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numerous armies. Yet policy dictated to him, mildness and a patient hearing; but when the illegal, weak, and ephemeral governments of Cadiz, come to grasp the sceps tre of power, unmindful both of their own weakness, and insensible of their own illegality, they insultingly disre gard the wrongs and sufferings of their fellow subjects; they turn from the appeals of truth and justice; and instead of redress, reform, and a just restoration of rights, they hurl amongst their American brethren, the fire brands of destruction, discord, and revenge. Resolved on the declaration and waging of an impotent war, they become superiour to the sacrifice of even punctillo; and spurning every overture to conciliation; they prefer the weapons of terror and vengeance, to the more safe and effectual measures of redress and reform. They even de more. By the most cruel and unheard-of means of war. fare, they seek to impose and rivet a bloody yoke on the reluctant necks of their fellow-citizens; rather than see them bound, by the more rational and lighter bonds of gratitude, mutual fellowship, and reciprocal intercourse.

& The more this subject is examined, the more plainly does it appear, that the Spanish American question, was the most important of all those, in which the Cadiz governments have been concerned; and as such, I am confident it will be confessed, by all those, who are aware, how much European Spain, depended on the ultramarine provinces for pecuniary succours. The principal consideration, hitherto, attached by the former to the latter, :has been the mines; yet, it was evident, that war would close them; that it would exclude from the circulation of Europe, the annual coinage of 42 millions of dollars; that the armies of the Peninsula, as well as those of its

Allies, would be driven to the greatest shifts for tlie, want of specie ; and that this privation, would produce calamities to the mercantile interests of both Spain and England. Nevertheless, all these considerations held no weight with the Cadiz cabinet; who, mindful only of a temporary and delusive advantage, in favour of a small body of men, and instead of adopting the natural and safe plan of conciliation and redress, preferred rushing into an unjast and impotent war, that was to bring ruin in its train, and defeat the very object for which it was-declared. It was the prevention of all these manifest evils, and the making of all the resources of the entire monarchy, strong and effective, in order to answer the great objects in view, that in this particular moment, required foresight, coolness, judgment, and impartiality. . Then, was, it, essentially, necessary, to consolidate the vacilating power pf Spain, instead of tearing it asunder. Then, was it, more than ever, requisite, to tighten the bonds which held the two sister countries together, instead of putting a fresh bar to their peace and harmony. Then, was the time, to have healed, instead of afresh tearing open in veterate wounds;. in short, then, was.it necessary to ease and satisfy the minds of the Spanish Americans, in lieu of irritating and rousing them, by fresh insults. ..

Resentment and passion, in so important a case, ought to have been banished; and above all, vengeance on the weakest side, ought never to have been wielded against the strongest. Conciliation and disinterestedness, on the one band, and affection and submission on the other, would, alone, have produced the desired effect; would have hindered a dispute, which every day, becomes pregnant with more serious consequences, and on which, the fate of unborn millions, depends. Certainly, the latter sentiments existed on the part of the Spanish Americans ; ag will, hereafter, be fully evinced; and, if the irritated feelings, and disappointed and mercenary passions of the Cadiz rulers, had not been roused to such a pitch, as to make them insensible to the real interests of the nation, whose guidance they had undertaken, the most salutary results might then, have been produced. If the Cadiz government, stimulated by fanatical phrénzy, and awed by mercenary demagogues, was in those moments, incapable of drawing just and fair inferences of guilt and innocence; at least, England ought to have been more prudent, and more enlightened; and above all, she ought never, to have suffered such motives as these, to have been the basis of an unnatural and merciless warfare, in the fatal consequences of which, she was equally, interested. Scarcely is there a nation of the continent, either allied or not, when suffering by the horrors of war, by epidemical diseases, or by other misfortunes, beyond human control, that has not received succour and conBolation, from the exertions and benevolence of the British government and people. Yet, in the case of Spanish America, and when we have it in our power to prevent the worst of all horrors, viz. that of a sanguinary and revengeful civil war, we are, not only, silent and un. mindful; but, when other attendant evils, like the forked Jightening from a portentous cloud, burst amidst its inhabitants, and desolate the whole of their country, with corresponding ruin; when earthquakes, ravaged plains, depopulated towns, and dungeons, crouded with numa

berless victims; rise before our sight, and the cries of ... widows and orphans resound in our ears, still do we look on with cold indifference, and still are we deaf to public appeals, that would rend the hardest heart. And who are all these sufferers! The very 'people, who, lately, were the objects of our proffered friendship and support, and now the victims of our own delusions, though included in a solemn treaty, recently made..

There was a bond of interest, friendship, and relationship, rendered sacred, by the lapse of time, and cemented by the fidelity of Spanish America, which, might have been made a happy basis for our friendly exertions; and a powerful means of preventing a precipitate, act, on the part of a government, on whom we had then such great claims. A new era, had by this time, broke upon the Spanish monarchy of both hemispheres; and thougb the defence of Spain was an object of the first political consequence, the regeneration and preservation of Spanish America, in another light; was also of incalculable importance. Influenced and impelled by that love of rational and just freedom, which urged us to support the cause of Spain, and led us to rejoice in the liberation of Germany, Hollard, &c. we ought equally, to have gloried in the same happy results being produced in Spanish America; as well, consistently, with our old professions, as, because this was the only means, to render our alliance effective. If national honour, and the sincerity which formed the basis of our treaty with the representatives of Ferdinand, did not suffice; at least, motives of expediency, both to ourselves and Spain, ought to have caused us, as soon as the dissentions appeared with all their aggravated consequences, not, only, to bring both parties together, in order to discuss their differences; but, also, to establish present harmony, in auch a manner, as to prevent future collisions. This was both a duty, and interest, on the part of England; and I can now aver, and will, at a future time, amply prove, 'that we should, always, have found a sincere and cordial disposition for conciliation, on the part of the Spanish Americans, which certainly might have been improved, if the proper and timely means had been employed. :

It was not a restless desire of change, it was po wish to break down the mounds of regular establishment, it was not, in short, any thing opposed to justice, equity, and the strict letter.of the law; which first caused the Spanish Americans, to depose their European chiefs, and to place the administration of their affairs, in the hands of persons of their own choice and confidence. As a before, fully, and substantially explained, the accounts circulatod, even by the agents of government, were disheartening; the entire Peninsula was believed in danger; and it becameevident, that the cause was solely maintained, by the aid of England; but, it was, at the same time, uncertain, how long this cooperation would last. The intervening ocera, might, with good reason, be considered as a sufficient barrier agajust ravages, like those, to which Spain was, already a victim; but, it could not shield the ultramarine provinces, from the intrigues and domestio machinations of the same enemy. Every interiour and exteriour exertion was making there, in order that they might equally share the pending fate of the mother coun: try; and the very orders of that Regency, which declared war against them, amounted to no less. The doctrine of all the Spanish chiefs there, as well as of their adherents, was, that the dynasty which obtained the crown of Spain, was to be acknowledged on the other side of the Atlantic;

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