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sky overhead; but when the sovereign entered, these dingy streets were changed into gaily-decorated avenues. Arches of flowers and green boughs were thrown across them, flags waved on the roofs, and the outsides of the houses were covered by hangings of tapestry; silk, and velvet hung from the top windows. The shouts of the multitude rent the air, and the firing of the guns was deafening. Elizabeth advanced slowly through this gay scene, often stopping to look at the ornaments which her loyal subjects had put up for her entertainment. She was struck with one which represented Time, under the figure of a man coming from a cave and carrying a scythe and hour-glass. Time led by the hand his daughter Truth, and Truth presented to the Queen an English bible. She reverently kissed it, amidst the frantic cheers of the people, and asserted that people should be allowed to read that book.

Wars.--The Spanish Armada, 1588, set sail for the conquest of England, under the command of the Duke de Medina Sidonia. After sailing from Lisbon it had to refit, as the ships were damaged by a storm. Having again set sail, Lord Howard of Effingham, Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher attacked the Spanish fleet near Plymouth, and defeated it. _Another storm shattered the Spanish fleet off Flamborough Head, and out of 130 vessels, 20,000 sailors, and 34,000 soldiers, only 35 ships escaped, and very few men. 1598, Insurrection under the Earl of Tyrone. The Earl of Essex recalled by Elizabeth for not putting down the Irish rebels. 1586, war in the Netherlands; the English assisted the Dutch in driving the Spaniards out of Holland. Battle of Zutphen; Sir Philip Sidney killed. 1568, insurrection of the Scots against their queen, Mary, secretly fomented by the English. Defeat of the Scotch royalists at Carberry Hill and Langside; Mary obliged to flee into England.

Chief Events.-Insurrections in favour of Mary, Queen of Scots, headed by the Duke of Norfolk, Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, and Babington. These were discovered by Lord Walsingham. Mary executed at Fotheringhay Castle (Northamptonshire), 1586. In 1572 many Protestants took refuge in England, after the massacre in France on St. Bartholomew's day. 1577, pocket watches introduced from Germany. 1580, the Earl of Arundel introduced coaches, and in the same year Francis Drake first sailed round the world. The United States of America first colonised by Sir Walter Raleigh.

Eminent Persons.—Mary, Queen of Scots, daughter of James IV. and Mary of Guise, cousin to Elizabeth; married Francis II. of France, and afterwards her cousin, Lord Darnley (1565). Darnley met with a violent death near Edinburgh (1567), the house in which he was sleeping being blown up with gunpowder; it is supposed this was done by Bothwell, who married Mary. The Scottish lords opposed this marriage, and she being defeated at Carberry Hill, was imprisoned at Lochleven Castle. In 1568 Mary escaped, and was again defeated at Langside ; she then escaped to England.

She was removed to Fotheringhay Castle; was tried for causing the death of Darnley, and for inciting others to murder Elizabeth, and being found guilty was executed 1587. Shakespeare, born 1564, and died 1616. His birthplace was Stratford. on-Avon; he came from a respectable family, and was educated at the Grammar School of his native town. Went to London when 22 years of age. Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, Lord Chancellor, a great essayist ; deprived of his office for bribery. Lord Essex, favourite of Queen Elizabeth. Sir Walter Raleigh, introduced the potato plant and tobacco, and colonised Virginia in 1585.

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE. — Before the Spanish defeat of their invincible armada, in 1588, the Queen sent Drake to lay waste the Spanish coast and to destroy shipping. He set sail with four ships furnished by the Queen, and 16 by the merchants of London. Having learned that a Spanish fleet richly laden was lying at Cadiz, in readiness to set sail for London, he directed his course to the former port, where he boldly attacked the enemy. Six galleys were obliged to take shelter under the cannon of the forts; he burned about 100 vessels laden with ammunition and naval stores, and destroyed a great ship belonging to the Marquis de Santa Croce. Thence setting sail for Cape St. Vincent, he took by assault the castle situated on that promontory, with three other fortresses. Having next pillaged Lisbon, he sailed to the Canaries, where, after lying some time in wait, he took a rich prize, worth £2,000,000, and then returned to England; having thus by this short expedition taught the English to despise the huge and unwieldy ships of the enemy, and thus prepared them to act with more resolution against the formidable fleet that now threatened to invade them.

SIR PHILIP SIDNEY. -Among the many illustrious men who adorned this reign, Sidney was the Queen's greatest favourite ; she called him her brightest jewel.” His memory is a lasting treasure to his native land. At 25 years of age he excelled most men for wisdorn and bravery. We remember him best, however, for the last of his kind actions. He had gone to the Netherlands to help the men who were fighting for their religion and liberty against Philip, King of Spain. He was mortally wounded at the battle of Zutphen. Bleeding to death and parched with thirst he asked for water, and with great difficulty a little was procured and brought to him on the battle-field.

A poor wounded soldier was about to be carried past him by his comrades, and Sidney was in the act of raising the cup to his lips, when he saw the soldier looking with longing eyes; he could not resist the appeal. “ Give it to that man,” said he; “his necessity is greater than mine." Sir Philip Sidney was only 32 when he died.

SIR WALTER RALEIGH.-Camden relates the following:When the Queen in one of her customary walks hesitated about passing a muddy spot, Raleigh threw his cloak before her as a carpet. He was immediately invited to court, and the most brilliant prospects opened before him. On one occasion he wrote with a diamond on a window, “ Fain would I climb, but that I fear to fall.” To which the Queen added, “If thy heart fail thee do not climb at all." He was a man of great enterprise ; and to him we are indebted for the introduction into England, consequent upon his voyage in 1585 to colonise Virginia, in North America, of the potato plant, and the use of tobacco, the former of which has since become an almost uni. versal article of diet, and the latter a most productive source of revenue.

Exercise. 1. Who was James I. ? 2. Describe the Gunpowder Plot. 3. Sketch the history of the reign of James. 4. What great men lived in this reign ? 5. Trace the chief events of the reign, with dates.

JAMES I. Birth and Reign.-Born 1566, succeeded to the Scotch throne 1567, and was made king of Great Britain 1603; died in 1625. He was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley.

Chief Events.-An insurrection to dethrone James was raised by Lord Grey, Lord Cobham, and Sir Walter Raleigh ; the latter was sentenced to death, but pardoned.

These conspirators wished to put Lady Arabella Stuart on the English throne. Gunpowder Plot, 1605. This plot is said to have been planned by the Roman Catholics, and many formed a resolution of destroying the king and both houses of Parliament with gunpowder. The chief conspirators were Catesby, Sir Everard Digby, and Sir Henry Percy. These men hired a vaut under the House of Commons, and into this they conveyed 36 barrels of gunpowder, which they hid under some coals. A Spaniard, Guido Fawkes, or Guy Fawkes, was to set a train on the opening of Parliament, 5th of November, when the king was expected. Everything seemed to prosper, when Sir Henry Percy conceived a design of saving the life of Lord Monteagle, his intimate friend. He wrote to him :-My Lord, stay away from this Parliament, for God and man have concurred together to punish the wickedness of the times. And think not slightly of this advertisement, but retire yourself into the country, where you may expect the event in safety. For thougli there be no appearance of any stir, yet I say they will receive a terrible blow this Parliament; and yet they shall not see who hurts them. This counsel is not to be contemned, because it may do you good, and can do you no harm. For the danger is past as soon as you have burned this letter.This letter was not understood by Monteagle, so he took it to Lord Salisbury, Secretary of State, who carried it to the king. The vault was searched, and the conspirators were arrested, 1612.

Chief Men.– Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, favourite of James I.

DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM.- George Villiers, Viscount Villiers, earl, marquis, and Duke of Buckingham, Knight of the Garter, Master of the Horse, Chief Justice over the Forest Laws, Warden of the Cinque Ports, Master of the King's Bench Office, Steward of Westminster, Constable of Windsor, and Lord High Admiral of England. All these honours caused him enemies. Charles, the Prince of Wales, took Buckingham with him to the court of Spain, to marry the King of Spain's daughter. They called themselves James and Thomas Smith ; James was the master and Thomas the servant. The marriage was broken off, but for what reason we do not know. Charles married the Princess Henrietta Maria, daughter of the King of France. In the following reign (Charles I.) the duke was sent to take Rochelle, in France; instead of attacking the island of Oleron, which was defenceless, he attacked the Isle of Rhé, which was well provisioned and fortified, intending to starve out the garrison. By that time the French had landed their troops, forced Buckingham to retreat, and two-thirds of his army was cut to pieces. He was about to re-attack Rochelle, and was at Portsmouth reviewing his troops, and while speaking to one of his colonels, a man named Felton struck him on the breast with his knife. The duke had only time to say " The villain has killed me," when he instantly expired – Whittaker.

Sir Hugh Middleton, planned the New River, London, to supply water to the citizens. Henry, Prince of Wales, who CHARLES I. Birth and Reign-Born 1600, ascended the throne 1625, and died in 1649 ; reigned 24 years.

died young.

Exercise. 1. Sketch the reign of Charles I. 2 What was Tonnage and Poundage ? 3. Give the battles fought during this reign. 4. What great men then lived ? 5. What was the character of Charles I.

Wars. First, with France and Spain, to gratify the pride of the Duke of Buckingham. 1625, defeat of the English commander, Lord Wimbledon, at Cadiz. 1627, defeat of the Duke of Buckingham at Rochelle. Second, with Scotland. Charles tried to force the English Liturgy into Scotland, which the Scotch resisted; they formed a band to resist the English, which band called themselves Covenanters, under Leslie. 1638, defeat of the English at Newburn. Third, Ireland, caused by the tyranny of Wentworth. Rising in Ulster. 1641, many English settlers murdered by the Irish. Fourth, the civil war between the Royalists and the Parliamentarians, 1642 to 1649.

1642: Edge Hill; indecisive; 5000 killed.
1643. Stratton Hill; Parliamentarians lost.

Roundaway Down, ditto.
Chalgrove Field, ditto.

Newbury; Royalists defeated. 1644. Marston Moor, ditto by Oliver Cromwell. BATTLE OF MARSTON MOOR, 1644.-Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell led the Parliamentarians and Scotch, Prince Rupert, cousin to the king, and the Marquis of Newcastle led the Royalists. The object of the king's troops was to take York. Rupert, with the right wing, began to attack Cromwell's troops (or Ironsides, as they were called, from their strength), but was obliged to fall back. 'Again and again he renewed the attack, but failed. The Prince's whole train of artillery was taken, and the fresh troops of Fairfax drove the Royalists off the field of battle. 1644. Nantwich; Royalists won; Irish Royalists beaten.

Cropredy Bridge; Parliamentarians lost.
Newbury ; indecisive.

Tippermuir and Inverlochie; Covenanters defeated.
1645. Philiphaugh; Royalists lost.

ditto. BATTLE OF NASEBY, 1645.- This battle decided the fate of Charles I. The main body of the royal army was commanded by Lord Astley; Prince Rupert led the right wing, Sir Marmaduke Langdale the left, and the king himself headed the reserve. On the opposite side, Fairfax and Skipton commanded the main body; Cromwell led the right, and Ireton, his son-in-law, the left. Rupert attacked the left wing with his usual impetuosity and success; they were broken, and pursued as far as the village; but he lost time in attempting to make himself master of their artillery. Cromwell in the meantime was equally successful on his side, and broke through


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