain woman, could not bave been created equally obvious and lamentable. end prolonged by an ingenious one.

R. E.

ART. 2. Trævels in England, Spain, France, and the Barbary States. By M. M.

Noan. 8vo. pp. 478. New York. Kirk and Mercein. 1819.

WITH

ITHIN the lapse of a few years past, from mere curiosity; we do not revisit

we have received from our public the Gades, Carthage, Tarragona, and officers on foreign stations, or distant voy- Marseilles, Paris and London, because ages, much valuable addition to the stock these places revive the reminiscence of

of our geographical literature. The voy- past, or exbibit the centre of intelli. F. ages of Captain Porter, and the late pa- gence in the present times ; but we feel

pers presented to the general govern- an interest in what concerns the inbabi. ment by Messrs. Graham, Rodney, and tants of those places, also, from a cop

Ponisett, may be cited as prominent ex- viction that our moral connection with samples. It is, however, to be regretted, them continues and must endure coeval ; that more use has not been made of the with the existence of Man.

many opportunities, afforded our diplo- We cannot, if we were so inclined, matic agents abroad, to collect, arrange, follow our Traveller through all the vaand publish important facts, connected rious vicissitudes of his Tour. Necessawith the history, manners, and morals, of rily much of the volume is occupied nations which have been accessible only with that common matter which forins a to such persons as have been, or are, component part of all travels. Our reclothed with a public character.

view will be confined to some leading The publication we have now under facts, to which we wish to draw the atreview, is the only instance in our diplo- tention of our readers, more particularly matic history, where an individual of our than to the general scope of the entire nation has availed himself of the full be work. nefits of a foreigo and privileged station. We have now before us a volume of Tra- “We approached Cadiz, which, at a disvels, which opens to our view many sub- of white buildings, from the sea ; and, af

tance, appeared to rise, like a confused mass jects of importance ; which awakens the

ter a pleasant voyage of twelve days from recollections of various epochs in history, Falmouth, we anchored in that spacious and recalls to our mind changes of the bay. Here commenced another epoch in liveliest interest, in the social condition mine, yet more fruitful in interest than the

my journey, and another country to exaof our species ; a retrospection that may former. We were surrounded by vessels of enable us to read the future in the all nations, and particularly by several Ame

ricans. To the left as we entered, lay the past."

town of Rota; to the right, a long line of The range of the Travels of M. M. ramparts, facing the sea: passing low in the Noah ked him over the most interesting bay, the forts of Santa Catalina ; and be

yond them, those of Matagorda, San Lo. portions of the earth; over the earliest renzo, and Puntalis. Every thing around and latest seats of civilization, com- appeared strongly fortified; the view of the merce, and political power ; over regions and pleasant ; and the lively appearance of

country was delightful; the air was cool possessed by the Phænicians, Carthage- the city, with its small turrets, white houses, nians, Romans, Saracens, and Arabs; spacious buildings, passage boats, and ships by the Gauls, French, and Anglo-Sax- of war, gave tokens of opylence, impor

tance, and comfort. The boat from the ons. Nations, that for 4000 years have packet landed us at the quay, without our had successively the deepest influence in baggage; which we left for the more tranthe affairs of that part of the world, from quil examination of the custom-house offiwhich we have drawn our moral, politi. a sentinel was posted. °Here, packages of

We passed through a gate, at which cal, and religious opinions, and even our merchandize, barrels of flour, and other physical existence. We do not turn our commodities, were landing from ships in mental eye towards the shores of the the bay. Our road led through the market,

which was held in an open space; and near Mediterranean or the English Channel the walls, I was stunned with cries; Pose

cers.

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cado, Pescado, screamed the fisherman; To The houses are all white, and built of a soft mates

, Tomales, Neranjex de Seville, cried stone, brought from Porta Santa Maria ; this another; here, a man was wheeling a large atfects the eyes, and produces the opthal. jar, containing water, and inviting the pas- mia; a disease, not only common in that sengers to drink, with. agua fresco. Ca. city, but also in the Barbary States. It is lases, with their horses fantastically deco- difficult to decide on the architecture of this rated with ribbons, and tinkling with bells, city. It strikes a stranger, on the brst view, were waiting for a fare ; sailors seated at a to be strictly Moorish; the bouses having table, eating fried sardinias ; here, a woman terraces, with small battlements, and look sold grapes; there, papilitoes, little segars out towers, which give to the whole, a most of paper, were made ; beggar women ask. singular and pleasing aspect; yet they are ing alins in the name of Maria Santissima; exceedingly high; whilst the Moorish houses all was confusion and crowd, which we, at consist generally of one, or at the extent, length, bustled through, and got into the of only two stories. It is reasonable to Callia del Baluarte.

suppose, from the antiquity of this city, “ As my visit to England and Spain, were that a strange commixture of styles of arboth unexpected, I was, .consequently, a chitecture, must have arisen ; and this constranger in both countries; and I took the fusion of Saracenic, Gothic, and modera liberty of calling on Mr. Hackley, the Ame- buildings, renders it difficult to give a de. rican consul, for the purpose of consulting cided character to the city. Each house with him, on the best mode of reaching my has a balcony, in front; a large gateway place of destination. I found this worthy opens on the lower floor, called entresol, and intelligent officer, disposed to give me where a square court is seen, paved with every facility in his power; and he insisted marble, called a patio, which has a cool upon my lodging at his house, assuring me, and agreeable appearance. From this court, at the same time, that, notwithstanding the a flight of stairs leads to the balconies, extent and importance of Cadiz, a good hotel which, supported by light colonnades, runs was not to be found in the place; and, that around each story, and from which, the the only one which was tolerable, was the different apartments branch; these are geQuatre Naciones, at that period filled with nerally divided on the first floor, into a large strangers. Such, Mr. Hackley observed, salla, or drawing-room, furnished with was the want of accommodation, that the much taste and elegance; chairs and sofas supercargoes of vessels generally lodged in covered with satin ; wainscot of the same ma. the bouses of the consignees; and that at terials ; marble tables with gilt stands ; glass one time, he had upwards of forty in fa. chandeliers, suspended in the centre ; fine mily. Under such circumstances, I could straw mats on the floor; large glass windows, not but accept the hospitable invitation; which lead to the balconies ; and otherorna. and my baggage was sent for from the ments, at once neat and elegant; the other packet. I seized upon the first opportunity to rooms on the same floor, are generally dining stroll through the city, and was particularly and bed-rooms, paved with marble; offices struck with its extreme cleanliness ; the and counting-houses are kept on the same streets being neatly paved in the centre, range; the upper stories are bed-rooms, paved and having flag-stones for side-walks. Ca- with brick and so arranged, as to be cool and diz may be said to be surrounded by the sea; refreshing. From the terrace a large square in fact, it is built on an isthmus, which pro- of canvass is drawn over the patio, wbich jects considerably towards the sea. There serves to exclude the sun, being always : is a fine view from the westward. The air open when it rains; a cisteru is built in is mild and balsamic; and the refreshing one corner of the patio, and the rain is rebreeze tempers the winter, and moderates ceived in the centre, through one of the the excessive heat of summer. The sirocco flag.stones, punctured for the purpose. or solano, which is the hot wind from the Few houses have gardens; indeed ihere is coast of Africa, is felt in the most distress. hardly a city, which has so little ground to ing manner; the air is burning, a dry mist spare, as Cadiz ; flowers of all kinds, with obscures the rays of the sun, and the inha. small lime and orange trees, are raised in bitants close their doors and windows, to pots and vases, which being ranged on the exclude the suffocating blast. This wind, terrace of each bouse, give a most agreehowever, seldom continues inore than three able air and appearance to the streels.days; and is generally succeeded by a plea. Rent is very high in those streets favourable sant northwest breeze, which seems to re- to commerce; and they command from 600 cover animal and vegetable creation, and to 1200 dollars per annum. The principal revives and braces the system, which, dur street in Cadiz, is called the Calla Ancha ; ing the sirocco, is relaxed and nervous.- which is wide and airy; the houses beautiThe population of Cadiz, may be estimated fud, some magnificent: stores of various at 80,000; although, it covers but a small descriptions, are bere established, princispace of ground. The houses are crowded, pally jewellers and fancy warehouses; it is and the streets very narrow; this, bowever, a kind of lounge for fashionable idlers, who produces one advantage, as it affords a are found in abundance in this city. The

shade at any period of the day, and the Calla Ancha, leads to a fine square, called "current is drawn from one end to the other. the Plaza de San Antonio, paved with flag

stones, in front of which, is the Church of ters on the subject. That inordinate inthe same name. This is one of the princi- herited wealth may destroy the motives pal promenades of the city, and the iphabitants are found here, almost at all hours, to action, in an individual, is probable ; except about sun-set, when, apparently and that such are the effects daily expewith one accord, they leave it to walk on rience demonstrates. If a whole nation the Alamada; a beautiful walk, with a view of the sea, and leading to the Composanto, could be individually wealthy, lethargy the only place where carriages and horses would consequently follow; but as the pass. Opposite to the fortress of St. Sebascian, which is built on a strip of land, pro

great bulk of mankind are, every where, jecting into the sea, is a large and hand- and at all times, dependant for their some building, called the Orphan-House, a daily subsistence upon daily exertion, charitable institution, wbich' reflects credit influx of wealth can never suspend the on the munificence of the city.

Cadiz has long been a port of consider- active powers of but a small part of any able commerce with every part of the community. If we consult the history of world. Its situation is commodious, and Tyre, Carthage, Marseilles, the Greek casy of access; but the trade formerly car. ried on with South-America, and the im- maritime republics, the maritime repubmense revenue, arising from their posses- lics of modern Italy, the Arabs of Spain, sions in that quarter, may be considered as

the Hanse Towns of Germany and Powholly lost. Indeed, Spain, at the present day, enjoys no more the advantages of the land, and that of Holland, England, East and West India trade; and her inter. and the United States, we every where course with Peru and Mexico is, in a great see exertion stimulated in a ratio with measure, cut off. It is impossible to doubt, but that the loss of the colonies to Spain, the extension of commerce and colothough for a time severely felt, will even- nies. tually benefit that kingdom. They have placed too firm a reliance on the resources

Spain is the only instance wbich the of those colonies, and neglected to improve world has afforded of gradual decline, ia those great natural advantages which their moral and physical energy, and in poliown country possesses. Indolently reposing tical power, with a vast extension of coon the wealth which the mines of Peru and Mexico afforded, and dazzled by a false splen- lonies, territory, and commercial means. dour, held out by the transitory possession of During the long period of 300 years, from riches and foreign territory, they lost sight of 1500 to 1800, Spain held the greatest emthat great marim, which nations never should forget, that industry, science, and the arts, are pire that ever existed, as far as the local The only true sources of wealth and national advantages of position, of metallic and vecharacter. Spain possesses a most fertile soil, which is greatly neglected. Manufactures, getable production, of variety of climate, one great chain of independence, languish- and fertility of soil, can be contributary es; education, the great fount of human to national power. With the best region by a want of inclination ; their maritime in Europe for its extent, with the finest and military strength decayed ; they require provinces in America, with the Ladrone, some pinching calamity to awaken them Philippine, and the largest and most fertile to a true sense of their own interest. With of the West India Islands, together with the loss of their possessions in South-America, and another generation in Spain, a vast colonies and islands in and around new impulse may be given to their enter. Africa ;-with all these incalculable sour. prize, and Spain may yet flourish on her ces of prosperity, the vital strength of the own resources, which her foreign possessions are not calculated to promote.' nation annually declined.

It is singular, that in opposition to the This short but impressive history of the experience of all the rest of the world, and decline of Spain contains part, but not at variance with the known propensiall the evidences of the causes of that ties of man, the influx of wealth should declension. In a review of Spanish his- be adduced as a cause of indolence. It tory, an anomaly is perceptible, an ano- may also be observed that two causes of maly that cannot be explained by either the declension of Spain, though obvious, climate, soil, local position, the influx have been strangely overlooked or neof wealth or religion, or indeed, by any glected. One is, the immense baronial of the common reasons assigned by wri- and ecclesiastical possessions in Spain, which render useless so much of her soil; suspicious nature; their bars and bolts : and the other, and most potent of all, is their duonnas and grated windows : all this

is romance ; there is less jealousy evinoed the spreading of her physical

force over too in Spain than in any other country I bave wide a surface.

visited. There is no fastidiousness in their

families ; a husband introduces you to his This latter fatal circumstance arose, wife with the most perfect confidence ; not from either neglect or design in her and to his daughter, if single, with a perrulers, but from accidental causes which fect reliance, which is never shaken, on her bave contributed to widen, weaken, de- dom instances

of an aberration from virtue

virtue, and your integrity. There are seltach, and finally break to fragments this on the part of unmarried women; and it is vast empire.

strangely irreconcileable, that, after marThe writer of this article has frequent- are seldom found without a lover, or, as he

riage, all restraint being removed, women ly heard the correctness of the philosophy is called, a Cortejo ; and what is most extracontained in the latter part of the above ordinary, the lover and husband are affer extract acknowledged by intelligent Spa- house, and exercising an equality of juris

tionate friends, frequently inbabiting, one niards. Such men account for the dead- diction. Spanish women have, generally, ly influence of the clergy in Spain, by ob- dark or olive complexions, large black piereserving that, for three centuries, the most injured by eating dolces or sweets, and a

ing eyes, fine teeth, which are sometimes energetic and enlightened of her popula. noble and majestic walk, for which they tion abandoned their couatry and conten- are eminently distinguished. They cannot tion with the priesthood, to seek comfort, interest. Their vivacity and sensibility, the

be called beautiful, but they never fail to Wealth, and consequence in the colonies. unaffected ease of their manners, their geThus only the most weak, ignorant, and neral politeness and address, joined to the useless of her children remained in their advantages resulting from the most rich

and copious language in the world, give to pative country

them the most surprising advantages, and This drain of men became excessive evidently place the men in a secondary

rank and condition. The women dress alike and instantaneous, after the discovery of in Spain; they usually wear black bombaAmerica, and continued with no inter- sin, or silk, petticoats, rather short, and ruption, and with only partial relaxation, filled at the bottom, with shot or lead to up to 1808.

give a due weight, or pressure to the gar

ment; a tight boddice, with long sleeves By a double fatality, within a few of the same materials, or sometimes, for years after the discovery of America, two contrast, of white silk; a hall coloured aged bigots, Ferdinand the Catholic, and Barcelona, or bandanna handkerchief, pin

ned close over their neck and bosom;a black Cardinal Ximenes, who then ruled Spain, or white silk veil, thrown over tbeir head, banished the peaceable and industrious and brought under the chin, and there crossMoriscoes, and converted the best sub- ed, so as to expose the face; white silk

stockings; neat shoes; and a fan in their jects of Spain into a band of pirates, who hands. Thus attired, they assemble in great have scourged her and many other Chris- numbers, at the close of the afternoon, on tian countries ever since.

a long walk, fronting the sea, called the

Aalmada, which is commodiously arranged, “ The Spanish women, particularly the with stone bencbes, and lined with trees to ladies of Andalusia, constitute the most im- make it an agreeable promenade. Here the portant and influential part of the popula- whole city is seen, without any discrimination of that country. It is incredible what tion as to rank or character; and this gereal difference exisis, and what disparity is neral place of rendezvous affords, to a evident, between the men and women; stranger, at one view, all that is attractive, whether this arises from the known want of fashionable or elegant. They meet, in sumstamina and character on the part of the mer, about six o'clock, and the crowd inmen, their little acquaintance with arts and creases until dark. At the going down of science, their bigotry, or rather the in- the son the bells from all the churches chime tolerance in their faith, I cannot say ; but the oraceones, or vespers; the crowd stops; there is a coldness about them, a saturnine the loud laugh, and the hum of voices, are inindifference, not discernible in the females. stantaneously suspended; the air of gayety The men, though reserved, are excessively gives place to unaffected and pious looks; polite, full of compliment without mean- each person crosses himself, and says a ing, and of professions without sincerity - short prayer, to return thanks to the DisWe hear much, and read more, respecting poser of all good, that another day has ibe jealousy of the Spaniards; of their passed in peace. The bell stops in a mill

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