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continued afterwards to be at type of chief was the Dorrethe service of the exiled pre- garay, who commanded for Don tender. Whenever a coup de Carlos in Biscay after 1873. main was required, there was He had fought as a lad in the he, and he served the House first war, and was included elsewhere than in Spain. He in the convention of Vergara, was one of the brigands (for which gave him a right to a that is the proper name) who small pension. Dorregaray rewere let loose in Naples after tired to his native village in 1860. As he was not caught Navarre. But a life of idleness and shot by the Bersaglieri, he was not to his taste, and he soon escaped to do a great deal of found an opportunity for activthe same kind of work in the ity. The war had left behind it hills of Catalonia between 1872 a class of broken men who took and 1876. The man was only to living by brigandage. Now a guerrillero, and his chief Spaniards of the north and the merit is fairly enough shown centre have never been tolerby his favourite boast. He ant of the brigand from the was wont to say that if Cata- moment he extends his operalonia were occupied by sixty tions beyond Government courithousand soldiers, he would un ers and the tax collector. When, dertake to carry two thousand then, a band of this kind began men from one end of the Prin- to infest Dorregaray's country, cipality to the other without he made an offer to the Governallowing the regulars a chance ment to destroy it, provided a of stopping him. In other sum of money were given him words, he knew every inch of and he was put on the active the hills, every hiding - place, list of the army as officer. The every mountain path, and every Civil Guard not having been spring. With that knowledge organised as yet, the authorities he could wear the troops down were glad to make the bargain. and keep up a partisan war Dorregaray raised small till the exhaustion of his party corps of men like-minded with compelled peace. Then he himself, and mostly old soldiers could save himself by some of Don Carlos.

of Don Carlos. As they knew goat's path across the Pyrenees. the country just as well as the The most effectual answer to brigands, were hardy fellows, Tristany was the formation and good shots, it was not long of contra - guerillas, irregular before the last of the bandoleros corps such as

we have used had his deserts. Then Dorrein India. One body of that garay passed into the army, and kind was formed during the was a colonel when the Republic last war, under the command was proclaimed. Being a strong of an officer named Camprodon, Monarchist, he thereupon went who picked likely men out of back to his old master. His the regular army, and with fellow - general, Lizarraga, was them made a band which beat much of the same stamp. the Carlists at their own game. These, it will be seen, were

Another and more honourable more serious persons than Tris






tany; and it was natural that which they raised themselves, they should, since the three in time of war. Now they are Basque provinces of Viscaya supposed to pay the "blood(pronounced Biscaya, with tax like others. As a matter slight v sound in the b), Gui- of fact, what happens is that puzcoa, and Alava, together the depucationes,” or local with the kindred country of councils, pay the exemption for Navarre, form the main strength all who are drawn, and the proof the Carlist cause. So long vinces therefore escape military as they do not move, the Alta service. It is necessary to note, Aragon, the Catalonian, and by the way, that the Basque Valencian hills will hardly do country contains one enclave of more than contribute “quad- strong “liberalism," and that is rillas," wandering gangs of par- the town of Bilbao, which has tisans. It is when Biscay is up twice stood a long siege by the in arms, and troops have to be Carlists with success. concentrated to subdue it, that Things move even in Spain, a Carlist rising becomes danger- and neither the Carlist resourous elsewhere. For this there ces nor the Carlist cause are are two reasons. The first is, what they were in 1833-1840. that the Basques and Navarrese Then the Serviles, Apostólicos, are, take them for all in all, the Agraviados of Ferdinand's reign best fighting men in Spain by were relatively more numerous, land

The second is, and were unbroken. Therefore that under their ancient fueros they were able to make head the Basque provinces enjoyed against a Government which almost absolute self - govern- had no other enemy, and could ment. They formed rather a use the services of some eighty protected state than a province. or ninety thousand well - apTherefore when they rose they pointed troops. The second could form a government able Carlist rising, in the middle of to levy taxes and organise a Queen Isabel's reign, was a regular commissariat. Speak- much smaller business, and ending generally, it may be said ed in complete surrender. It is that the Carlist cause has been chiefly worth noting because supported in the north by an the uncle of the present Don army, and elsewhere only by Carlos, who was taken prisoner, more or less numerous and well- saved himself from the fate of led guerrillero bands. The privi- his generals, who were shot, by leges of the Basques have been renouncing his rights. Once lost, till they retain much of safe on the other side of the the machinery of local govern- frontier, he renounced his rement, and all the spirit. One nunciation, on the ground that example will show how this it had been extorted from him works. Before the last war by fear which was true, but the Provincias Vascongadas ignominious. The most notable were exempt from the conscrip- fact about the third war was tion, and were only bound to that it did not become formidsupply the king with a corps, able till the Government had





been utterly disorganised by their word, disbanded, and went the resignation of Don Amadeo home. Then came the “cantonin 1873, and the establishment alist” outbreak—which was a of the anarchical Republic. mere explosion of anarchy by

It is well to keep this truth agitators who took the comin mind when we hear that the munards of Paris for their Don Carlos of to-day is issuing model. During this interval of manifestoes, and that prepara- confusion, and of the paralysis tions for a rising are being of Government, the Carlist made. Talk to this effect is army in Biscay was regularly exceedingly easy; but what organised by Dorregaray and prospect is there of another Lizarraga ; while the guerrilcivil war

a serious scale, lero bands of the Alta Aragon, after twenty years of peace, if Catalonia, and Valencia gained the last failed? The history of in numbers and solidity. They that venture of itself is suffi were in their height during the cient answer. Queen Isabel protectorate of Serrano, which was driven out by a military lasted from the suppression of revolt in September 1868, and the Republic by Pavia in the the Carlist did not

beginning of 1874 to the restoWhile Prim lived they were ration of Don Alfonso XII. by hardly ever heard of. A few the pronunciamiento of Murvisporadic outbreaks took place edro in December.

Yet even in Catalonia, and were instant- during this period they never ly suppressed. After his mur succeeded in occupying any conder, and during the brief so siderable town, and were forced called reign of Amadeo of Sa- to raise the siege of Bilbao. voy, there was a movement in From the day of the restoraBiscay, and therefore in other tion of Doña Isabel's son their regions. The intrusive king be cause steadily declined. They longed to a family odious to

were first swept out of Valencia the Papacy and to the Church; and Catalonia, and then broken so clerical influence was on the up in Biscay. Disgusted as the Carlist side, or was, at any rate, vast majority of Spaniards were nowhere vigorously used against with the follies of the Republic it. Yet it was not till King and the incompetence of FerAmadeo resigned, and the Re- rano, it was never to the Carpublic was proclaimed, that the lists that they looked for a Carlists became really danger- remedy, but to the restora

Then the way was cleared tion of the family of Doña for them by the utter collapse of Isabel. Government. The Republicans The explanation of the Carhad promised to abolish the list failure to profit by the conscription, and one of the apparently magnificent opporfirst results of their insane en- tunity offered them is not very gagement was

to cause the far to seek. They were strong mutiny and dissolution of the enough to take advantage of army of Catalonia.

The sol- the collapse of Government, and diers took the politicians at were strong for defence. They

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could worry regular troops twenty years, and are, partly when invaded in their hills, or on their own account, partly even fight respectable pitched on behalf of parishioners, large battles in Biscay, but they were holders of Government stock. not strong enough to overrun The commercial influenceagainst the rest of Spain. They were Carlists is even more formidable affected, too, by various causes than the clerical. The Spain of of weakness. One of these lay 1833-1840 was a country of proin the change which had come vinces living apart from one over the spirit of the Church. another on their own resources, Queen Isabel, whatever her with a total population of some other faults may have been, twelve millions. This state of was in a way pious, and had things was modified largely by done much to propitiate the 1873.

Within the last twentyclergy. Therefore they were four years it has changed albound to her son, who was also, together. The population of by the way, godson of Pio Spain cannot now be much, if Nono. With his restoration, at all, under twenty millions. the chief reason they had for Hundreds of miles of railway favouring the Carlist cause dis- have been made, and not less appeared. Another reason was than thousands of highroad. that, after all, the Spain of There goes on an intercourse 1873 was not the Spain of between the provinces which 1833. It was far more popu- was impossible in former times. lous, and better supplied with To take a single example, a means of communication, which gardener of Barcelona can now brought with them internal drive a flourishing trade by trade. It was no longer pos- sending cut flowers to Madrid sible for Spaniards to live in by the night-mail. The market the old barbarous isolation of the capital and the other Both these influences, the cleri- considerable towns is now valucal and the commercial, tell able to the fishermen of the more strongly against the Car- Basque coast and the Mediterlists to-day than they did ranean, to the market-gardener twenty-four years ago.

The of Valencia, to the corn-grower upper clergy are nominated by of the Tierra de Campos in the Government, and therefore Leon, to the wine-grower of the cannot well be hostile to it. The Rioja and La Mancha. In Pope is known not to be favour- Biscay itself the immense deable to the Carlists. Even velopment of the mining inamong the lower clergy the dustry, and the establishment feeling is not what it was. The of iron foundries, has wrought Queen Regent is a good church

good church- a great change. The country woman, though nowise clerical can no longer afford to give in the bad political sense of itself to civil war as it once the word ; and it is tolerably could. What was possible when certain that the priests will not Spain still deserved Adam act against her. Besides, they Smith's description of the most have done very well for the last beggarly country in Europe is

not possible to comparative pros “traditional liberties” of Spain, perity.

hence the name of the club. Yet a revival of the Carlists What this means is that he will has been allowed to be pos- consent to restore the Cortes of sible—in certain contingencies. Aragon, Catalonia, and ValenThey may again come to the cia as they were before his front if the way is prepared ancestor, Philip V., put them for them, as it was between down with the strong hand, 1868 and 1872, by military re- because those parts of Spain bellions, pronunciamientos, and fought for the Hapsburg line. the collapse of Government. It may be said, by the way, Whether these old evils will that the rest of the country was revive is beside the present represented taliter qualiter by question. What concerns us is the nobles, and the sixteen good the fact that the present Don towns which formed the Cortes Carlos no longer appeals for of Castile. This traditionalism, support on the same grounds in fact, shows its fidelity to as his grandfather. He no principles by throwing over the longer defies the army, and whole tradition of the Bourbon relies on his faithful and religi- dynasty more completely than ous Basques, Aragonese, and the female line now on the Catalans. They get compliments throne. Such is the political from time to time ; but he consistency of the flor y natadirects himself to the mass of the flower and cream -of the Spaniards, and, above all, to sentimental Carlism of Spain, the army, and that with pleas which meets in the Círculo Trawhich amount to a surrender of dicionalista, and talks politics all the principles of his family. of this force in the intervals of When the first Don Carlos stood looking out of window at the forth to vindicate his right to Calle de Alcalá, and playing the crown, he also declared that tresillo. The cause of the monhe fought for la monarquia arquia pura has been wondrouspurafor pure monarchy. A ly translated, if they are to be despotic king united to an in- trusted. tolerant Church were the ad No doubt there is more in vantages he offered his country, the manifestoes of Don Carlos and it was because he did that and the speeches of his reprehe had the support of the sentatives. There are promises Spaniards who valued these that the rightful king will give things. The Don Carlos of to- Spain a far better Government day talks in a very different than it has had before, and will tone. His representatives in do great things for its interest Spain, who meet at the Círculo and its honour. Poor Spain Tradicionalista, and whose chief might do worse than take him is the Marquis of Zerralbo, are at his word, if there were the authorised to declare that his slightest chance it would be Majesty is no enemy to repre- kept. But is there? all depends sentative institutions. Far from on the personal qualities of the it. He is much in favour of the Pretender. We have left the

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