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lordship should wish to have it in London, an opportunity of sending it would soon be found. If it is intended to aid or elucidate the studies or disputations of your Monmouthshire Tusculanun, it may as well remain for the present at Llandaff.

The appointment of - and your information concerning him, seem highly satisfactory. The example of this diocese would prove, if the subject needed proof, that duties of all kinds are best understood and practised by men of mind; and such, to a certain extent, Mr. promises to be. Besides, that a man should resign the easy and almost luxurious post of for the hard and thankless labours of a parish priest in such a wilderness, moral and physical, as —; should exchange a comfortable mansion and refined society for a houseless living and a half-civilised people, and studious retirement for the invidious publicity which is the lot of every active clergyman in this region of dissent,--does seem to argue sincerity of conviction and strength of purpose.

My vanity is denied the gratification of being able to inform your lordship where the line 'Tempora mutantur,' &c., is to be found. In Croker's edition of Boswell, there is a collection of several oft-quoted lines of unknown parentage, among which, I think, is the one in question. Many of them (such as 'incidit in Scyllam,' &c.) are referred to their proper authors. Others (such as Sidney's famous 'Manus hæc inimica tyrannis,' &c., inscribed in the Book of Visitors at the library of Copenhagen) still 'carent vate sacro. I quite forget under which category falls the present object of your lordship’s curiosity. I have been equally unfortunate in my search for the quotation from Cicero. Your lordship doubtless recollects C. Lucilius's objection to the learned Persius, and preference for the honest but illiterate Lælius Decimus as a reader. Crassus expresses the same preference in favour of uneducated over highly

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LETTER OF MR. H. A. BRUCE.

199

educated listeners to his disputations on oratory—from modesty, I should think, rather than from conviction Sic

ego, si jam mihi disputandum sit de his nostris studiis, nolim equidem apud rusticos, sed multo minus apud vos. Malo enim non intelligi Orationem meam quam reprehendi ;' a craven admission, which will not, I think, secure your lordship’s approbation. The above passage is in the sixth chapter of the second book De Oratore. I do not remember, and cannot find that Cicero, though he distinguishes between the different styles and manners which befit the senate, popular assemblies, and the bar, ever describes the precise audience he would wish to address. I am, however, very probably mistaken-or he may have done so incidentally, or elsewhere than in the De Oratore, with which, as a sort of professional book, I am better acquainted than with his other works.

The word 'agrestis' occurs in that very interesting passage concerning pronunciation (lib. 3. c. xi.): 'Rustica vox et agrestis quosdam delectat quo magis antiquitatem, si ita sonet, eorum sermo retinere videatur.'

But though my researches have been unavailing, I have to thank you for bringing about a renewal of acquaintance with that delightful treatise. At what a distance has Cicero left all imitators in the same description of composition—even the ablest and the most elegant- The Minute Philosopher of Berkeley. .

The distinction between your lordship’s ornamental, and the precautionary labours of the Tiburtines at Tivoli, and the far grander ones of the Rietenses, * at Terni did not escape me; though I could not resist repeating Byron's remark, that the two finest falls in Europeat least the most beautiful-were artificial-works, in fact, of mere utility, which happened to be beautiful.'

.

* Rieti, the ancient Reate.

With a warm sense of your lordship’s great kindness to me, and with my wife's best respects,

Believe me, my dear Lord,
Ever sincerely yours,

HENRY A. BRUCE.
I place the two following letters here, rather than
in that portion of the Memoir which Sir T. Phillips
has himself contributed, because some readers, who
may be inclined to deal shortly with the diocesan
history, will in this way probably be benefited by
their instructive contents.

Deanery, St. Paul's, July 7, 1846. My dear Sir Thomas,

I am so thoroughly convinced that the cause of national education in the principles of the church has been steadily advancing during the last fifteen years in the diocese of Llandaff, that I am very unwilling to join in any declaration which implies the contrary. The deficiency complained of arises almost entirely from the prevalence of sectarianism hostile to the church, and from the supineness of the great proprietors in the mining districts. These districts, as you well know, consist but of few parishes, and those parishes, once almost desolate, are now swarming with a condensed population. For that population no adequate provision has been made by those who brought them there, and who acquire great wealth from their labour. Whenever the church has made an effort to supply this want, the effect has been slight, for want of means; and while a church without endowment has been at length built, by dint of soliciting the public, the population has been in the meantime continually increasing, so that the portion thus inadequately provided for bears but a very small ratio to the aggregate that still remains destitute. This enormous evil, I must repeat, is confined to the mineral region. In

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NATIONAL EDUCATION IN WALES.

201

the towns, and in the rural parishes, there has been a regular improvement both as to churches and schools, and this improvement in reference to schools has, by reason of increased activity and better organization, within a few years been greatly on the advance. It seems, therefore, to me that a statement founded on the aggregate population of the diocese presents an unfair view of its actual condition, and leads to very erroneous conclusions concerning the general neglect of religious education. There ought to be a clear and distinct description of the region in which the want prevails. It is the mineral region (consisting of some eight or ten parishes), not the diocese, which calls for aid. Perhaps if an appeal of this kind were made, besides exciting some extraneous sympathy, it would re-act upon the parties who are alone responsible, and shame them, if no better motives operate, into a sense of their duty.

It is hardly necessary for me, who have so often borne testimony to your munificence, and to that of Mr. Homfray, and of the Rhymney Company, and of a few others, to say that I not only except you from blame, but that your example shines the brighter for being contrasted with the gloomy picture exhibited by the parish of Bedwelty, Aberystwith, and some others.

Let me add also, that the clergy throughout that wide region are among the most exemplary and laborious and efficient of their brethren. Your recollection can, I am sure, serve you with proofs of the prodigious improvement which has taken place, and I must be allowed to declare, that my anxiety has been increasing to procure the best spiritual aid, whenever an opening has been made, which, under the repulsive and discouraging circumstances of the case, could be had. Let me entreat you, then, who have taken such laudable pains to ascertain the wants of that portion of the diocese, to distinguish the parishes in which they exist, from those in which no greater deficiency is

found than is common throughout England, and which will ever prevail more or less, according to the character of their respective clergymen and rich proprietors. If I thought 1001. a year from me, in addition to the many hundreds I annually contribute to the religious care and education of the poor, was requisite towards the wished-for improvement, I would willingly give it. But when I hear of rich individuals making conditional offers of money, if the clergy with their life-incomes will do the same, disgust overcomes all other feelings.

Pray can you supply me, from the returns you have examined, with the statistics of the few parishes comprising the mineral region ? such statistics, I mean, as form the basis of your general scheme concerning Wales. It would enable me to demonstrate more clearly the truth and justice of the principles I have been maintaining. You will think me tiresome, and perhaps opiniated, but if my opinions are wrong, they are not hastily formed, but have been the result of long experience and observation. I may lay claim, also, to no superficial meditation on the subject of national education, about which there are many crude and erroneous speculations. I will, however, venture to request your perusal of a Charge which I published, chiefly on this subject, in 1839. I have seen no reason to retract a single remark or sentiment on this subject contained in it. On the contrary, the experience of the last six or seven years has confirmed me in the conviction of their truth. My health is still much affected, and I am obliged to retire from all public meetings. But if, rather than write, you prefer a personal interview, I am always most happy to converse with you, according to the bodily energy I possess. Believe me, my dear Sir Thomas,

Very truly yours,

E. LLANDAFF.

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