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a separate one, or would you add its duties to those of an existing Chair?

Fourth. What aid, if any, from the State, would you deem necessary in introducing and maintaining a system of military instruction in your institution?

Fifth. As an actual life in camp for a few weeks every year would be desirable in almost any scheme of military education, would this in any way influence your general course of study, or your vacations, and to what extent?

We shall be happy to receive your answers to the above inquiries, and your views on the subject generally, at an early day.

We are very respectfully,

JOHN V. L. PRUYN,

Chancellor of the University. S. B. WOOLWORTH, Secretary.

YN,

On the 7th of March, 1862, the Regents made the following report:

" That the subject of the resolution received their early and careful attention. The object proposed by the Assembly is presumed to be the preparation of a class of educated men competent for officers of the militia of the State, whenever it shall be called into active service. Such preparation should embrace, besides general culture and scholarship, essential in the officer to secure respect from the soldier and influence over his conduct and character, at least so much of military engineering as is required for the construction of field fortifications and roads and bridges, a thorough knowledge of military tactics in the school of the soldier, the company and the battalion; the principles of attack and defense; the general theory of war, and the laws which govern its conduct in all the relations of belligerents.

The Regents are confirmed in their opinion, that such a course of instruction may be engrafted on our existing collegiate and academic studies, by answers which they have received to a circular addressed to the Colleges and several of the Academies of the State on this subject, several of which, and extracts from others, they herewith submit for the consideration of the Assembly.

In our National Military Academy, more than half the time of the student is spent in studies which have only a relation in their application to military affairs. These branches are now taught in the Colleges and best Academies. Without injuriously affecting the character, or impairing the efficacy of the studies now pursued, their application to military purposes may be taught even by the existing faculties of instruction. Tactics in the limited sense in which the term is usually taken, has already been introduced into many Colleges and Academies. Its salutary influence is clearly seen in the improved bearing of the young men, in the strengthening of their physical powers, in the forming of habits of subordination and prompt obedience, and in directing to useful purposes the natural exuberance of youthful feeling. To the well-furnished officer, the knowledge of military tactics in its more enlarged sense is essential. In this view it embraces the formation and disposition of armies, the modes of encamping and lodging them, and directing their movements in the face of an enemy. In this department of military education, the instruction of the thoroughly educated officer will be required, and for this special provision must be made by the State. A Professor, competent to supervise the whole system of military instruction, and to lecture on the subjects above indicated, together with international law, and the laws of war, should, in the opinion of the Regents, be provided for every two Colleges. A subordinate officer, whose duties shall be principally those of drill-master, will be necessary for each College and Academy in which military instruction shall be given.

1 Assem. Doc., 135, 1862.

In an experiment entirely new in this State, the Regents would urge that so much should not be attempted as to hazard its success. It would be better that a limited system should be first adopted, which may be gradually enlarged in such ways and to such extent as experience shall dictate.

It is, therefore, recommended that it shall at first provide for the education mainly of infantry officers, and that for such purpose six Colleges, and also one Academy in each Judicial District, shall be selected.

In organizing the system, some expenses will necessarily be incurred which need not annually be repeated. The necessary annual expenses will probably be somewhat as follows:

For salaries of three Professors .
For salaries of fourteen drill-masters, at $750...
For annual additions to libraries, etc.
For incidental expenses.

$1,500 00 10, 500 00 1, 500 00 1, 500 00

$18, 000 00

In this estimate, no account is taken of the expense of arms and equipments, as it is presumed that they will be in possession of the State, and may be furnished without direct expense. That the system of drills may be maintained uninterrupted by the condition of the weather, convenient rooms will be required; some institutions are furnished with these. It may be necessary that others receive aid from the State for their erection.

Small libraries for military books, both for study and reference, and maps, plans and models of fortifications must be provided. For these purposes, and to meet incidental expenses, unavoidable in the organization and arrangement of any snch system, the proposed appropriation may be applied for four or six months, within which the

system of instruction can scarcely be so fully matured as to be brought into operation.

There are many reasons in favor of an annual gathering of the pnpils instructed in the several institutions into an encampment, in which they may be trained to some extent into the experiences of soldier-life. Should the Adjutant-General deem this expedient, it is believed that the expenses of such encampment, the necessary camp equipage having been furnished by the State, may be paid from the balance of the appropriation above the estimated annual expenditure.

In making the above recommendations, the Regents have not been unmindful of the great importance of artillery and cavalry exercise, but having been asked to propose a plan within certain limits of expense, they have been obliged to govern their recommendations accordingly. If any part of the proposed appropriation can be made available for either of the objects referred to, especially that of artillery exercise, the Regents most cordially recommend it.

Acting on the advice of the chairman of the committee of military affairs, the Regents herewith submit the draft of a bill for carrying out the objects contemplated by the Assembly. All which is respectfully submitted.

By order of the Regents,

JOHN V. L. PRUYN,

Chancellor of the University.

Although the subject recommended did not afterward secure the sanction of the Legislature as a matter of requirement or aid from the State, the spirit of the times, if not the demands of patrons, induced several Academies to introduce military drill as an incidental subject of education in their institutions, and with good results. Instances occurred in which young men entering the service were able to profit from this instruction, and to begin with the advantage of knowing something practically of the duties of the soldier. A proposition was entertained for the establishment of a school for military instruction in the western part of the State, but it was not carried into effect.

The University Convocation at its session in July, 1864, adopted the following resolutions, which were submitted to the Regents, and referred to a special committee:

Resolved, That in the opinion of the University Convocation of the State of New York it is of the highest public importance that the candidates for admission to the United States Military Academy at West Point and to the United States Naval Academy should be selected, as far as practicable, from the students of the highest merit in the institutions of learning in the State ; the degree of merit to be ascertained by competitive examination.

Resolved, That all persons officially charged with the interests of education in this State are earnestly invited to lend their co-operation in promoting a measure of such vital interest to the cause of education, and to the welfare of the country.

Resolved, That the Board of Regents of the University be requested to lay a copy of these resolutions before the representatives of this State in Congress, and that the Board be respectfully urged to devise some practical method by which this most desirable result may be achieved.

It does not appear that further action was taken by the Board upon this subject.

CHAPTER XVI.

OBSOLETE FORMS OF ACADEMIC ORGANIZATION. (1.) The Incorporation of Academies and High Schools under

Stockholders. Under a general act passed July 11, 1851,- it was made lawful for any Academy or High School for literary, scientific, charitable or religious purposes, to issue, create and possess a capital stock not exceeding $10,000, in shares of not less than $10 each, which stock was to be deemed personal property. In the election of Trustees each stockholder was to be entitled to give one vote for each share of stock owned at the time of election.

When such a corporation had erected a building for school purposes worth $2,000, and had complied in all respects with the conditions prescribed by law to authorize the Regents to incorporate Academies, it was to be declared an Academy by the Regents, and became entitled to all the rights and privileges conferred by law on the Academies of this State.

By an act passed April 12, 1853, such Academies might by their by-laws prescribe the mode and manner of electing Trustees, and make rules and regulations therefor, and might classify them in such å manner as one-third should be elected annually for a term of three years. Vacancies might be filled by the Trustees, and the capital might be not more than $50,000.

The Regents by an ordinance passed April 7, 1854, required in

1 Chap. 544, Laws of 1851, p. 1002. Chap. 184, Laws of 1853, p. 355.

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stitutions founded upon capital stock to state in their annual reports whether any and what dividends had been paid, or were payable to their stockholders, to the end that by comparing the rates of tuition and incidental expenses charged in Academies making such dividends with those charged in Academies which did not make dividends, it might be ascertained whether there be any differences with respect to such rates, with respect to the two kinds of Academies.

The results showed that $3,108 had been paid for dividends in 1854, $3,684 in 1855, and $1,600 in 1856.

By an act passed May 13, 1855,' it was provided that any moneyed or stock corporation deriving profit or income from its capital or otherwise, should add to the dividends declared upon any stock owned by the State, or by any literary or charitable society or institution, a sum equal to the assessment for taxes paid upon an equal amount of the stock of such corporation not exempt from taxation.

The provision of the Revised Statutes' whereby all stocks owned by the State, or by literary or charitable institutions, in moneyed or stock corporations, were exempted from taxation, was by this act declared to be for the benefit of the State, or the institutions owning such stocks, and not for the benefit of said corporations.

By a further act in relation to dividends to stockholders of Academies and other institutions of learning, passed April 15, 1857,' the income of the Literature and the United States Deposit Funds were directed to be granted only to such institutions under the visitation of the Regents as devoted the whole of their earnings, from whatever source, to the sole and proper use of such institution, and no dividends were allowed to be paid to stockholders.

Under the act of 1851, above mentioned, and with an expectation of dividing large dividends, many Academies sprung up in localities where there was no local patronage adequate to their maintenance, and where a little reflection would convince a person of sound judgment that they could not be sustained. This was especially the case in Schoharie county, and the reaction which followed the first excitement of competition brought pecuniary disaster upon great numbers who had placed confidence in this mode of investment.

The act of 1855, and especially the one of 1857, effectually put an end to further speculation in this kind of investment.

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The fallacy

Chap. 195, Laws of 1855, p. 224.
* Subdivision 6, § 4, Title 1, Chap. 13, Part 1, R. S.

3 Chap. 527, Laws of 1857. See Assem. Doc. 93, 1859, recommending amendments to this act. The act was further amended April 16, 1859. (Chap. 426.)

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