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MONDAY, September 17th, 1787. Present — The States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Con
necticut, Mr. Hamilton from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
1. Resolved, That the preceding Constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the opinion of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a convention of delegates chosen in each State by the people thereof, under the recommendation of its Legislature, for their assent and ratification; and that each convention assenting to and ratifying the same, should give notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled.
2. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this convention, that as soon as the conventions of nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United States in Congress assembled should fix a day on which electors should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a day on which the electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the time and place for commencing proceedings under this Constitution. That after such publication, the electors should be appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected. That the electors should meet on the day fixed for the election of the President, and should transmit their votes, certified, signed, sealed and directed as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States, in Congress assembled; that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the time and place assigned ; that the Senators should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole purpose of receiving, opening and counting the votes for President; and that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, without delay, proceed to execute this Constitution, By the unanimous order of the convention :
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President. WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.
[The conventions of a number of the States having, at the time
of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added, Congress, at the session begun and held at the city of New York, on Wednesday, the 4th of March, 1789, proposed to the Legislatures of the several Siates, twelve amendments, ten of which only were adopted. They are the ten first following:]
ARTICLE I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of Religions freedom religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging speelt press the freedom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for a redress of grievances.
ARTICLE II. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a Right to bear free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
ARTICLE III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house Restrictions on without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, Search and seizpapers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Rights of persons infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand ornito apdof pri- jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the
militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation,
Mode of trial in criminal cases.
ARTICLE VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
Of trial by jury in civil actions.
ARTICLE VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved ; and no fact tried by jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Of bail. Of fines or other punishments.
ARTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Rights reserved to the people,
ARTICLE IX. The enumeration in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Powers retained by the states and people.
ARTICLE XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed one diversamente to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted
U.S. ooarts not to have jurisdiction
ing president and
against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or against one of the by citizens or subjects of any foreign State.
ARTICLE XII. 1. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote Manner of choose by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at vice president. least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the Presideat of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electous appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one of representatives vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or tion by the elecmembers from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.
2. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice Choice of vico President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority senate one of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have electors. a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President. A quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.
3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of His qualificaPresident, shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States.
of no elec
president by the no election by
If any citizen of the U.S. shall ac.
äny foreign power, &o,
ARTICLE XIII. If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive présent, 2o., from or retain any title of nobility or honor, or shall, without the con
sent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them.
[NOTE.-The 11th article of the amendments to the Constitution was proposed at the second session of the third Congress; the 12th article, at the first session of the eighth Congress; and the 13th artiole, at the second session of the eleventh Congress.]