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and the Patagonian Archipelago; Juan Fernandez, Chinchas, and Galapagos.

BRAZIL. Area, 3,000,000 sq. mls. ; Population, 11,780,000. Rivers : Amazon, Parana, Araguay, and Uruguay. Minerals: Gold, silver, diamonds, &c.

Capital : Rio Janeiro. Pernambuco and Maranbao places of trade.

GUIANA.
French Guiana. Capital : Cayenne.
Dutch Guiana. Capital : Paramaribo.
Venezuela. Capital: Caraccas.
New Granada. Capital : Cartagena.
Ecuador: Capital : Quito.

PERU.
Minerals: Gold, copper, soda, iron, lead, &c.

Vegetables : European grains and fruits, maize, rice, copal, cinchona bark, Peruvian bark, and vanilla. Capital: Lima.

BOLIVIA. Area, 473,000 sq. mls. ; Population, 2,500,000. Manufactures : Leather and cotton. Exports : Gold, silver, cattle, hides, sheep, skins. Capital: Chuquisaca.

CHILI. Area, 170,000 sq. mls.; Population, 1,700,000. Minerals : Gold, silver, copper, lead, coal, and iron.

Manufactures : Earthenware, cloths, cordage, soap, tallow, leather, and brandy.

LA PLATA. Population : 2,500,000.

Exports: Ox hides, skins, horse hair, dried beef, tallow, bones, hide parings.

Minerals: Gold, silver, and copper.
Capital : Buenos Ayres, Population 200,000.

PATAGONIA.
South of America. Country claimed by Chili and
La Plata. People very tall, live chiefly by fishing and
the chase. No part of this country is cultivated.

ENGLISH HISTORY. FROM HENRY VII. TO THE DEATH OF GEORGE III.

STANDARD VI.

No.

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Began Ceased Age at Sovereim. House. to reign. to reign. death. 1. Henry VII.

I 1185

15119 54 2. Henry VIII.

1509 1517 56 3. Edward VI. Tudor 1517 1553 16 1 Mary

1553 1558 42 5. Elizabeth...

1558

1603 70 6. James I...

1643 1625 59 7. Charles I. Stuart 1625 1619 49 8. Oliver Cromwell (the

1053 1658 59 Commonwealth) 9. Charles II. Stuart 1680 1685 55 10. Jannes II. Do. 1685

1689 68 11. William III.

Do. 1689 1694 52 Mary II.

William III. alone Do. 1694 1702 52 12. Anne

Do. 1702 1711 50 13. George I.... Brunswick 1714 1727 67 14. George II.

Do.

1727 1760 77 15. George III. Do. 1760 1820 82

HENRY VII. Birth and Reign --Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, son of Edmund, Earl of Richmond, whose father, Owen Tudor, had married Citherine of France, wife of Henry V. Born 1456, came to the throne 1485, and died 1509, at the age of 54. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV., thus uniting the two houses of York and Lancaster.

Issue.--Arthur (who died young), Henry, who became king · as Henry VIII., and Margaret.

Insurrections.-F'irst, 1486, Lord Lovel's, assisted by Lambert Simnel, a baker's son, who personated the Earl of Warwick, raised a large army of German and Irish troops, and invaded England. A battle was fought at Stoke, the king's troops were victorious, and the rebels left 4000 on the field of battle. Simnel was taken prisoner, pardoned, and made a scullion in the king's kitchen, whence he was advanced to the rank of falconer, in which mean employment he died. Second, 1492, in Yorkshire, caused by high rates of food, in which the Earl of Northumberland was killed by the mob. Third, Perkin Warbeck, son of a converted Jew, personated the Duke of York, son of Edward IV. He was aided by the Duchess of Burgundy and Sir W. Stanley. He landed in Cornwall, was forced to take refuge in Beaulieu, New Forest, and was captured and executed at Tyburn.

Chief Events.-Henry amassed more money than any other English sovereign. His ministers for extorting money were Empsom and Dudley. He made a commercial treaty with Flanders, and encouraged navigation. Columbus dis. covered America.

BATTLE OF BOSWORTH, 1485.—The last of the wars of the Roses. The Earl of Richmond set sail from Harfleur, in Normandy, with 2000 men, to wrest the throne from Richard III. In six days he reached Milford Haven, in Wales, where he landed without opposition. The Welsh declared in favour of Richmond, and many others joined his standard.

The only nobleman who was sincerely attached to Richard seemed to be the Duke of Norfolk. Lord Stanley raised an army from his friends in Cheshire and Lancashire, but without declaring himself for either. The two armies met at Bosworth, near Leicester-Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, at the head of 6000 men, and Richard with 12,000; Stanley, who commanded about 7000, took post at Atherstone, near both armies, so as to join either party. The front ranks of Richmond's troops, consisting of archers, was commanded by the Earl of Oxford, the right wing by Sir Gilbert Talbot, and the left led by Sir John Savage; the main body by Richmond and his uncle, the Earl of Pembroke. Soon after the battle began Stanley declared in favour of Richmond. Richard fought with bravery, and tried to slay Henry. Stanley surrounded Richard, who, fighting to the last moment with fury, was overwhelmed by numbers and slain. His men everywhere sought for safety by flight; 3000 of Richard's soldiers were slain. The body of Richard was found covered by dead enemies, and besmeared with blood ; it was thrown carelessly across a horse, and carried to Leicester amidst the shouts and insults of the mob, and buried in the Greyfriars' Church there.

THE SWEATING SICKNESS.-In the latter part of the year 1485 the historian Polydore relates that there raged in London and other parts of the kingdom a kind of illness, unknown to any other country—the sweating sickness, which caused the death of several thousands. It did not arise from offensive smells or bad drainage, but from the general state of the air. In less than 24 hours the patient commonly died or recovered (more commonly the former). When the disease had exerted its fury for a few weeks, it was noticed, either from change in the atmosphere or from a better course of food, to be considerably abated, TRADE AND EDUCATION.-These two were much fostered in the reign of Henry VII. For hundreds of years scarcely any one knew Greek; but now there were several, and amongst them Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, and Hugh Latimer. Linacre, the great English physician, and Dean Colet, who founded St. Paul's School, that 153 boys might receive a good education free of expense, were excellent scholars. To encourage trade Henry VII. allowed artificers, victuallers, and shopkeepers to settle in towns, and did away with vexations which had injured foreign trade.

Chief Men.-Sebastian Cabot, a great navigator employed by Henry VII., discovered Newfoundland, and parts of North America. Lord Stanley, who contributed to the success of the battle of Bosworth (1485), and caused Henry to be crowned king. Richard Simon, an Oxford priest, who assisted Lambert Simnel. Lambert Simnel, son of a baker, received an excellent education; his tutor was Simon: he personated the Earl of Warwick, and was assisted by the Queen-mother and Earl Kildare, deputy of Ireland ; he was proclaimed in Dublin by the title of Edward VI. Landed in Lancashire, and advanced asfar as Coventry Battle of Stoke, and capture of Simnel.

Exercise. 1. Who was Henry VII. ? 2. What claims had he to the throne ? 3. What revolts occurred in his reign ? 4. What battles were fought in these? 5. What issue did he leave ?

HENRY VIII.
Birth_and Reign.--Son of Henry VII., and Elizabeth of
York. Born 1491 ; died in 1547, at the age of 56 years.
Reigned 38 years.
Marriages.- 1. Catharine of Arragon (his brother's widow).

2. Anne Boleyn.
3. Lady Jane Seymour.
4. Anne of Cleves.
5. Catharine Howard ; and

6. Catharine Parr. Issue.—Edward, afterwards Edward VI. ; Mary, afterwards Queen Mary; and Elizabeth, afterwards Queen Elizabeth.

Wars. First, with Scotland and France, 1511 to 1522. The pope, Julius II., was the cause of this war. He wished the republic of Venice to be crushed. Henry VIII. of England, Louis XII. of France, and Maximilian I., Emperor of Germany, entered into a treaty, and Venice was humbled in 1510. Henry quarrelled with France and Scotland. 1512, French fleet defeated at Brest. 1513, battle of Guinegate ; defeat of the French 1513, battle of Flodden Field; Scots defeated. The south coast of England ravaged by the French. Second, war with Scotland and France, 1522 to 1526. 1525, battle of Pavia, and capture of Francis I.

Chief Events. -Reformation, 1534 to 1539. In England the sovereign was declared to be the head of the Church, and the doctrines of the Church of England were taught instead of Roman Catholic doctrines. In 1536 an Act was passed abolishing 645 monasteries, 90 colleges, 374 chantries and free chapels, and 110 hospitals. The whole revenue of these establishments amounted to one hundred and sixty one pounds, which was about one-twentieth of the national income. In 1539 an Act called the Bloody Statute, which was divided into six articles, was passed :

Ist. The mass to be allowed.
2nd. Priests not to marry.
3rd. Private (auricular) confession.
4th. Private masses to be said.
5th. Communion in one kind.

6th. Vows to remain single. Five hundred persons were put to death for disobeying this Act.

THE FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD.-In 1520 Francis I. of France and Henry VIII. met at Ardres, near Calais, in a friendly meeting. They were each attended by their nobles, who were dressed in the most costly clothes, each lord trying to outdo his neighbour. Gold and silver tissue, rich jewels, and armour of the most costly workmanship, met the eye on all sides. The days were spent in tournaments, horsemanship, and feats of arms; and the nights in drinking and amusements.--Stowe.

Eminent Men.-Cardinal Wolsey; was born at Ipswich in the year 1471, of rich parents, and was trained at Magdalen College, Oxford. When very young he attracted the attention of Henry VII., by the quickness with which he executed the royal commands, and when Henry VIII. succeeded, he was appointed Chancellor. Wolsey's readiness and fitness for business soon enabled him to advance in the king's favour. This influence brought on the hatred of the nobility. In 1513 he was made Bishop of Tournay, and Cardinal. The bishop's refusal to acknowledge the lawfulness of Henry's marriage with Anne Boleyn caused his downfall, and in 1529 he lost the whole of his property, and was imprisoned. In 1530 he was released, and made Archbishop of York. He again incurred the king's anger, and died at Leicester, at the age of 59 years: Thomas Cranmer, a great promoter of the Reformation,

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