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full service of the day; Mr Tyler preached. While this service was going on, what a different scene did Paris present. On this day King Louis Philippe abdicated; his nomination of his grandson rejected by the assemblage in the chambers: the new ministry named by him rejected. A provincial government appointed, amidst cries of 'Republique.'

* Feb. 28. News of the arrival in London of the princes, and others of the king's family. The king himself expected at Portsmouth. All Europe in a state of ferment and of incipient revolution—all except England ! 'Dii meliora piis, erroremque hostibus illum !”'

Deanery, St. Paul's, March 3, 1848. My dear Duncan,

.. We are indeed in a world of agitation, perhaps at the commencement of greater changes in Europe than we have yet witnessed. As to the French nation, I think often of Cæsar's phrase, ‘Galli pro suâ levitate,' &c. Restlessness, and fickleness, and passion for change, are inherent in the race.

Had they ever a better king than Louis Philippe, or a better minister than Guizot? Had this king and his minister humoured their thirst 'for military glory and for conquest, they would have been adored and canonized, as Napoleon was. Let them be the winners, and all other nations the sufferers, and they are well pleased. 'Hæ tibi erunt artes,' they say among themselves, from the highest to the lowest, but for the unostentatious and truly Christian virtues they have no taste.

It is quite disgusting to hear the royal family of France now reviled because they are unfortunate. But such is the way of the world, not merely of the Roman populace:

Sequitur fortunam ut semper et odit

I do not see what Louis Philippe could have done to

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avert this storm. The only thing I see laid to his charge is, that he studied the interest of his own family; but is it not the duty of a father to do so ? if he does not thereby sacrifice other interests, those of the nation, to them—and no one can say that this is the fact. The nation has been well governed for seventeen years: his household has been a pattern of morality and domestic virtue. His own life and that of his sons have been at the service of the country, and frequently endangered, and his time has been devoted to public business in the most difficult times. For all this he is deposed, plundered, banished, and not a crime alleged against him.

Believe me ever, my dear friend,
Sincerely yours,


My notice of the last year in the bishop's life will be appropriately opened by his answer to a letter of congratulation on his birthday, sent him by the Provost of Oriel.

Deanery, St. Paul's, Feb. 5, 1849. My dear Provost,

Thanks for your friendly congratulations. I certainly feel, on entering my seventy-fourth year, that I have more than the average share of health and mental vigour usual at that age, but perhaps less than the average share of bodily strength, considering how great that was during the best part of my life. Repose is now as necessary (I do not say as grateful) as exercise used to be. Walking, and even standing, fatigues me in a few minutes. Yet I feel the truth of Paley's remark, in his chapter on the goodness of God, that there is enjoyment even in the dozing chair of age, as well as in the alacrity of youth. You speak of your mother as arrived at eighty-two: my own died in her ninety-second year. The last faculty that suffered no


decay was affection and gratitude to God and man, especially to those of her own house.

I know how laborious the task of legislation is not in itself, but in the endeavour to mould discordant opinions into one shape. After all, there must be a compromise—no absolute unanimity. I congratulate you on the close of this labour. Ever, my dear Provost, sincerely yours,


Deanery, St. Paul's, Feb. 19, 1849. My dear Provost,

I am obliged to you for sending me the abstract of the new examination statute, which will certainly be a great improvement. It amuses me to think of the vain efforts I made forty years ago to have the names of all candidates who pass, whether with honour or not, printed. The harshness—the cruelty of such a measure was loudly condemned. After some years I did obtain the publication of the summa, or whole number of candidates, in order to heighten the honours of the classes. Still it was held indispensable that the offering for honours should be voluntary, a condition which paralyzed the whole measure. The true system would be, to make out the list after each examination, every candidate being placed by the examiners in the order of merit, according to their judgment. Another sad blemish in this statute appears to me to be, that it is apparently regarded as a penal statute, not to be in force upon any student now on the books; not even giving them the choice of coming under it. Surely, surely, the measure is one of encouragement, not of punishment, and one by which all society is to be benefited. Still, according to hebdomadal legislation, it is to begin only in four years, i.e., to come into full operation not till then; the present race having a 'vested interest' in idleness.

I heard of your dining at the surgeons' college, when




other medical brother performed a distinguished part. What a rare felicity!

Ever yours sincerely,


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The tone of the remaining letters, and the character of the entries in the diary, begin, like evening shadows, to point the close of day. When the bishop was enjoying the scene which he afterwards noted in his diary, as below—even then the lamp of life was burning low, and within a few months was extinct.

'July 5. Attended the Harrow speeches for the first time, though invited every year since 1828. A very interesting day. The exercises good. The performance not the worse for being less theatrical than at most schools.

A son of Dr. Francis Hawkins was by far the most distinguished. He gained five prizes, and spoke his compositions—viz., Greek prose, Latin hexameters, Greek iambics, Latin alcaics, English poem, all of great merit.'

I shall place before the reader but two more letters, their order as to date being transposed, partly because the subject of the later one harmonizes with the Harrow visit, and partly because the expressions of the earlier one, in regard to decaying strength, truly presage the shortlycoming end; while the hopes of the later letter were no sooner felt than lost again in extreme weakness. But though the body was fast going, this letter amply testifies that the mind was vigorous as ever. It is addressed to his eldest nephew.



Hardwick, September 3, 1849. My dear John,

When I received your letter, announcing the plan for your son's education, I was so unwell as to be hardly equal to the daily task which falls upon me of corresponding on diocesan matters. Your sisters have already informed you that my disorder is abated, and I can now venture, with some confidence, to say that I am recovering my ordinary state of health and strength. The latter blessing, indeed, is necessarily a declining one. I submit to the necessity without repining. The loss enables me to estimate the value of what, in earlier life, I enjoyed, but thought too little of. As I am quite alive to the egregious folly of the Peace Congress, unless they propose to alter human nature by some discoveries in science, I can calmly appreciate your views as to John's profession. At present, however, and for some years to come, I would advise nothing to be done, as introductory to a particular profession, but to lay that sound and firm basis of liberal education in the best literature, and in the elements of science, which distinguishes England. I would discountenance all ambition for various attainments and desultory reading (except for recreation and to excite the faculties, especially the imagination), and, more than all, would seek to inculcate the simple truths of Christianity as undoubted historical facts. This will serve as a firm foundation for that purer sense of its divine character, which alone can influence the heart and regulate the conduct. Another homely principle, too much neglected, is to make a boy thoroughly master of what he learns—to read the best parts of the best authors over and over, and to ascertain the exact meaning of words (not by general definition, but) according to the use of them in the context in which they occur. How much less do the majority of Oxford graduates understand Horace, Virgil, Tacitus, and even Cicero, than our fathers did, who were drilled at a

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