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Hardwick, November 1, 1846. My dear Sir Thomas,

I read with much satisfaction your remarks upon the system of combined instruction in the Irish schools. I used to forebode what has happened, when conversing, as I often did, with my old and revered friend the Archbishop of Dublin, but latterly I have said nothing, because he is pledged to the measure; and if, under his patronage, with talents and virtues greatly above the average of mankind, the scheme has failed, as you have clearly pointed out that it has, there must, I am sure, be something essentially wrong and impracticable in it. Accept my thanks for the copy of your circular. This plan is quite practicable, if sufficient funds can be raised. I feel affectionately and zealously for my own diocese, but I must say that there appears to me no claim in the Principality for special public grants, nor in North Wales for the assistance of her poorer sister. But I rejoice that the former claim has been liberally answered; and although I think it extremely unfair to Llandaff to place her condition in the same scale with St. David's (in which latter Mr. Allen's report proves the grossest neglect of the pastoral duty to have prevailed), yet I am willing to contribute to the common cause. Nine of our parishes are sadly neglected by the wealthy proprietors, and I may almost say only nine, for there are most honourable exceptions (besides yourself) in the class of proprietors. On Tuesday I shall see the archdeacons at Tintern, when we shall have some talk on the matters.

I will peruse the scheme you have been so good as to send me, and if any remarks occur to me worth communicating, I will not fail to submit them. Believe me, my dear Sir Thomas,

Most truly yours,


Deanery, St. Paul's, Jan. 1, 1847. My dear Traherne,

By way of atoning for some neglect last year, I send

you the first letter of the new year—a year which does not, indeed, dawn with any bright promise, but is still not without hope that we shall come purer and healthier out of the trial. Having been for more than thirty years sickened and disheartened by the prevalence of those errors which I fondly expected that Malthus's great work would have gradually extinguished, but which I was mortified to see gathering strength every day, I cannot but look upon this visitation in Ireland as a messenger of providence sent to instruct those in a truth, which the age obstinately rejected when offered to their reason only, but which I now find forced upon men's minds by irresistible demonstration, Misgovernment had been the constant cry,—misgovernment of Ireland is the cause of all these enormities and outrages, of all this degeneracy, and demoralization, and misery which that people exhibit. When I asked in what respect the government was to blame—the government, which,


had been yielding to their clamours, repealing their disabilities, encouraging their trade and their agriculture—I never got any answer but this: “the thing speaks for itself,

' the people are a fine race, loyal, goodhumoured, generous—it cannot be their own fault that they are poor and miserable.

Now it is at length perceived that the multiplication of the people, under the operation of two motives—1stly, that short-sighted love of present gain in the landlords, and, 2ndly, avarice of fees in the priests—has been the real source of all the evil. And yet, such being the causes, human laws cannot remedy it except by a slow and gradual process. The original mischief, perhaps, is, that such enormous estates were formed out of confiscated property ages ago—the lapse of time being so great, that even law itself

year after



would be loosened and overthrown if we were now to question the title. But if the maxim be true, 'Salus populi suprema lex,' laws must be passed regulating the management of property for the future, and limiting that discretion of landlords in a degree that would not be endured, and is, indeed, not wanted in England. I look upon this as the sole remedy: we shall begin, I trust, this session,—but we shall have little to show for our labour for years to come. In the meantime, malgré the outcry of landlords, the poor must be fed by the produce of the district in which they were born, and their increase must be prevented or checked by prohibitions against cottage-farms.

I am perhaps wearying you by a lecture on population. But I abstain from ordinary news, because you read your Times and other English papers at Rome almost as soon as your grandfather used to know what was going on in London. As a striking specimen, however, of this change, I may state that this day the afternoon news of Paris yesterday is placed on my breakfast table, and will continue to be so daily from the commencement of this year ... At Rome it seems there is ferment, and even political ferment there must partake of religious feeling; and if free scope be given to religious inquiry, it must, I think, end in emancipating many from the thraldom of superstition and senile ignorance. Diocesan, or at least Glamorganshire news you hear from other friends. The bilinguar parishes are my greatest plague. I shall be glad to hear that both your own and Mrs. Traherne's health is improved by this excursion.

Yours most truly,


Hardwick, Sept. 27, 1847. My dear Archbishop,

The just praises of your portrait-painter would have pleased me more if they had not been accompanied




by much false rhetoric, engendered in the magazine-school of the day. It is long since I looked into the treatise De Causis Corrupto Eloquentiæ,' falsely ascribed to Tacitus, but I conceive that the worst specimens of that age are outdone by the modern school. Such writers as and many an Edinburgh aspirant after fame, scorn to say anything in perspicuous and simple language. Vibrantes sententioloe is, I think, the phrase by which such writing is designated in that treatise. I have ventured to give the whole class the appellation of the magic-lanthorn school,' for their writings have the startling effect of that toy,children delight in them, and grown people soon get tired of them.

There is, however, an omission in this Edinburgh writer which I can less pardon than his want of taste. He leaves out what I would fix upon as your characteristic feature and I

say it without fear of being thought a sycophantman intrepid love of truth. By this, some people mean a habit of speaking whatever is uppermost—a quality Solomon attributes to the fool. But I mean a devotion to the cause of truth—a determined resolution to discover it; and, when discovered and carefully ascertained, to make it known to the world.

He speaks, too, of the power of illustrating abstract principles by familiar examples; but against this he sets, by way of contrast, what he calls genius. Now it is the surest mark of genius to discern these analogies. Το δε μεταφορίκον είναι μεγιστον ευφυϊας σημείον" and in this quality I would venture to match you against all the

that ever lived.

By-the-bye, what an idol they make of that man-the over - rated

as I lately saw him with perfect justice described. Those fragmentary writers carry off an undue share of admiration. You see,' it is said of them, 'what they can do if they would !' But they shirk the

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greatest difficulty-the 'ponere totum'—the finishing—the production of an entire work.

In return for your portrait, I send you a sketch which I have just received from the hand of a dissenting minister, who heard one of my confirmation addresses. He points his censures against me by contrasting my opinions with yours. I should like to know whether you admit the justice of his quotations.

Ever sincerely yours,

E. LLANDAFF. * Feb. 19, 1848. Mr. Crummall, a negro clergyman of the Episcopal Church of America, having brought an introduction from Bishop Hopkins, of Vermont, breakfasted with

A pure negro by both parents-a very intelligent, well-educated man. His conversation sensible, frank, and fluent, in the best English. Much conversation on the degraded condition of the African race in the free States of America—despised, excluded, inadmissible to society, whatever be their character, attainments, or property. His object in England is to collect subscriptions for building a negro church in New York, of which he is the minister.'

Feb. 21. The bill for diplomatic relations with Rome' in committee. The whole bill altered. “Sovereign Pontiff' changed to 'Sovereign of the Roman States.' No ecclesiastic or member of a religious order to be an accredited minister here. Division on this point. For the amendment, 67; against, 64: majority, 3. As seven bishops voted for this amendment, and four against, it may be considered as carried by three bishops. I felt happy in being one of this majority.'

' Feb. 24, St. Matthew's Day. Being uncertain when I might be called upon to assist in Dr. Hampden's consecration, and having eight candidates whose services were much wanted, I fixed on this saint's day, rather than a Sunday, for the ordination at St. Gregory's church. The

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