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drill, chiefly company and battalion movements and skirmishing, should divide the play-hours with the practice of running and jumping. In the Summer term, cricket alone should almost entirely appropriate the play - hour. It is, of course, impossible to formulate a rule applicable to every school alike, but it is of importance to point out that every school should draw up a scheme under which the most may be made of its own special form of exercise.
The same principle holds true with boys as with schools hard-and-fast scheme of physical training cannot be applied to every boy alike. Much evil often results from asking a boy who may be physically weak to do too much either in gymnas tics or football. Every boy, on entering a school, should undergo a thorough medical examination; and special notice should be taken of the condition of his feet, teeth, eyes, chest, heart, and spine, as well as of his general muscular development, and of any malformation of his system. On the basis of the medical report the gymnastic instructor and those in charge of the school games should classify boys into sets, according to their physical condition; and in special cases, such as very poor muscular development, hollow chest, or weak heart, they should further consult with the school doctor, and, subject to his advice, draw up a special course of training to suit the particular case in question. The head-master, or some responsible substitute, should draw up a list of the
boys divided into three groups
(1) those physically fit to engage in the complete system of school training, and who are keen, active, and interested in their own development; (2) those physically fit, but who by nature and disposition are lazy and slovenly, and quite regardless of their own growth and physical improvement; (3) those who from some bodily weakness or defect are undergoing a special training. The purpose served by such a list will be obvious. Careful and accurate measurements of the height, chest, waist, biceps, forearm, and head should be made, and the weight ascertained not less than four times a-year, and in the case of weak and illdeveloped boys more frequently. Each boy should possess a card in which his weight and measurements are entered from time to time, as in this way he will soon become interested in his own record, and anxious to improve his development. These measurements are most useful in many ways, but they are especially valuable in indicating when a boy is not developing physically as he ought. In such a case the boy should at once be thoroughly overhauled by the doctor. It is also of importance to know when a boy is growing rapidly in height, as sometimes, though increasing in height, he may actually be losing weight, for in such a case the boy should at once be eased off in work and games, he should receive more generous diet than the usual school fare, and he should be compelled to recline horizon
tally for a period of say twentyminutes two or three times in the course of the day. By these means curvature of the spine and other evils are often prevented.
It was mentioned above that special attention should be paid to a boy's feet, teeth, eyes, &c., on entering school. The reason for this is twofold: first, because in a great many cases parents entirely neglect their duty in this respect; and, secondly, because, when defects are found to exist, they may, by the adoption of special treatment, be more or less remedied. For example, many of the sprains of ankle and knee which boys frequently contract from apparently slight causes, are due very often to flat or otherwise badly formed feet. Now it is quite possible, by paying special attention to certain rules and exercises, to improve the formation and muscular power of the foot, and thus indirectly to strengthen the knee and ankle. A little thoughtful care exercised in this direction at the beginning of a football season will often do much to prevent the cases of water in the knee and sprained ankles which have become SO common of later years. One of the most important functions of physical education is the testing of the eyesight, and yet it is one which is often neglected by schoolmasters and parents alike. When a defect in the eyesight has been detected, an eye specialist should at once be consulted, as much may be done by special treatment not
only to prevent further mischief, but also to strengthen and develop the range and power of the eye. Candidates preparing for an examination, such as the army, in which an eye-test is applied, may often be saved much time and work by having their eyesight tested at the beginning of their special study, as in the case of permanent defect they can turn their attention to preparing for some other course in life. life. On the other hand, candidates suffering from weak or temporary defective eyesight may, by a course of treatment, get the eyes so trained and strengthened as to stand the army test.
The attention of
school authorities and architects should be specially directed to the best methods of lighting class-rooms, and of arranging the desks and black-boards, so that the pupils may be able to see under the best possible conditions. A little care the part of masters in the way of placing boys suffering from defective eyes in the best position for seeing in their class-rooms will often be productive of much good, both physically and mentally. Defective teeth should as early as possible be treated by a dentist, and the boys in addition should be taught and compelled to attend carefully to the preservation of their teeth. In fact, boys cannot be too frequently lectured on health laws and hints generally. Health principles thus instilled into the boy when at school, will constitute habits of thought and action which, under special
conditions, may prove invaluable to him in after-life.
Sufficient has been said to show the importance of medical examination and of the application of special methods of treatment, with a view to remedying defects, in the early school life of a boy. Let us now direct some attention to a few points of special importance in the methods of school games and gymnastics as applicable to sets or classes of pupils. It has been already said that a proper scheme of physical exercise should be drawn up for each school; but it is equally important to see that this scheme is strictly adhered to, and that all the forms of exercise are performed under skilled direction and supervision. In gymnastics the instructor has to weigh and consider three chief points, the physical condition of each set of pupils, the nature of the gymnastics best suited to each set, and the time per week allotted to gymnastics. In schools where cricket, football, and other outdoor games are engaged in, and where the pupils are forced to take a certain amount of outdoor exercise, two hours a - week are ample to devote to class instruction in gymnastics. It is a good plan to include the gymnastic instruction in the school time table, so that boys may go to their lesson in gymnastics just as they do to their lessons in Latin and mathematics. On this system the gymnastic lesson has its due importance assigned to it, and it further acquires a continuity which no casual interference can break.
Boys should invariably "turnout" in flannels for their gymnastic lesson, and should wash and rub down thoroughly at the end of the hour. The instructor should drill his class in "turningout" and "in" as rapidly as possible-a valuable lesson in itself. As the gymnastic exercises are intended to supplement football and other outdoor games, they should be chosen with a view to exercise and develop those parts of the body which the outdoor games leave untrained-as for example, the left arm and certain portions of the upper part of the body. It should always be borne in mind that the object of gymnastics is not to produce abnormal strength or the power of performing showy and striking feats, but the all-round development of the body, so that both health and stamina may be secured. To attain this object the exercises should be simple and progressive, and the utmost care should be taken that no exercise is beyond the strength of the beginner. The exercises should further be as varied as possible, so that different muscles may be called into play, and that the lesson may be marked with sharpness and activity-without any sign of dawdling or monotony. Special attention should be paid to the proper methods of breathing, walking, running, and leaping, as well as of standing and sitting. Breathing and walking are the commonest actions of our daily life, and yet it is strange how few people can either breathe or walk properly. How many people know the art
of swinging straight from the hips in walking, whereby even a short man can often outstride a much taller companion? A little attention to these points at gymnastic lessons will prove most valuable. The exercises during the greater part of a lesson should be performed on the ground; and only light dumbbells and barbells should be used, as this method tends to the extension of the body and limbs in length as well as in breadth and thickness. The growth of the body in height is, in fact, often retarded by excessive gymnastics, and for this reason exercises on the the parallel and horizontal bars should be performed in moderation. In addition to the two hours mentioned above, boys should be encouraged to take a little dumbbell exercise before going to bed at night and after getting up in the morning. The gymnastic exercises should be performed as often as possible in the open air, and special care should be taken that the gymnasium is never overheated.
In order that the best physical results may be obtained from outdoor games, careful and skilled supervision is as essential as in gymnastics. In football particularly, good coaching is most necessary. Rugby football is one of the very best outdoor games for boys, as, when properly played, it develops in a wonderful way the chest, as well as the muscles of the back and legs. The oldfashioned mauls or scrimmages, which proved so uninteresting to the spectator, were in reality the most useful elements of the
game for chest development. On the old system, a welltaught and keen forward, firmly planted on his legs, shoving with his shoulders, in proper style, with his head well down, called into play a whole series of muscles, and presented at the end of the season a splendid physical development. The modern game, though it may be more attractive from a spectator's point of view, is not such a good schoolboy game: it has become so fast and open that the practice games have to be curtailed in number and duration, and the loss to physical development has to be made up in the gymnasium or elsewhere. Boxing and fencing are admirable supplements to football; and no better preparation for turning out a football team fit for an important match can be had than a be had than a judicious course of sparring. Care should be taken in football as well as in gymnastics that too much is not asked of a young player. Many a promising young player has had his pluck and confidence ruined by being played in too high a team. A boy, though he may be big for his years, is not always strong in proportion to his size, and, in fact, he is often softer and weaker than a much smaller though more firmly knit boy. It is of importance, therefore, that boys of as nearly as possible the same age should play together, and to ensure this the junior football sides should always be drawn up by a master. The playing together of boys of different ages is one of the great objections to house matches, and
the reason why more accidents encouraged among growing occur in these matches than in boys; in fact, it would be a school matches. Proper methods good plan to exclude hammerof tackling and falling upon the throwing from all school sports. ball should be taught and in- Cross-country runs, if not of sisted upon, in all the teams, too great length, are valuable right up from the lowest to for developing the staying the school fifteen. A know- power of a boy, as well as ledge and experience of correct affording a change of air and methods of play, and the strict scene. On the other hand, enforcement of the very neces- when the course is too long or sary rule of never allowing difficult much harm may be boys to play in matches except done to a loosely-growing boy against other schools or first- by over-exertion and fatigue. class clubs, are the best safe- A few rigid rules should be guards against accidents. It drawn up and enforced, suitis of the utmost importance to able to the cross-country runs teach and, if necessary, compel connected with individual boys to walk or run smartly schools. Throughout those from the field after a match runs the boys should be conor practice game, and to "turn stantly on the move, and in" as quickly as possible. whether running, trotting, or walking, good form and style should be maintained.
Athletics, when practised under constant and careful supervision, and in due moderation and proportion to the other forms of exercise in force, tend in no small measure to the growth and development of boys. In no form of exercise does style play such an important part as in running; and in consequence boys ought to be carefully watched and taught, when running, to hold the head well up, properly resting on the shoulders, to keep the shoulders squarely set and well pressed back, to force the chest well out, to carry the arms so as to aid in the expansion of the chest, to keep the hips working freely, to take a long full easy stride, to get well on to the toes, and to press the ground lightly with a springy tread. The heavy competitions in hammer-throwing and weightputting should not be much
Military drill in the form of a school cadet corps is one of the most useful branches of physical education. A cadet corps to be a success must be worked on a definite plan, under strict military discipline, in touch with and under the supervision of the local volunteer brigade. School authorities, in many cases, are opposed to the formation of cadet corps, on the grounds of expense, of time necessary for drill, and of interference with the usual school games. A certain amount of initial expense is, of course, necessary; but once the corps has been fairly started the annual expenditure is not very great, and may be met by a small terminal charge to the members of the corps and by a grant from Government, which the senior boys can earn.